# Chapter 6 Lecture Notes. F = -kx U E = (1/2)kx 2

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1 Chapter 6 Lecture Notes Physics Strauss Formulas: W = F d = Fd cosθ K (1/2)mv 2 W net = W NC + W C = K W G = - U G U G = mgh F = -kx U E = (1/2)kx 2 W NC = K + U E = K + U = (1/2)mv 2 + U E f = E i P = W/t = Fv Main Ideas: 1. Definition of Work. 2. Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem 3. Potential Energy 4. Conservative and Nonconservative Forces 5. Conservation of Mechanical Energy 6. Nonconservative Forces and Conservation of Energy 7. Power This chapter will deal with one of the most important concepts introduced this semester. It is the concept of energy. We will find that energy is always conserved in every reaction. 1. Definition of Work. In physics, the term work has a very specific definition. Work is defined as the product of the component of force along the direction o f displacement times the magnitude of the distance. (Note we use distance and not displacement). We write this mathematically as W = F d = Fd cosθ where F means the force parallel to the direction of motion, θ is the angle between the direction of the force and the direction of the motion, and d is the distance traveled. The SI unit of work is N m which is given the name Joule. 1 N m = 1 J. Note that to do work, you need to move some distance as well as a force acting with some component in the direction of motion. There will always be an object or objects doing work on another object. It is always necessary to determine what entity is doing the work on which object. Work is only defined in relation to one thing doing work on another object. To 1

2 solve problems, you must first determine this, or you will not correctly solve for the work which is being asked for. Problem: Suppose I pull a crate with a force of 98 N at an angle of 55 above the horizontal for a distance of 62 m. What is the total work done by me on the crate? Note that F cosθ is the component of the force along the direction of motion. Problem: Suppose I now pull a crate with a force of 98 N at an angle of 55 above the horizontal for a distance of 62 m in the other direction. What is the total work done by me on the crate in both directions. If there is no force in the direction of motion then there is no work done on that object. When we carry a package at a constant velocity a long distance, we may say that we have done a lot of work, but using the definition of work here, we have done no work, because the force of us holding the package up did not have any vector component parallel to the displacement. The angle between the direction of force and the displacement was 90 and the cosine of 90 is 0, so W = Fd cosθ = 0. If I push on a wall and the wall does not move, the work is 0 because the distance the object moved is 0. Work is a scalar but the sign of the work is important. It is very important to ask who or what is doing the work? We can either ask how much work is done on an object (all the forces on the object), or how much work does a certain object do? For instance: Problem: A box weighing 23 kg slides down an incline of 25 at a constant velocity. The box slides 1.5 m. (a) What is the work done by the normal, by gravity, and by friction? (b) What is the total work done on the box? To solve a problem with work, first determine the force or forces that are doing the work. Look at the question carefully. Is it asking how much work a certain object is doing, or how much total work is being done on an object? Then determine the force or forces doing the work, and the angle between the displacement and the force. 2

3 2. Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theorem Energy is one of the most important concepts in physics. Yet it is not an easy concept to describe simply. There are many different kinds of energy. Any one of the individual kinds of energy can be described but it is difficult to give an encompassing definition of energy. In any process we find that the total energy of the system never changes. It is conserved. However, energy can change from one form to another. When two cars collide the energy they had because of their motion (called kinetic energy) is changed primarily into heat. In this chapter we will look at a number of types of energy. The first will be the energy of motion, called kinetic energy. We look first at the kinematic equations, Newton s second law, and the definition of work. We use v f 2 = v i 2 + 2ad a = (v f 2 - v i 2 )/2d and ΣF = ma W net = ΣFd = mad = m{(v f 2 - v i 2 )/2d}d = (1/2)mv f 2 - (1/2)mv i 2 = K f - K i The term (1/2)mv 2 is called the kinetic energy. K (1/2)mv 2 We say the net work done on an object is equal to its change in kinetic energy. Note that this is the net work done on an object from all the forces acting on it. This is known as the work-energy theorem. The work-energy theorem only applies to all of the forces acting on a single object. It does not apply to any single force. Keep in mind when solving problems that kinetic energy is related to the speed squared of an object. Problem: How much work does it take to stop a 1000 kg car traveling at 28 m/s? Problem: A 58-kg skier is coasting down a slope inclined at 25 above the horizontal. A kinetic frictional force of 70 N opposes her motion. Near the top of the slope the skier s speed is 3.6 m/s. What is her speed at a point which is 57 m downhill? 3. Potential Energy Another form of energy, other than kinetic energy, is potential energy. Potential energy is the potential an object has to do work. 3.1 GRAVITATIONAL 3

4 The most common example of potential energy is the gravitational potential energy. Suppose I raise a ball to a height h = y f - y i. How much work has been done on the ball by me, by gravity, and in total. W ME =Fd cosθ = mg (y f - y i ) = mgh. The change in kinetic energy of the ball is 0, so the net work must also be 0 (by the work energy theorem). Because only me and gravity are doing work on the ball, and the sum of the work done on the ball is zero, we know that the work done by gravity must be equal, but opposite in to the work I have done. W G = mg (y i - y f ) = mgy i - mgy f = U i - U f where U is called the potential energy. (The book uses PE for potential energy, but I will usually use U). Note that this is initial height minus final height, so we say, W G = mg (y i - y f ) = U i - U f W G = - U. (since U = U f - U i ) Look at the definition of gravitational potential energy U = mgy. That means that the larger y is (the higher something is above the ground), the larger the potential energy is. The book uses the symbol h to mean the object s height and then defines the potential energy of gravity, or the gravitational potential energy, as U G = mgh The gravitational potential energy is the potential to do work due to gravity. If I raise a book above the ground it has the potential to do work. If I drop it, I could drive a nail. I could attach it to a toy and drop it and accelerate the toy. The object has the potential to do work due to gravity. One important point to note is that there is no absolute scale for potential energy. We always measure the height with respect to some reference point. For instance, if I define the gravitational potential energy to be 0 on the table, then I raise the book, it has a potential energy of mgh relative to the table. Something which is higher has a higher potential energy than something that is lower. It has more ability to do work. Suppose I take two different paths to raise the book 1 meter. One is straight up and the other is very circuitous. Compare the ability to do work with this book from the two different methods. It is exactly the same. This illustrates one of the most important principles regarding gravitational potential energy (GPE). GPE 4

5 is always the same at the same height regardless of the path taken to reach that height. 3.2 ELASTIC (SPRING) Another form of potential energy is elastic potential energy (EPE). One example of this is the potential energy stored in a spring. If I compress a spring, it has the potential to do work. Watches that wind up use this principle. The amount of energy stored in a spring depends on how much it is compressed. In many cases the force necessary to compress a spring is proportional to the distance it is compressed (x). The force of the spring is then given by F = -kx where k is a constant that depends on the construction of the spring. The minus sign means that the spring wants to push in the opposite direction from the direction it was compressed. Now suppose I compress the spring a distance x. When I first start to compress it takes almost no force. When it is very compressed it takes a force of kx to compress it. The average force it takes is (1/2)(F initial + F final ) = (1/2)(0 + kx) = (1/2)kx. So the work it takes to compress the spring is W = Fx = (1/2) kx 2 which is also called the elastic potential energy. U E = (1/2)kx 2 where x is the distance the spring has been compressed or stretched. This is the energy stored in a spring. I can use it to do work. So we have talked about two kinds of potential energy, gravitational = mgh, and elastic = (1/2)kx Conservative and Nonconservative Forces As we said, the work done to move an object in a gravitational field does not depend on the path taken. Such a field is called a conservative field and the force, here the force of gravity, is called a conservative force. If work done by a force in moving an object between two positions is independent of the path of motion, the force is called a conservative force. Kinetic friction is not such a conservative force because W = Fd cosθ. If I take a longer distance the work increases because d is always in the opposite of F (for the case when friction is opposing the motion). For gravity d can either be in the opposite direction of F or in the same direction, and this contributes to the force being conservative. Because potential energy is the energy associated with an object s 5

6 location, potential energy can only be defined for a conservative field. We can extend the work energy theorem to include non-conservative forces as well. In that case: W net = W C + W NC = K (recall that the net work done is the change in K) where W C is the work done by conservative forces, and W C is the work done by nonconservative forces. For gravity, we saw that W C = - U, and this is true in general for conservative forces, so, - U + W NC = K W NC = K + U This is probably the most important equation to know from this chapter, for it is a mathematical statement that energy is always conserved. When we use this along with W = Fd cosθ (often for the nonconservative force), and K = W net, we can solve many problems. Also note that when there are no nonconservative forces W NC = 0, and K + U = 0, which is the crucial equations derived in the next section. If I drop something which smashes when it hits the ground, what is happening to the energy in this case. Initially, there is a lot of potential energy, then a lot of kinetic energy. Finally, the energy changes to non-conservative forms: heat and deformation. 5. Conservation of Mechanical Energy The equation above be rewritten as W NC = K + U W NC = (1/2)mv f 2 - (1/2)mv i 2 + U f - U i = (1/2)mv f 2 + U f - (1/2)mv i 2 - U i = E f - E i where E = (1/2)mv 2 + U is the defined as the total mechanical energy. So the work done by non-conservative forces is equal to the change in mechanical energy. If there are no non-conservative forces, (no friction, heat, etc. so that the only external forces are gravitational and elastic), then W NC = 0, and we find that mechanical energy is conserved. That is 6

7 E f = E i. If only conservative forces are acting, the total mechanical energy o f a system neither increases or decreases in any process. It stays constant. It is conserved. This principle is not new, but simply a restatement of W NC = K + U when there are no nonconservative forces. However, this principle is very important and can be used to solve many problems in physics where there are no nonconservative forces, (and/or all nonconservative forces are acting perpendicular to the direction of motion). Problem: A child and sled with mass of 50 kg slide down a frictionless hill. If the sled starts from rest and has a speed of 3.00 m/s at the bottom, how high is the hill? We can t do this with kinematic equations unless we know the angle of the hill, or at least some more information. However, we can do it with conservation of mechanical energy. Problem: A motorcycle rider leaps across a canyon with an initial speed of 38.0 m/s from a height of 70.0 m. He lands at a height of 35.0 m. What is his final velocity? Problem: A 0.5 kg block is used to compresses a spring with a spring constant of 80.0 N/m a distance of 2.0 cm (.02 m). When the spring is released, what is the final speed of the block? Problem: A 70 kg person bungee jumps off of a 50 m bridge with his ankles attached to a 15 m long bungee cord. Assuming he stops just at the edge of the water and he is 2.0 m tall, what is the spring constant of the bungee cord? 6. Nonconservative Forces and Conservation of Energy So far in our study of conservation of energy, we have neglected friction and other non-conservative forces. When there are no nonconservative forces present, then the total mechanical energy is conserved, as we have seen. However, there is a more fundamental law of the conservation of energy which includes nonconservative forces. It states The total energy in any process is not increased or decreased. Energy can be transformed from one form to another and transferred from one body to another, but the total energy remains constant. 7

8 This is ALWAYS true! For example when we compress a spring then use it to accelerate a block, the potential energy of the spring is changed into the kinetic energy of the block. What about if I slide something across the floor and it comes to rest. It started with a lot of kinetic energy, and at the end it has no greater potential energy. What happened to it? The kinetic energy changed into thermal energy or heat and the book and floor heated up. The forms of forces (like friction) which reduce the mechanical energy of a system are called dissipative forces. So when dissipative forces are present, the total energy remains constant, but the mechanical energy decreases. Energy can be transformed from one form to another. There are many forms of energy: electrical, chemical, nuclear, thermal, gravitational, elastic, kinetic... Although energy can be transformed from one of these forms to another, it can not ever be created or destroyed. We use this fact in solving problems where the mechanical energy is not conserved. Recall, the equation we derived which included nonconservative forces. W NC = K + U = (1/2)mv f 2 - (1/2)mv i 2 + U f - U i If there are no nonconservative forces, then we use this equation by setting W NC = 0 and the mechanical is conserved. If there are nonconservative forces, then the loss in mechanical energy goes into work done due to these forces. For instance, we did a problem with a child on a sled who weighed 50 kg on a hill that was 0.46 m high, and had a final velocity of 3.0 m/s. Suppose, instead the final velocity is 2.6 m/s on the same hill. Problem: A child and sled with mass of 50 kg slide down a hill with a height of 0.46 m. If the sled starts from rest and has a speed of 2.6 m/s at the bottom, how much thermal energy is lost due to friction (i.e. what is the work that friction does)? If the hill has an angle of 20 above the horizontal what was the frictional force. So, if the mechanical energy is not conserved, that means that work must have been done by nonconservative forces. That is, energy was transformed from mechanical energy to other forms of energy. No energy was created or destroyed. 7. Power Sometimes it is more important to know not just the work that has been done, but rather the rate at which work has been done. For instance, I may have two identical cars, except for the engines. The two cars my require the same amount of work to go from 0 to 60 mph, but one car can do it in 5 seconds while one car 8

9 can do it in 12 seconds. The one that can do it is a more powerful car. This illustrates the concept of power. Power is defined as the rate at which work is done. P = W/t. The SI unit of power is watts (W). 1 J/s = 1 W. Sometimes we measure power in horsepower. One horsepower = 550 ft-lb/s and is equal to 746 W. Power can also be written as P = Fd/t = F(d/t) = Fv Whenever you want to determine power, you must first determine the force and the velocity or the work being done and the time. Problem: A deep sea observation chamber is raised from the bottom of the ocean 1700 m below the surface by means of a steel cable. The chamber moves at constant velocity and takes 5.00 minutes to read the surface. The cable has a constant tension of 8900 N. How much power is required to pull the cable in? Give the answer in horsepower. Problem: A 1000 kg elevator carries an 800 kg load. A constant frictional force of 4000 N retards its motion. What minimum power must the motor deliver to lift the elevator at a constant rate of 3.00 m/s? 9

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