The Gender Dimensions of the Green New Deal - an analysis of policy papers of the Greens/EFA New Deal Working Group. Mara Kuhl

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1 The - an analysis f plicy papers f the Greens/EFA New Deal Wrking Grup Mara Kuhl Study cmmissined by The Greens/EFA Grup in the Eurpean Parliament, initiated by Elisabeth Schredter in cperatin with Prf. Dr. Friederike Maier - Harriet Taylr Mill-Institute Berlin Schl f Ecnmics and Law

2 Plicy papers analysed in this study: 1. Why we need a Green New Deal - a discussin paper f the Greens/EFA Green New Deal Wrking Grup, May 2010: 2. The industrial dimensin f the Green New Deal: 3. The emplyment dimensin f the Green New Deal: 4. The macr-ecnmic and financial framewrk f the Green New Deal (13th EGP Cuncil, Tallinn, 8-10 Oct Adpted Plicy Paper): Dr. Mara Kuhl Beratung für Verwaltung und Plitik Editing by Sue Wilkinsn-Hiller, ABC translatin Berlin, Berlin, May 2012

3 Cntent A. General remarks n gender equality in the Visin f the Green New Deal...4 Three central aspects distinguished by the gender equality perspective...6 Recmmendatins...11 B. The Emplyment Dimensin f the Green New Deal...13 Men's and wmen's emplyment prspects...13 Green jbs - gd jbs?...16 Recmmendatins...17 Selected literature...20 C. The Mbility Dimensin f the Green New Deal...21 Diverse gender aspects in mbility issues...21 The full picture f mbility...22 Recmmendatins...24 Selected literature...27 D. The Ecnmic Dimensin f the Green New Deal...28 Missing links in the ecnmy...28 Nn-excluding interrelatin indicatrs...29 Gender budgeting fr a clear picture f public budgets...32 Demcratic and gender-balanced nrmative framewrks...33 Recmmendatins...36 Selected literature...38 E. The Industrial Dimensin f the Green New Deal...39 Traditinal cncepts as reasns fr a gender-biased perspective...39 Recmmendatins...44 Selected literature

4 A. General remarks n gender equality in the Visin f the Green New Deal 1 In successfully mainstreaming eclgical issues, the Greens have shwn that wrking, living, prducing and cnsuming in an envirnmentally friendly manner is bth necessary and beneficial. Having cme s far, the Green mvement and their parties must nw mainstream ther aspects f their values, in particular gender equality, and shw their relevance fr ther areas and nrmative aims, such as Nrth-Suth equity and a scial market ecnmy. The Greens culd draw n the clur metaphr t prmte the gender-equal Green New Deal: with the Green New Deal all parties, institutins and lbby grups aspire t be green. Being green in the envirnmental sense has nw becme s mainstream that the Greens are bliged t emphasise the amplitude f their greenness if they are t maintain a distinct green prfile and nt fade int a general green backgrund. It is time fr the Greens t demnstrate the multiple nuances f their traditinal ideas, gender equality being central amng them. Gendered scial structures, direct and indirect discriminatin and the prevalence f explicit and implicit andrcentrism disadvantage wmen bth as persns and as a scial grup. They als discriminate against female gender rles, nrms and values and tasks assciated with wmen, mtherhd r femininity irrespective f the sex f the persns assuming such rles and tasks. This als has a negative ecnmic impact, fr example, the ranking f female-dminated sectrs in plicymakers pririty list, r lw wage levels in female-dminated ccupatins. Gendered scial structures and andrcentric nrms als discriminate against men wh d nt cnfrm t the hegemnic standards f masculinity and traditinal gender rles. Men, and persns f bth sexes in male-dminated sectrs, wishing t access resurces such as decisinmaking pwer are subject t a great deal f pressure t cnfrm t certain persnality features and behaviurs. Where gender equality is perceived as a fundamental value and gal, wmen and men in all psitins in the scial structure benefit. Nrmative, discursive, material and legal changes that aim t imprve the psitin f wmen, reassess the imprtance attributed t wmen s perspectives and interests and imprve cnditins in female-dminated scial r ecnmic areas benefit all cncerned. Nt nly men wh seek t live alternative lifestyles at hme, in the family, at wrk and in their scial relatins, but als male grups in female-dminated sectrs and thse 1 Why we need a Green New Deal - a discussin paper f the Greens/EFA Green New Deal Wrking Grup, May 2010: 4

5 affected by the trend twards prer wrking cnditins (feminisatin f wrk) will benefit frm a truly gender-equitable Green New Deal. This requires a hlistic and inclusive perspective that identifies gendered scial structures including the gendered distributin f paid and unpaid, prductive and reprductive wrk with the cnsequences fr ecnmic psitining and the pprtunity t acquire ecnmic pwer and reveals the andrcentrism inherent in ur nrmative and belief systems. Andrcentrism means that the average persn taken as a reference pint by plicymakers is implicitly and tacitly a white, hetersexual, healthy, well-educated and middle class male in a traditinal gender rle. In ther wrds, plitical decisin-making is biased in favur f certain life circumstances and situatins. This then becmes the benchmark against which the impact f plitics and plicies are develped and assessed. The result is an unintended exclusin, neglect r devaluatin f the interests and needs f wmen and thers wh d nt exhibit the sci-ecnmic features f the default grup. What's mre, ecnmic and scial areas and living cnditins nt central t the default grup are systematically kept ut f sight, e.g. wmen-dminated wrk and labur markets, care wrk in the private husehld ecnmy, childcare, etc. Andrcentrism is an epistemlgical structure, in which mainstream ecnmic cncepts exclude bth the private husehld ecnmy and the service and care ecnmy, despite their imprtance fr ecnmic grwth and wealth prductin. Experience with gender equality plicies has shwn that if a strategy is t succeed, it requires tw levers: ne, utilisatin f the dminant lgic and its structures and tw, transfrmatin f the dminant lgic. The Greens success in prmting ecnmic grwth thrugh eclgical technlgies n the ne hand, and making envirnmentalfriendly a quality criterin n the ther, demnstrates the necessity f such a dual strategy. In aspiring t achieve scial gals, especially with reference t gender equality, it is essential t cnstruct cnsistent, cnvincing interdependencies between scial and prfit-maximising bjectives. Gender-aware plicy develpment that systematically applies gender mainstreaming allws the cnstructin f structures and mechanisms that generate causal effects between scial, eclgical and ecnmic aims. At the same time, gender equality must be cnfirmed as a right in itself as a clear expressin f the nrmative dimensin f the Green pint f view. If scial sustainability des nt becme a quality and efficiency criterin and a stand-alne argument within the present value system, it will cntinue t be neglected. As lng as the dminant discursive lgic priritises financial and individualised prfit ver scial prfits, it is crucial t reclaim scial values as a separate right. 5

6 Gender equality strategies and instruments, such as equal pprtunity plicies, gender mainstreaming and gender budgeting, have always dealt with thse dimensins f the Green New Deal cngruent with thse f the Green mvement s agenda: inequality, discriminatin, scial injustice, the distributin f pwer and wealth, and sustainability. Gender equality is an bjective, as well as a rad twards this agenda. Only if gender equality is systematically incrprated int the discurse, nrmative and analytical framewrks, pririty lists and questins will the Green New Deal be able t deply its full ptential in the Greens sense f a paradigm shift. Three central aspects distinguished by the gender equality perspective Gender equality is mentined in the statements sectin at the beginning f the Greens plicy papers. It is nt fund as an integrated aspect f the specificatins and plicy prpsals. As the relevance f gendered scial structures and their discriminating r disadvantaging effect are verlked r left untuched, several parts f the papers are gender-blind r gender-biased. A visin that satisfies Green bjectives requires true gender sensitivity, which acknwledges gendered starting pints and gendered inequalities. Mrever, the epistemlgical pwer and effect f a systematic gender equality perspective wuld pen peple s eyes t a brad array f viable, effective and human-centred ptins. It wuld ensure that the Greens Green New Deal makes full use f the cntributins that are pssible and necessary fr the transfrmative endeavur t fundamentally alter relatins between peple, time, space and things. Gender analysis f the Greens plicy papers n the Green New Deal revealed three basic lacunae that are cngruent neither with the prclaimed ambitin f their visin nr with the Greens traditin. 1. The cncept f sustainability is reduced t envirnmental sustainability in plicy specificatins thus failing t see what is required fr the inclusin f peple (especially wmen) and scial cnditins (in particular fair gender relatins) in sustainability. 2. The cncept f ecnmy adheres t the separate and independent sectrs f traditinal ecnmic framewrks, leaving the cgnitive structures that prduce distrtins and lead t gender blindness untuched. A central aspects here is the neglect f the private husehld ecnmy and a cmprehensive pprtunity cst calculatin that is based n an extended sustainability cncept and includes the cntributin and price paid by the 6

7 private husehld ecnmy, in which wmen are the main wrkers and managers. Als missing is a systematic fcus n the interrelatins between the public sectr, private business and the private husehld ecnmy. Underexpsed is als the rle f the private husehld ecnmy and men and wmen as agents f change, as plluters, as ecnmic players steering demand thrugh cnsumer decisins, as well as in the rles f demcratic agents variusly affected by sustainability issues. 3. Als underexpsed is the rle f the state, including the public sectr, as an ecnmic and scial factr, as well as ptential guarantr f scial rights, sustainability rules and gender equality in all spheres, e.g. as a distributr f resurces and enfrcer f human rights. 1. A gender-equal cncept f sustainability The papers main fcus is n the natural envirnment. The nature f sustainability and hw t achieve it becmes less explicit when it cmes t perceiving peple as a wrkfrce, as care wrkers in the private husehld ecnmy r as citizens with plitical and scial agency. Just ne example f the many areas where the human, scial and gender equality dimensins f sustainability shuld be explred is the issue f time, which, despite its high gender relevance, is nt explred in its gender equality dimensin. In the desired Green New Deal, the time factr shuld nt nly include time fr persnal reprductin and sustainability, but als time t care fr thers. The Green plicy papers generally highlight time in relatin t paid wrk and frm the perspective f a persn nt part f the private husehld ecnmy, a persn wh merely wishes t achieve a wrk-life balance and has n imperative demand t recncile wrk and private life duties. This results in the structural sidelining f pre-existing duties and the perpetuatin f unchangeable cmmitments; there is n mentin f the situatins f thse respnsible in the private care ecnmy, such as men and wmen in the gender rle f primary carer ( mthers ). The imbalance between the pressure t take family time n the ne hand and the entitlement t such time n the ther has different relevance fr wmen and men during their life cycle and leads nt nly t gender differentiated cnsequences fr material security, but als prvides an pprtunity t build reliable scial relatins by investing time in relatins. The time perspective is andrcentric in the sense that it takes the specific life span f a suppsedly neutral persn (althugh male in the sense f being free f unpaid caring respnsibilities and having n wish fr them) as a starting pint. Other gender rles, life spans and the reality f wmen in a certain life span are neglected in the prcess. 7

8 The sustainability f the public sectr is mentined mainly with respect t budgetary cnslidatin. The state s functin f ensuring sustainability especially fr the scial envirnment, including the preventin f gender-related segregatin, discriminatin and explitatin is underexpsed. A definitin fr the renewed rle f the state within a Green New Deal and a frmulatin f requirements twards the state and the public sectr as pwerful actrs fr the sustainability paradigm shift is lacking. Genderrelevant weakening f the state is happening nt nly thrugh ersin f the sustainability f its budgetary basis. The state s ability t assume its ptential rle, t functin demcratically, t enfrce scial and human rights and values, t balance interests and t undertake self-crrectin and refrming prcesses has been questined, mitted and erded in the last decades. The result is a vacuum that has been filled by nrms, values and agents that d nt satisfy the Green paradigm shift. The state as active agent in a transfrmatinal endeavur such as the greening f sciety, must be addressed in the same way as the private business ecnmy. Its rle, duties and respnsibilities, as well as its rights and pwers in all dimensins f sustainability must be defined within a Green New Deal. This is vital if the Green New Deal is t have a psitive effect, r at least a neutral ne, n gender equality. 2. A gender-equal cncept f the ecnmy The keystne f a gender-equal cncept f the ecnmy is the inclusin f the private husehld ecnmy and an understanding f its cntributin t the prductin f gds and services, welfare and well-being, as well as its imprtance in preventing pprtunity csts. The exclusin, neglect r failure t appreciate the female-dminated ecnmy with the argument that it des nt adhere t the lgics f the private market ecnmy and is cnsidered an entirely female sphere, reduces the chances f effective plicymaking and the resulting discriminatry effects mainly cncern wmen. The ecnmy needs t be understd as a circuit rather than the cycle that mainstream ecnmics has tried t argue. Envirnmental sciences and the ec mvement have taught the benefit f such distinct cgnitive mdelling. Such a mdel wuld allw us t shape the ecnmy as an entire, interdependent system that encmpasses the three sectrs f wealth prductin: the private business ecnmy, the public sectr and the private husehld ecnmy, whereby each f the three sectrs relies n the cntributins f the ther tw and changes in ne invariably have cnsequences fr the thers. Als t be taken int accunt are nn-mnetary assets and wealth, particularly time as the main private husehld ecnmy currency (time als being a recrdable item). In rder t pen up the full cgnitive ptins fr shaping 8

9 the Green New Deal as a paradigm shift, the cncept f wealth shuld be expanded t encmpass material, scial (e.g. gender equality), eclgical and time wealth. As strategies fcus mainly n specific sectrs and industries, the emplyment dimensin f the New Green Deal has been very narrwly defined. The emplyment structures f these sectrs and industries are male-dminated. The inclusin f nly a narrw range f industries neglects the green ptential f ther sectrs, emplyment psitins and industries; it als mits t address the issue f desegregatin f emplyment, as a prerequisite fr greening, and the urgent need t discuss the quality f green jbs (including genderedness, such as hegemnic masculine wrkperfrmance nrms). 3. A gender-equal cncept f the state and public sectr A demcratically cntrlled public sectr is seen as the key t guaranteeing the smth functining f scieties in accrdance with high standards f demcracy and scial justice, including the ecnmy. Feminist appraches stress the imprtance f the public sectr and the state s ability t wrk and act in the interests f welfare and scietal develpment. They scrutinise the distributin f public resurces, changes in tax and benefit systems and shifts in the tax base frm the angle f redistributins between the public sectr, the private business ecnmy and the private husehld ecnmy. The state is the majr actr when it cmes t the ability t redistribute incme, institute legal regulatins against discriminatin and cntrl any activities by private enterprise that are liable t disrupt scial chesin. The state is als invlved in the allcatin f time and mney bth within the private husehld ecnmy, as well as between the private husehld and private business ecnmy, and it cntrls the standards f wrking cnditins, etc. Because f the gendered structure f ur scieties and the resultant impact n the distributin f incme, prperty, time and life chances, these aspects are f vital imprtance fr gender equality and the state becmes a central agent f gender equality. Anther reasn the public sectr is regarded as a primary agent f welfare and gender equity is its lgic f distributin and redistributin. Owing t its welfare rientatin, the public sectr distributes gds, services and life chances accrding t a different lgic frm that f prfit-maximisatin and is therefre able t allcate and distribute resurces, gds and services nt nly mre equally but als in a way geared t certain scial rules and targets. Cncepts f prductivity and prfit g beynd the mere mnetary aspect. The private business ecnmy distributes gds and services, entitlements and life chances n the basis f cmpetitin; it is mainly interested in ecnmic capability and ignres scial stratificatin. The prvisin and distributin f 9

10 gds and services by a functining public sectr is crucial fr a sciety wishing t reduce discriminatin and scial disadvantages, such as gender inequality. The fair and nn-cmmercial distributin f pprtunities, chances and entitlements is essential fr a functining sciety. Cnsequently, the lgic f the nn-market ecnmy behind the distributin f public and merit gds prvided by the state and public sectr is cnsidered essential and indispensable fr the develpment f a natin s wellbeing. And the lgic f the demcratic state is mre effective with regard t fair redistributin, particularly in the gender dimensin. The public sectr als prduces the gds and services required by its citizens. These are regarded as merit gds, sme even being public gds that cannt be prduced and distributed thrugh market mechanisms. Pverty, lw incmes, material dependence n male family members and ther effects f gender segregatin disprprtinately affect wmen. They and persns with female gender rles, such as being principally respnsible fr the well-being f children and the elderly, are heavily reliant n the public services and prducts f the welfare system, health, educatin and care prvisins, public transprt, access t healthy envirnment and natural resurces, etc. Determining which gds are t be cnsidered merit gds and which shuld be public gds is nt nly a questin f ecnmic definitin, but als a highly plitical issue. Frm the gender perspective, the cmmercialisatin f gds even thse fficially perceived t be public gds such as clean water r clean air 2 is becming highly critical as exclusin mechanisms tughen. Mrever, gds and services that were nce unambiguusly cnsidered as public gds, especially in frmerly scialist cuntries gds such as educatin r health care are nw being re-privatised. Due t the current pressure n public budgets brught abut by budget deficits and fiscal austerity plicies, many cuntries within Eurpe are cutting back public services and the educatin and healthcare sectrs, and privatising the prvisin f gds central t the functining f demcracy, such as educatin, cmmunicatin services, transprt, security and even basic needs such as the water supply. The experience f privatisatin and cmmercialisatin in recent decades has by n means been psitive fr the develpment f gender equality either in terms f their impact n the quantity and quality f gds and services supplied r in terms f wmen s wrking cnditins. This new wave f privatisatin and cmmercialisatin threatens Eurpe's future develpment in general and Eurpe s gender-equality develpment in particular. T ensure that the state assumes the rle and functin 2 As air pllutin in densely ppulated areas wrsens, access t areas with clean air is becming a questin f residential area and the ecnmic pwer t affrd t live in such areas. As a result, the nnexcludability f this public gd has weakened. 10

11 crucial fr green transfrmatin, a Green New Deal must include a pr-active psitive definitin f the rle f the public sectr and the state. Recmmendatins A mre gender-equal Greens Green New Deal Visin must: - Review the cncept f sustainability: sustainability is directed twards the eclgical system but it als systematically cnsiders: peple as care givers (scial reprductin) peple as a wrkfrce citizens as plitical agents the state s rle f guarantr fr scial chesin and scial equity and defender f scial values. - Include gender cmpetence and gender equality-sensitive results in the quality criteria and requirements fr all studies cmmissined by the Greens. - Regulatins fr sustainability shuld incrprate the fllwing specific aspects: wrkfrce, especially in the educatin and care sectrs scial relatins human capital public financing, in rder t sustain and develp scial systems cmbat the ersin f gd wrk enfrce scial standards fr typical female wrk and in femaledminated sectrs, including illegal nes (migrants in the care ecnmy, prstitutin), and prevent their further ersin scial chesin. - The fllwing entities and aspects shuld be explicitly named and included in all plicy papers: private husehld ecnmy (where wmen are the main wrkers and managers) care ecnmy (with a high percentage f female wrkers, whether legal, illegal r private) 11

12 the cntributin f the care ecnmy t welfare, sustainability and greening, including its educatinal functins and aspects citizens and their rganisatins as cntributrs and agents fr a greening sciety, especially including wmen and wmen s rganisatins citizens f bth sexes and their rganisatins (e.g. cnsumer rights rganisatins) as ecnmic agents wmen s prfessinal rganisatins, lbby grups and knwledgegenerating netwrks the results f wmen s, gender and gender-cmpetent research and studies feminist knwledge and plicy experience in mainstreaming alternative aspects and gals int hegemnic discurses, practices and institutins. The fllwing sectins cntains a detailed analysis f the different dimensins f the Green New Deal based n the plicy papers The industrial dimensin f the Green New Deal, The emplyment dimensin f the Green New Deal and The macrecnmic and financial framewrk f the Green New Deal. 12

13 B. The Emplyment Dimensin f the Green New Deal The fllwing cmments refer t the plicy paper The Emplyment Dimensin f the Green New Deal. Men's and wmen's emplyment prspects The greening f the ecnmy has given rise t high jb grwth expectatins. In this cntext, tw main trends are described: greening jbs means new skill requirements t fulfil eclgical standards, and new jbs in industries that engineer and prduce green technlgies. The evlutin f existing ccupatins thrugh greening and the creatin f new green jbs mean that tw main prcesses will be at wrk in the labur market: jb lsses and the devaluatin f skills that becme utdated due t technlgical imprvements, and jb gains and the grwing recgnitin f green skills. Cnsequently, skill imprvement, vcatinal training and apprenticeships are crucial aspects f the Green New Deal s emplyment dimensin. Industries expected t generate the highest jb ptential (Smith 2011) are the energy industries with their slar, wind-pwer and bifuel sectrs and the cnstructin industries fr energy-efficient buildings and machines. The transprt sectr with eclgical transprt systems and ec-mbiles and the rganic fd, agriculture and frestry sectr are als predicted t benefit frm a green shift. Jb grwth in the renewable energy sectr is expected t be especially high in the new EU member states (thse which jined in 2004 and 2007). All these industries are male-dminated, meaning that, fr the mst part, the Green New Deal will directly affect men and male labur. Estimates fr ccupatins with high jb ptential grwth shw that arund 4/5 f these jbs are highly segregated, meaning that mre than 60% f the persns emplyed there are men. The situatin within these industries is characterised by: - high gender segregatin and much higher male emplyment - high emplyment grwth in male-dminated technical ccupatins, less in female-dminated r mixed service ccupatins such as cunselling r administratin - a strng trend twards increasing gender segregatin. 13

14 This is als due t: - a prnunced male-dminated wrk culture, partly inspired by the pineering culture (e.g. in the slar industry) - high flexibility and availability requirements in terms f wrking hurs and reginal mbility, which favurs the specific life situatins and wrking precnditins usually fund amng men. In additin, there is als the general trend in labur market changes caused by deregulatin, which cincides with the strngly gender-segregated emplyment structures f greening industries. The increasing plarisatin between - skilled and unskilled ccupatins - high and lw quality jbs will becme mre prnunced in the green industries. At the upper end, jbs will be created as research and develpment becme central, while at the lwer end lw-skill and lw-paid jbs will increase, fr example in recycling. Fewer middle-level jbs are expected, partly due t technical innvatin. As labur markets are hierarchically segregated, increased plarisatin will have a negative effect n the situatin f wmen in the green industries (Smith 2011). One f the reasns fr the strng negative trend in wrking cnditins is the pressure frm glbal cmpetitin, as the example f the slar energy sectr shws. It is therefre extremely likely that these industries will develp in a way that is far remved frm green emplyment expectatins. The industries named abve are particularly unlikely t fulfil the Greens scial aims, especially gender equality plicies, as they have: - little r n traditin f equality plicies, - a gender-discriminatry hiring, prmtin and infrmal wrking culture (empirical evidence shws a higher percentage f unemplyed female engineers and a very high percentage f female engineers leaving the prfessin), - high gender hmgeneity in decisin-making psitins and lw representatin f wmen, - lw level f uninisatin. 14

15 Mrever, as green structural changes and jb lsses mainly affect men, gender equality plicies face an especially difficult situatin at the discursive level. The legitimacy f gender equality plicies is therefre pen t discussin. As the transfrmatin impact is mre visible and tangible fr the men cncerned, their interests as a gender grup may be cnsidered mre relevant than the basic but abstract demands f gender equality and equal pprtunity fr the female gender grup. This pattern f argument is ften revived in times f crisis r change, as culd be bserved during the current crisis and is evident frm the instruments chsen t cushin the first effects f the impact f primarily male-dminated industries. Generally speaking, in sectrs characterised by the quantitative and qualitative male dminatin f such immaterial aspects as nrms, habits and cultures, there is an urgent need fr gender equality; implementing these changes, will hwever, nt be easy. This is als true fr fair mechanisms when it cmes t the distributin f new jbs and career pprtunities, as well as fr pprtunities t participate in vcatinal training schemes. A further aspect f the plicy paper n the Green New Deal s emplyment dimensin is a gender bias fcused n male-dminated r male-assciated sectrs, prfessins and scietal spheres. The Green New Deal paper names nly ne specific setting chsen frm a wider range f ccupatins as cntributing t the paradigm shifts envisined. The imprtance f less male-dminated sectrs is structurally mitted and neglected. A Greens jb dimensin shuld systematically address all jbs cntributing t the Green New Deal, in particular: - greening and new green jbs in less technical sectrs such as turism, advertising, health, fd prductin and prcessing, retail trade, etc. - jbs that prmte the greening f scieties lifestyles, cnsumer capacities and citizens knwledge all f which are greening (and t a lesser extent new green) jbs that prvide fr knwledge transfer and (cnsumer) educatin and green administratin and management, including the capacity fr green and scially equitable prcurement and human resurce management, as well as - new green jbs in the green cnsulting, advising and business certificatin sectr, - new green jbs in the green cnsulting, advising and private husehld certificatin sectr. 15

16 The gender-biased fcus n majr emplyers in private and crprate enterprises prducing cnsumer gds fails t take nte f nn-market agents that prduce and cnsume gds and services, such as private husehlds and emplyers in private and public rganisatins. Green jbs - gd jbs? All this indicates that it wuld be a mistake t think f green industries as emanating frm a green mvement and translating green values int wrking structures and emplyment cnditins. Despite serving ethically substantiated ec aims and visins, green industries are private market-riented industries that pursue prfit-maximising and cst-reducing bjectives. In this respect, the current develpment caused by the deregulatin f the labur market is als putting pressure n the wrkfrce. There is in fact sme evidence t suggest that the prblem in these industries is even wrse due t the heavy pressure f glbal cmpetitin. All in all, this means that the fundamental transfrmatin f these sectrs in line with the Greens hlistic understanding f the ecnmic system will nt be a simple matter. Envirnmental changes will nt autmatically prmte decent wrk, especially nt fr wmen, if cst savings affected by green prductin are nt reinvested in the wrkfrce. The crucial questin shuld be: hw can decent wrk and eclgical develpment be cmbined under Green New Deal plicy rules, rather than asking hw will eclgical develpment prmte decent wrk. In the present situatin, greening wrking cnditins are still regarded as a cst factr instead f an investment, The small number f wmen in decisin-making psitins and the higher crprate echelns is the mst visible indicatr f andrcentrism in wrking structures and cultures, as well as nrms and belief systems excluding, f curse, thse wh d nt cnfrm t the expected values and behaviurs f the current prductin system. This nt nly excludes wmen r men with family respnsibilities frm the pprtunities these sectrs present, but als wmen and men in general wh have ther life pririties than mere gainful wrk and emplyment. Nt nly d these sectrs discriminate against wmen, they might als nt even be attractive t less gender steretypical wmen and men. Gender equality can therefre be seen as an indicatr f decent wrk as set ut in the quality criteria f the Greens visin. 16

17 If wrking cnditins change in such a way that they 1. lastingly retain the small number f wmen wrking in the sectr, 2. are attractive fr peple with decent wrk-life-balance demands, fr wmen in general and especially fr men with family-wrk respnsibilities and aspiratins, 3. als prvide a decent living fr wmen at the lwer end f the varius skills hierarchies, then they have been shaped in such a way that nt nly the prducts but als the prductin prcesses, including labur rights, wrking cnditins and staff diversity, are greening in the cmprehensive sense. Recmmendatins With regard t the ptins, risks and pprtunities presented by these sectrs t the male wrkfrce n the ne hand and the andrcentric culture n the ther, the questin hw these sectrs shuld be made accessible fr wmen it is nt an easy ne t answer. As gender ratis, fr example in engineering degrees, vary frm cuntry t cuntry, the answer must be entirely cntext-specific. Legacies in pst-scialist cuntries culd have the psitive ptential t affect prfessinal gender nrms and gender ntins f technlgy, thereby making it easier fr girls and wmen t chse engineering studies; althugh a re-rientatin twards traditinal, biplar gender nrms and regimes as part f the mve t regain a natinal rather than a scialist identity, can be bserved. Mnitring f the sectrs shuld intrduce and include: - sex-disaggregated data fr all statistical dimensins f emplyment, including infrmatin n self-emplyment, duratin f wrking cntracts, wrking times, wage and skill levels, hierarchies, - indicatrs fr decent wrk that takes interdependencies with private respnsibilities (prvisins fr family respnsibilities, penalties fr maternity, etc.) int cnsideratin, - explicit gender equality mnitring as the basis fr gender equality infrmed plicymaking and gender mainstreaming practices, as well as tracking gender equality plicies. 17

18 Intrduce and strengthen anti-discriminatin and equal-pprtunity plicies and make them a prerequisite fr public funding and prcurement: - include gender equality tutring and caching fr all decisin-makers participating in green awareness prgrammes - intrduce and enfrce tried-and-tested instruments t prevent discriminatin - apply cercive qutas t ensure equal pprtunities in vcatinal training schemes fr green skills, - ensure career chances and decent wrking cnditins irrespective f emplyment status (e.g. part-time, managerial psitins, etc.) - integrate gender equality and anti-discriminatin int all Green New Deal training prgrammes and apprenticeships. Use gender mainstreaming fr develping plicies t crrect the andrcentric fcus: - rethink the list f relevant sectrs and prfessins fr greening sciety and the ecnmy - add nn-manufacturing emplyers, especially scially relevant nes, in rder t explre all dimensins f emplyment - specify and define plicy ptins fr mitted prfessins, sectrs and spheres - develp a stringent argument n female participatin as an efficiency requirement - develp a cmmitted and visible psitin n gender equality - intrduce gender cmpetence and sensitivity as quality criterin and key research and mnitring appraches t the Green New Deal emplyment dimensin. Mdernise green labur plicies: - ensure a wrk-life balance fr all, explicitly target men (t establish and pen up alternative diverse wrking cultures, especially at decisin-making centres) - ensure wrkers rights independently f uninisatin level, e.g. by general labur rights and standards, minimum wages, etc. - ensure anti-discriminatin in all parts f the labur market, especially thse with lw uninisatin 18

19 - nly prmte atypical jb mdels (part-time, temprary wrk, etc.) if safe and decent cnditins fr such jb mdels are guaranteed. Mdernise educatin and frmatin t activate and retain female ptential: - target girls as future engineers, - interest girls with study prgrammes cmplemented by green analytical and impact-assessing skills n technlgy and engineering, - reinfrce female engineering traditins and nrmalities (where in existence r revivable, e.g. in pst-scialist cuntries), and cmbine them with apprpriate wrk regulatins, - fcus plicy prgrammes n regins with high ptential fr female participatin (e.g. with less segregated labur markets in engineering industries), - ensure gender equality in n-the-jb training, - develp innvative labur market instruments t prmte an all-encmpassing greening f emplyment. Further ideas: - As the uninisatin rate is lw in the relevant industries, reliance n unins r uninisatin can nly be a minr part f the strategy. It is therefre necessary t strengthen the legal standards. - Mandatry requirements fr the financial cntrl f industrial plitics shuld include standards f gd wrk and gender equality. - Prmte think tanks and innvative wrking structures that cmbine technical skills with impact-assessment skills, e.g. als as fllw-ups t university prgrammes fr wmen. - The cntinued develpment and strengthening f gender equality requirements and cntrlling in Eurpean Scial Fund (ESF) funding in all technlgy-related areas. - Gender budgeting shuld be systematically included in ESF funding cntrlling, especially in technlgy-related areas. 19

20 Selected literature Green Eurpean Fundatin GEF 2009: A Green New Deal fr Eurpe - Twards green mdernisatin in the face f crisis. Green New Deal Series vl. 1. A reprt by the Wuppertal Institute fr Climate, Envirnment and Energy. Röhr, Ulrike and Debrah Ruggieri 2008: Erneuerbare Energien ein Arbeitsmarkt für Frauen! Ed.: Life e.v. Smith, Mark 2011: Analysis Nte Green jbs: a case fr gender equality? EGGE Eurpean Netwrk f Experts n Emplyment and Gender Equality issues. Fndazine G. Brdlini. April Analysis nte prepared fr the Eurpean Cmmissin, Directrate General fr Emplyment, Scial Affairs and Equal Opprtunities. 20

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