Biology I New Summit School High School Diploma Program

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1 Course Description: Biology I Syllabus Biology I is a two semester course. Students completing this course will earn 1.0 unit upon completion. Required Materials: 1. Student Text: Biology-Principles and Exploration 2001 edition (Holt, Rinehart, and Winston); ISBN # Internet access for research. 3. The Biology framework is found at the following website: Class Work and Assessments: Grading Scale: For each lesson, the student will have a reading assignment and exercises to work while reading the text. After the student has successfully completed the reading assignments and the exercises, the student will take a Performance Opportunity Quiz (Online). After all of the quizzes have been taken for a lesson, the student will take a Performance Opportunity Chapter Test (Online). After all quizzes, chapter tests, midterm and final exams have been completed, the student s grades will be averaged to determine the final grade. 94 to 100 % A 85 to 93 % B 75 to 84 % C 70 to 75 % D Below 70 % F Keys for successfully completing Biology I: Take your time. Concentrate on understanding one lesson at a time. Make sure you study the exercises in the lessons and understand them before you take the quizzes. 1

2 Materials/Resources: Biology I INTRODUCTION TO BIOLOGY Chapter 1: Biology and You Microscope, pipette, freshwater field guide, pond water, microscope slide Lesson 1: Themes of Biology Reading: pages 5 25 (Chapter 1) Exercises: Multiple Choice: In the space provided write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement. 1. The study of life is called ecology biology c) anatomy d) geology 2. Which of the following is the regulation of an organism s internal environment to maintain conditions suitable for life? evolution diversity c) homeostasis d) adaptation 3. Which of the following topics is studied in a biology class? animals cells c) evolution d) all of the above 4. Growth results in the increase in living materials adjustment to environment c) adaptation d) energy use 2

3 5. The smallest unit of life atom cell c) proton d) nucleus 6. Which of the following is NOT considered one of the characteristics of life? ability to breathe adaptation to environment c) ability to reproduce d) growth and development 7. Control and experimental groups are identical except for the dependent variable group size d) conclusions c) independent variable 8. In a scientific investigation, a possible explanation is called a(n) a) inference c) prediction b) observation d) hypothesis 9. The condition that stays the same in an experiment is the a) control c) dependent variable b) independent variable d) experimental variable 10. Which of the following tools would a biologist most likely use? True or False: a) microscope c) dissecting tools b) beaker d) all of the above 1. A group of organisms that are similar genetically and can produce fertile offspring is referred to as a genus. 2. Change in inherited traits over time is called evolution. 3. Molecules of RNA inside cells encode information for growth and development. 3

4 4. The study of the interactions of living things and their environment is called anatomy. 5. A paramecium is a multicellular prokaryotic organism. 6. Cells are organized structures that are found in all living organisms. 7. All organisms have both cell walls and cell membranes. 8. Scientific investigations always follow a series of strict guidelines. 9. When a scientist performs an experiment he (she) has no idea of what the outcome of this experiment will be. 10. A scientist noticed that there were fewer frogs in the local area. This is an example of a hypothesis. There is no Performance Opportunity Quiz for this Lesson. 4

5 Lesson 2: (refer to pgs ) Lab Safety Fill in the blanks with the correct letter that matches the following safety symbols. a) b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i) j) k) l) 1. Electrical 5. Corrosive 9. Sharp Object 2. Radiation 6. Environmental Hazard 10. Flame 3. Eye Protection 7. Clothing Protection 11. Biohazard 4. Open Flame 8. Poisonous Plant 12. Thermal There is no performance opportunity for this lesson. 5

6 Lesson 3: Biology I Microscope Lab How can you use reasoning? Scientists must use excellent observations. They also need both their observations and reasoning skills to form hypotheses. In this MicroLab you will use both your observing and reasoning skills. Observing-the act of noting, recording, inspection of Reasoning-think logically, analytical reflection Procedure: (write your answers below) 1. Obtain a single specimen of a leaf or insect. 2. Observe as many characteristics as you can about your specimen. (Color, size, shape, and other features) 3. Write down all of your observations. 4. Write down 2 questions you have about your specimen. 5. Use inductive reasoning to form one hypothesis that you could test. Observations Analysis Analysis: 1. How were your observations similar to a scientist? 2. Why do scientists use reasoning? 6

7 There are no quizzes, tests or exams for the introduction. 7

8 Lesson 1: Living and Nonliving Things Reading: Chapter 1 Exercises: Unit 1 Biochemical Basis of Life Chapter 1: Biology and You & Chapter 2: Chemistry of Life Fill in the following chart about living and nonliving things. Put a check in the box as to whether it refers to living or nonliving. 1. Grows 2. Breathes 3. Uses energy 4. Reproduces 5. Repairs 6. Talks 7. Responds 8. Adapts 9. Moves 10. Complex Living Nonliving 8

9 Matching: Match the following words with the following phrases. (Letters will only be used once) 1. collection of matter enclosed by a barrier 2. a caterpillar changing into a butterfly 3. maintaining an internal balance 4. building up or breaking down of materials 5. organisms that change over time 6. increase in an organism s size 7. production of new organisms 8. plant going through the process of photosynthesis a) evolution b) cells c) metabolism d) reproduction e) energy use f) growth g) development h) homeostasis Match the following characteristic of life with the illustration. a) energy use c) growth and development b) reproduction d) response to environment

10 Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I Unit 01 Chapter 1 Lesson 1 Quiz After reviewing the exercise and quiz, please take the following (online): Biology I Unit 1 Chapter Test 10

11 Lesson 2: Nature of Matter Reading: Chapter 2 Exercise: Covalent Bond Ionic Bond Describe a covalent bond. (Give 2 examples) Describe an ionic bond. (Give 2 examples) Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 1, Chapter 2, Lesson 2 Quiz 11

12 Lesson 3: Water and Solutions Reading: Chapter 2 Exercises: Multiple Choice 1. Your body contains percent water? a. 25% c. 70 % b. 50% d. 90% 2. Sweating helps carry heat away from the body to maintain a. homeostasis c. adhesion b. cohesion d. polarity 3. The attraction between substances is a. adhesion c. capillary action b. cohesion d. polarity 4. The action of molecules moving upward through a narrow tube such as a stem of a plant is an example of a. cohesion c. capillary action b. adhesion d. polarity 5. The mixture of one or two substances that are evenly distributed is polarity adhesion c. polarity d. solution 6. The following characteristic of water enables many substances to dissolve in water. a. solution c. capillary action b. polarity d. cohesion 12

13 7. The following molecules do not dissolve well in water a. polar c. ions b. nonpolar d. heavy 8. Cohesion links the hydrogen bonds in water and causes a condition known as polarity homeostasis c. surface tension d. capillary action 9. Which of the following does not dissolve well in water? a. blood c. oil b. sugar d. salt 10. Water is important because a. cells are filled with water c. water moves nutrients in and out of cells b. cells are surrounded by water d. all of the above Match the following: 1. surface tension 2. capillary action 3. dissolved sugar water 4. opposite charges 5. cells maintain constant temperature a. polarity b. homeostasis c. adhesion d. cohesion e. solution Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 1, Chapter 2, Lesson 3 Quiz 13

14 Lesson 4: Water and Solutions Reading: Chapter 2 Exercise: Fill in the following ph scale chart. Put a check in the box referring to whether the item is an acid, base or neutral. (Refer to the illustration below) Item Acid Base Neutral Toothpaste Lemon Distilled Water Milk Tomato Stomach (inside) Acids=0-6 Neutrals=7 Bases=8-14 Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 1, Chapter 2, Lesson 4 Quiz 14

15 Lesson 5: Chemistry of Cells Reading: Chapter 2 Exercise: Fill in the following chart about organic compounds. Organic Compound Carbohydrates Common Name Elements Examples Use Carbon, Hydrogen, and Oxygen Lipids Proteins Enzymes, also found in Skin, Hair, Nails Fatty Acids, Triglycerides, Waxes, Steroids Builds and Repairs Cells Nucleic Acids Carbon, Hydrogen, Oxygen, Nitrogen, Phosphate Stores and Transmits Genetic Information Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 1, Chapter 2, Lesson 5 Quiz 15

16 Lesson 6: Energy and Chemical Reactions Reading: Chapter 2 Exercise: True or False 1. When a person uses food as a source of energy to run a race, the energy is converted from mechanical to chemical energy. 2. Energy is defined as the ability to move or change matter. 3. All living things require a source of energy to carry out life processes. 4. The amount of energy needed to cause a chemical reaction to start is called reactivation energy. 5. Without enzymes, chemical reactions necessary for life would not occur at a rate sufficient to sustain life. 6. Carbohydrates speed up chemical reactions by increasing the activation energy of the reaction. 7. The molecule on which an enzyme acts is called a substrate. 8. Reducing activation energy is accomplished by the action of catalysts on reactants. 9. The portion of an enzyme molecule into which an specific substrate can fit is called the active site. 10. The following conditions affects the function of enzymes; ph, heat and enzyme concentration. 11. A cell contains thousands of different kinds of enzymes. 12. Enzymes are not able to lower activation energy of a reaction. 13. Chemical reactions that occur in cells are called biochemical reactions. 14. Energy is defined as the ability to move or change matter. 16

17 Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 1, Chapter 2, Lesson 6 Quiz After reviewing the exercises and quizzes, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 1, Chapter 2 Test CONGRATULATIONS!!! You have finished all lessons, quizzes and tests for Chapters 1 & 2. Please review the material and take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 1 Exam Once you have completed the Unit 1 Exam, please take the following (online): Biology I Midterm Exam 17

18 Lesson 1: Cell Features Reading: Chapter 3 Exercise: Biology I Unit 2 - The Cell Chapter 3: Cell Structure Chapter 4: Cells and Their Environment Chapter 6: Chromosomes and Cell Reproduction Chapter 7: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Chapter 20: Introduction to the Kingdoms of Life True or False: in the space provided write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false 1. Robert Hooke observed cork cells under a microscope. 2. Anton van Leeuwenhoek concluded that all plants are composed of cells. 3. Resolution is a microscope s power to increase an object s apparent size. 4. Viewing details of very small objects requires a microscope with good magnification as well as good resolution. 5. All cells come from existing cells. 6. The basic unit of structure and function in an organism is an atom. 7. The size to which a cell can grow is limited by its location. 8. The cells of animals are prokaryotic. 9. All living things that are not bacteria are eukaryotes. 10. One difference between prokaryotes and eukaryotes is that prokaryotes do not have a nucleus. 11. A bacterium is an example of a prokaryote. 12. Eukaryotic cells contain organelles that perform specific functions. 13. Robert Hooke developed the cell theory. 18

19 14. The 3 main parts of the cell are the cell membrane, cytoplasm and nucleus. 15. The smallest and simplest cells are eukaryotes. 16. Modern prokaryotes are called viruses. 17. Bacteria have a cell wall surrounding the cell membrane. 18. Short hairlike structures that protrude from some eukaryotic cells are called cilia. 19. Microtubules are long hollow tubes found in the cytoplasm and function to help support the cell. 20. The cytoskeleton is composed of protein fibers called microtubules and microfilaments. A. B. Refer to the illustrations above and write the correct letter next to the following statements. 21. Prokaryotic cell 22. Has a nucleus 23. Bacteria 24. Animal cell 25. Least complex 19

20 Lesson 2: Cell Features & Cell Organelles Reading: Chapter 3 Exercises: Plant Cell Refer to the illustration above. Match the following organelle with the correct number. a. cell membrane g. nucleolus b. cell wall h. vacuole c. cytoplasm i. chloroplast d. nucleus j. rough endoplasmic reticulum e. mitochondria k. smooth endoplasmic reticulum f. golgi apparatus l. ribosomes

21 Animal Cell Refer to the illustration above. Match the following organelles with the correct number. a. cell membrane f. microtubules k. ribosome b. nucleus g. cytoplasm c. nucleolus h. mitochondria d. rough e. r. i. lysosome e. smooth e. r. j. golgi apparatus

22 Lesson 3: Cell Structure Biology I Reading: Refer to Chapter 3 to identify the parts of the cell. Exercises: Materials/Resources: The Incredible Edible Cell Lab Knox gelatin, water, plastic sandwich bags (zipper), Chinese noodles, kidney beans, sprinkles, spaghetti noodles, Oreos, green beans, gum ball, gelatin, and 2 plastic bags per group. Objective: To create and observe cell bags to determine likeness to cell organelles. Ingredients: 1. Knox gelatin 2. Water 3. Plastic sandwich bags (zipper) 4. The following ingredients Chinese noodles=endoplasmic reticulum Kidney beans=mitochondria Sprinkles=ribosomes Spaghetti noodles=microtubules Oreo=nucleus Green beans=golgi apparatus Gum ball=lysosome Gelatin=cytoplasm 2 Plastic bags = cell membrane 22

23 Procedure: Mix Knox in cold water. Warm gelatin in microwave and stir well. Place one bag inside another and pour 1-2 cups gelatin. Add ingredients. (noodles, sprinkles, etc.) Place in refrigerator over night. Lab Activity: Observe gelatin bags and write down 10 observations about size, shape, etc. Create a key with the name of the food ingredient and the corresponding cell part Observations:

24

25 Cell Organelles and Function Match the following organelles with their function. 1. controls cell activities 2. site of protein synthesis 3. digests worn out cell parts 4. contains genetic material 5. made of cellulose, support 6. animal cells outer boundary 7. prepares proteins for secretion 8. transports materials throughout cell. 9. short extensions for movement 10. stores water in plant cells 11. stores green pigment 12. long whip-like extensions for movement 13. outer boundary of nucleus 14. gel-like material inside the cell a. ribosome b. cell membrane c. cilia d. chloroplast e. cytoplasm f. nucleus g. microtubules, microfilaments h. flagella i. golgi apparatus j. cell wall k. vacuole l. lysosomem. m. nuclear membrane n. endoplasmic reticulum o. chromosome 15. makes up the cytoskeleton 25

26 Cell Function Each drawing below represents a specific function performed by a structure in a single cell. Select the structure from the list below that best relates to each drawing. Write the letter of the structure on the line provided. a. nucleus d. vacuole g. ribosome b. nuclear membrane e. chloroplast h. lysosome c. chromosome f. endoplasmic reticulum i. mitochondrion brain protein fence power plant leaves meat grinder policeman tank sailboats

27 Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 2, Chapter 3, Lessons 1-3 Quiz After reviewing the exercises and quizzes, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 2, Chapter 3 Test 27

28 Lesson 4: Cell Organization Reading: Refer to the following chapters to answer the concept map on Cellular Organization Cells Chapter 3 Tissues- Chapter 20 Organs Chapter 20 Organ Systems -20 Exercise: 28

29 There is no quiz for this lesson. 29

30 Lesson 5: Passive Transport & Active Transport Reading: Chapter 4 Exercises: Materials/Resources: For the Diffusion Lab: Cell Diffusion Lab Cornstarch, iodine, water, inexpensive plastic sandwich bags, bread and rubber bands. Summary: Students will use bags as cell models and demonstrate diffusion. Observations: Materials: Have students observe the properties of iodine solution. (liquid, tan colored) Have students observe what happens to the color of iodine as it comes in contact with starch in the form of bread. (The iodine turns black in the presence of starch it is an indicator of starch. How might a bag be like a cell? (It can hold things like a cell. The bag would be the cell membrane.) For use by the class: Box of cornstarch and iodine solution For each group of students: small plastic bags, small rubber, bands, 1 - cup measuring cup, scissors, 600 ml beaker, access to warm and lukewarm water Safety concerns: Teachers and students, be sure to keep all Glass, Chemical, and Sharp instrument Safety Rules that are specified by the teacher and in all general laboratory experiences. 30

31 Student Procedures: 1. Add one teaspoon of cornstarch to 1 cup of water. Stir until the cornstarch is dissolved. 2. Pour the mixture into a small plastic bag. Wrap a rubber band around the top of the bag to seal the bag. 3. Pour 100 ml of warm water into a 600 ml beaker. 4. Carefully place the bag with the cornstarch water into the 600 ml beaker. 5. Let it set for a few minutes and observe what happens. 6. Answer the following questions: Why did the water inside the bag turn black? What part of the cell is the bag like? Which process occurred, diffusion or osmosis? Did the starch move out of the bag? How do you know? Extension: Are there any other indicators that could be used to show the diffusion of particles across the bag wall? Does the temperature of the water affect how long it takes for the iodine to move into the cell? 31

32 Transport Through The Cell Membrane Multiple Choice: Answer the following multiple choice questions. Write your answer in the space provided. 1. In diffusion, a substance tens to move a) against the concentration gradient c) independent of concentration b) from lower to higher concentrations d) down the gradient 2. When the concentration of a substance is the same throughout space a) equilibrium c) not moving b) homeostasis d) in a gradient 3. If a cell swells when placed in a solution a) it is hypertonic c) it is isotonic b) it is hypotonic d) none of the above 4. Substances enter and leave a cell through the a) cell wall c) nuclear membrane b) cell membrane d) nuclear envelope 5. Which of the following is not an example of active transport? a) sodium-potassium pump c) exocytosis b) endocytosis d) osmosis 6. Myasthenia Gravis is caused by a) a virus c) immune system attacks muscle cells b) a bacterial infection d) a fungal infection 7. The type of diffusion in which the cell moves substances down their concentration gradient without using the cell s energy a) ion channel c) sodium-potassium pump b) facilitated diffusion d) endocytosis 32

33 8. The type of transport through the cell membrane against the concentration gradient that requires energy a) osmosis c) passive transport b) diffusion d) active transport 9. The protein that binds to a specific signal molecule, enabling the cell to respond to the signal molecule. a) messenger c) second messenger b) receptor protein d) carrier protein 10. Movement of molecules in and out of the cell using vesicles that form a pouch a) endocytosis c) both a and b b) exocytosis d) none of the above 33

34 Cell Membrane Label the cell membrane. (may be used more than once) a) protein d) tail f) phospholipid b) head e) hydrophobic layer g) carbohydrate c) hydrophilic layer Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 2, Chapter 4, Lesson 5 Quiz After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 2, Chapter 4 Test 34

35 Lesson 6: Chromosomes and Cell Reproduction Reading: Chapter 6 Exercise:.Chromosomes and Mitosis Multiple Choice: In the space provided, write the letter of the term or phrase that best completes each statement or best answers each question. 1. As a cell begins to divide, a DNA molecule and its proteins coil to for a a) chromatid c) chromosome b) gene d) centromere 2. The number of chromosomes found in a human body cell is a) 23 c) 48 b) 24 d) The name for a diploid cell that has an extra chromosome is a) monosomy c) disomy b) disjunction d) trisomy 4. The sex of the offspring is determined by a) the male c) the grandfather b) the female d) the grandmother 5. Asexual reproduction in Bacteria is called a) meiosis c) binary fission b) mitosis d) budding 6. The following is the sequence of growth and division through which many cells pass a) the cell cycle c) budding b) binary fission d) meiosis 35

36 7. Which of the following is NOT one of the stages of mitosis? a) interphase c) telophase b) metaphase d) prophase 8. Normal cells change into cancer cells through a) gene mutations c) radiation b) viruses d) all of the above 9. A short segment of DNA that codes for a particular protein is a) a chromatid c) a centromere b) a chromosome d) a gene 10. The number of body chromosomes found in a human cell a) 22 c) 46 b) 23 d) 48 36

37 Cell Cycle 37

38 Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 2, Chapter 6, Lesson 6 Quiz After reviewing the exercises and quiz, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 2, Chapter 6 Test 38

39 Lesson 7: Meiosis and Sexual Reproduction Reading: Chapter 7 Exercise: Fill in the following blanks with the correct answer about Meiosis. 39

40 Lesson 8: Mitosis & Meiosis Reading: Refer to Chapter 6 and Chapter 7. Exercises: Match the following as either: a) mitosis c) both mitosis and meiosis b) meiosis d) neither mitosis or meiosis 1. cell division 2. asexual cell division 3. diploid cells 4. carbohydrates 5. centromeres divide 6. body cells 7. sperm cells 9. division of chromosomes 10. sexual cell division 11. haploid cells stages of cell division 13. telophase II 14. sex cells 15. muscle cells 8. cytokinesis Match the following as either: a) egg c) both egg and sperm b) sperm d) neither egg or sperm 1. male 2. determines the sex of the child 3. oogenesis 4. gametes 5. polar body 40

41 Match the following as either: a) sexual reproduction b) asexual reproduction 1. involves sperm and eggs 2. body cells 3. sex cells 4. diploid 5. half the number of chromosomes Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 2, Chapters 7, Lessons 7-8 Quiz After reviewing the lessons and quizzes, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 2, Chapter 7 Test CONGRATULATIONS!!! You have finished all lessons, quizzes and tests for Chapters 3, 4, 6, 7, & 20. Please review the material and take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 2 Exam 41

42 Unit 3 - Cellular Energy Chapter 5: Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Lesson 1: Energy and Living Things Reading: Chapter 5 Exercises: True or False: in the space provided write T if the statement is true and F if the statement is false. 1. Heterotrophs obtain chemical energy used in metabolism from autotrophs. 2. All organisms need energy to carry on life processes. 3. Autotrophic organisms use light energy to make organic compounds. 4. Some of the energy in sunlight is captured and used to make organic compounds. 5. Energy moves through food chains from heterotrophs to autotrophs. 6. Most plants are autotrophic. 7. Animals that live exclusively by eating other animals are able to use carbohydrates to fuel their life processes. 8. Most animals are heterotrophic. 9. ATP is a nucleotide with several carbohydrate groups. 10. In ATP, two phosphate groups branch from a 4-carbon sugar. 11. Photosynthesis is a process that takes place in most autotrophs. 12. The major light-absorbing pigment in plants is chlorophyll. 13. When light hits a plant, all of the wavelengths of light are absorbed by chlorophyll. 14. The abundance of oxygen in the atmosphere is partly due to photosynthesis. 42

43 15. The electron transport chain produces molecules that temporarily store energy in the cell. 16. The most common method of carbon dioxide fixation is the electron transport chain. 17. The reactions that fix carbon dioxide is sometimes called the light reaction. 18. Glycolysis breaks down glucose into two pyruvates. 19. Glycolysis is carried out in the cytoplasm of cells. 20. Aerobic respiration must follow Glycolysis if a cell is to maximize its ATP production. 21. Oxygen is not needed for aerobic respiration. 22. The final electron acceptor in aerobic respiration is oxygen. 23. If oxygen is absent during the second stage of cellular respiration, fermentation will occur. 24. Lactic acid fermentation is a type of anaerobic process. 25. Carbon dioxide produced by yeast used in the rising of bread takes place under aerobic conditions. Multiple Choice: answer the following multiple choice questions. Write your answers in the space provided. 1. Photosynthetic organisms get their energy from a) inorganic substances c) heterotrophs b) light d) autotrophs 2. Identify the correct sequences of energy. a) bacteria, fungus, rabbit c) sun, grass, rabbit, fox b) bacteria, sun, flower, deer d) sun, bacteria, hawk, mouse 43

44 3. ATP molecules Biology I a) produce NADPH c) contain five phosphate groups b) can store energy and provide d) help a plant produce carbon dioxide metabolic reactions 4. In glycolysis, a) glucose is produced c) four ADP molecules are produced b) four ATP molecules are produced d) aerobic processes occur 5. Carbon dioxide fixation in the Calvin cycle requires a) ATP and NADPH c) ADP and NADPH b) ATP and NADP+ d) ATP and oxygen 6. The following equation summarizes which of the following processes 3CO 2 + 3H 2 O C 3 H 6 O 3 + 3O 2 a) cellular respiration c) the Calvin Cycle b) photosynthesis d) the Krebs Cycle 7. Which of the following environmental factors does NOT directly influence the rate of photosynthesis? a) light intensity c) temperature b) oxygen concentration d) carbon dioxide concentration 8. For each molecule of glucose entering glycolysis, there is net gain of a) two ATP molecules c) four ATP molecules b) three ATP molecules d) six ATP molecules 9. Which of the following is NOT a fuel used for cellular respiration? a) fats c) proteins b) water d) carbohydrates 10. Because of photosynthesis, a) the atmosphere is rich in oxygen gas c) plants produce carbon dioxide b) animals get energy directly from d) all of the above the sun 44

45 11. The source of oxygen produced during photosynthesis is a) air c) carbon dioxide b) glucose d) water 12. During photosynthesis, the series of reactions that create the carbohydrates needed for energy and growth is called a) Calvin cycle c) Electron transport chain b) Krebs cycle d) none of the above 13. Low temperatures may cause photosynthesis to occur a) more slowly c) at a constant rate b) more quickly d) none of the above 14. Which of the following is NOT part of cellular respiration? a) Krebs cycle c) glycolysis b) Calvin cycle d) electron transport 15. Water is an end product in a) lactic acid fermentation c) alcoholic fermentation b) Krebs cycle d) electron transport chain 16. If oxygen is absent during the second stage of cellular respiration, a) glycolysis stops c) Krebs cycle begins b) electron transport chain works d) fermentation will occur more efficiently 17. The process that takes place when organic compounds are broken down in the absence of oxygen is a) respiration c) oxidation b) fermentation d) all of the above 45

46 18. The total amount of ATP that a cell gains for each glucose molecule depends on the presence of a) water c) carbon dioxide b) glucose d) oxygen 19. Chlorophyll is green because a) it absorbs green wavelengths of light b) it absorbs blue and yellow wavelengths, which make green c) it is an optical illusion d) it reflects all green wavelengths of light 20. The process in which plants capture energy and make organic molecules is known as a) development c) photosynthesis b) cellular respiration d) protein synthesis 21. The major by-product of photosynthesis that is released into the air is a) oxygen c) carbon dioxide b) nitrogen d) water 22. Chemical energy stored in food molecules is released through a) cellular respiration c) protein synthesis b) photosynthesis d) none of the above 23. Most autotrophs obtain the energy they need for metabolism through a) eating food c) photosynthesis b) cellular respiration d) fermentation 24. The following enables plants to convert light energy to chemical energy a) proton pumps c) sodium-potassium pump b) sugar channels d) protein synthesis 46

47 25. During the first stage of photosynthesis, what is absorbed by chlorophyll? a) oxygen c) nitrogen b) light energy d) water 47

48 Lesson 2: Cellular Respiration Reading: Chapter 5 Exercise: Matching: in the space provided write the letter that relates to either aerobic or anaerobic respiration. a) aerobic b) anaerobic 1. without air 2. does require oxygen 3. glycolysis 4. with air 5. pyruvate 6. NADH 7. Acetyl-CoA 8. electron transport chain 9. Carbon dioxide is released forming a five carbon compound 10. Krebs cycle 48

49 Performance Opportunity: After reviewing the exercises, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 3, Chapters 5, Lesson 1-2 Quiz After reviewing the lessons and quizzes, please take the following (online): Biology I, Unit 3, Chapter 5 Test CONGRATULATIONS!!! You have finished all lessons, quizzes and test for Chapter 5. Please review the material and take the following (online): Biology I Final Exam 49

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