8th Grade Life Science Study Guide for Final Exam Fall 2013

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1 Study Guide for Final Exam Fall 2013 The following study guide is to help guide your studying for the final. The guide is organized into units and sections. You should study from your book, and then refer to your notes, and the handouts I have given you throughout the semester. If you have any questions, don t hesitate to ask! Chapter 1: The world of life science 1. The importance of asking questions. a. What is life science? i. What do life scientists do? ii. What is the importance of life science? 2. What is the scientific method? a. The steps of the scientific method. i. Making observations ii. Asking questions iii. Forming hypothesis iv. Making predictions v. Testing hypotheses by designing experiments 1. What is a controlled experiment 2. What is an independent variable, and a dependent variable. vi. Collecting data vii. Analyzing results viii. Drawing conclusions ix. Communicating results b. Forming theories i. Unifying a range of observations and conclusions into one statement. ii. Theories are re-examined and can be rejected. 3. Technology a. Its importance for life science b. Microscopes i. Compound light microscope ii. Electron Microscope

2 1. Transmission Electron Microscope 2. Scanning Electron Microscope c. X-Rays d. CT scans and MRI e. Computers 4. Systems of measurement a. The benefits of having a International System of Units (SI Units) i. Know the SI Unit for the following measurements (you need to also know what each measurement means) 1. Length 2. volume 3. Mass 4. Temperature Chapter 2: It s Alive!! Or, Is it? 1. List the characteristics of living things a. Every living thing must have these characteristics. i. Made of one or more cells 1. Unicellular 2. Multicellular ii. Can sense and respond to change 1. Homeostasis 2. Types of stimuli iii. Reproduce 1. Asexual reproduction 2. Sexual reproduction iv. Have DNA 1. Importance of DNA v. Use energy 1. Metabolism 2. Where do we get energy from? vi. Grow and develop 1. Difference between growth and development

3 2. Necessities of Life a. All living things need these 4 necessities to stay alive i. Food 1. Types of organisms based on how they get food (list an example of each). a. Producers b. Consumers c. Decomposers ii. Water 1. Why is water important? a. Involved in all chemical metabolism b. It is a good solvent for substances. c. Therefore: i. Earth is 70% covered with water ii. Cells are 70% water iii. Air 1. What gases are needed? 2. Why do we need Air? iv. A place to live 1. needs to have the other three necessities 2. Competition over these resources a. predators b. preys 3. Chemistry of life a. Importance of carbon b. Carbon based molecules = Organic molecule i. Carbohydrates ii. Lipids iii. Proteins iv. Nucleic Acid c. Each organic molecule i. building block (subunit) ii. at least one example iii. the function of each Organic molecule.

4 Chapter 3: Cells, the basic units of life 1. Organization of life a. Hierarchy system of life i. Each level relies on the level below it. 1. Cell 2. Tissue 3. Organ 4. Organ System 5. Organism ii. The big picture of life: Single organisms don t live on their own 1. Population 2. Community 3. Ecosystem. iii. The difference between unicellular and multicellular organism 2. Discovery of cells a. The scientists that contributed to the discovery of cells and making of cell theory. i. Hooke: was the first to call them Cells, he looked at cork cells ii. Leeuwenhoek: The first to see bacteria and yeast and called them animalcules. iii. Schleiden: Concluded that all plant parts are made of cells. iv. Schwann: Concluded that all animal tissues are made of cells. v. Virchow: put together the last part of the cell theory. b. The cell theory! c. Cell similarities: Every cell has these similarities. Know the structure and function of each one. i. Cell membrane ii. Heredity material iii. Cytoplasm iv. Organelles v. Small size d. Surface-area to volume ration i. The importance for cells to have a big ratio, meaning that they have big surface area and small volume. ii. Need to be able to calculate the ratio.

5 e. The benefits of being multicellular. f. Types of cells: Must know the differences between them, and examples of each one. i. Prokaryotes ii. Eukaryotes 3. Inside Eukaryotic cells (for each organelle, you must know its structure and its function, and where it is found) a. Found in both Animal and Plant cells i. Cell Membrane ii. Nucleus iii. Nucleolus iv. Ribosomes v. Endoplasmic Reticulum 1. RoughER 2. SmoothER vi. Mitochondria vii. Golgi Complex viii. Vesicles ix. Vacuoles x. Lysosomes b. Found only in plant cells i. Chloroplast ii. Cell wall c. Difference in vacuoles in plant and animal cells d. The process of making proteins i. Ribosomes made in nucleolus ii. Ribosomes move into the cytoplasm or on the rougher iii. Ribosomes on the rougher make proteins, and proteins enter the rougher iv. Carbohydrates are added by the rougher to modify the protein v. modified proteins exit the ER by vesicles. vi. Vesicles transport proteins to Golgi Complex vii. Golgi complex adds enzymes and other substances to process the proteins viii. Proteins are then sorted, and packaged by the golgi and sent by vesicles.

6 ix. Vesicles transport proteins to their final destination, either other organelles or outside of the cell. e. The theory behind where the Chloroplast and Mitochondria come from Chapter 4: The Cell in Action 1. Exchange with the environment a. Transportation of small particles i. Passive Transport 1. Diffusion 2. Osmosis ii. Active transport b. Transportation of large particles i. Endocytosis ii. Exocytosis 2. Cell Energy a. Photosynthesis i. The main source of energy ii. The purpose of photosynthesis iii. Which organisms carry out photosynthesis iv. In which organelle does it take place v. What are the reactants and products of the process vi. Its equation b. Cellular Respiration i. How is i similar to breathing ii. What are the reactants and products iii. Which organisms carry it out iv. In which organelle does it take place v. Its equation c. Fermentation i. Two types 1. in muscles a. What does it produce 2. in yeast a. What does it produce d. The relationship between Photosynthesis and Respiration

7 3. The cell Cycle a. How are new cells formed? b. What is the cell cycle? Its start and its end c. What happens before the cell divides? d. The organization of DNA i. Cell Division in Prokaryotes 1. Binary fission 2. Compare it to Eukaryotes ii. Cell division in Eukaryotes 1. Homologous Chromosomes 2. Chromatids 3. The formation of chromosomes 4. Phases of cell division a. Interphase b. Mitosis i. Prophase ii. Metaphase iii. Anaphase iv. Telophase c. Cytokinesis i. In animal cells vs. in plant cells Good luck!

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