NOTES: CELLS. All cells have as well as unique functions and features. In this lesson we will focus on the similarities in the cell.

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1 NOTES: CELLS Name Introduction to the Cell The is the smallest unit of life. The adult human body is made up of. For example, there are, just to name a few. Just like our bodies contain different organs, cells contain different parts called. By understanding the functions and parts of a single cell, scientists are able to better understand the workings of. They use this knowledge to try to improve life. In recent years researchers have been studying and are considering how to use them to, such as heart disease and Parkinson s disease. are already being treated with stem cells donated from healthy donors. In the future, stem cells may be used to. It can be hard to imagine how much activity goes on in a cell, but using an analogy can help. Think of the cell as a. This will help you understand how the various organelles within the cell, and about their individual functions and responsibilities. Just as all the bits of machinery in a factory work together, so do. All cells have as well as unique functions and features. In this lesson we will focus on the similarities in the cell. The Brains of the Cell Nucleus Largest Organelle. Surrounded by a (the nuclear envelope). Membrane has through which larger molecules pass (Nuclear Pores). ( ). Contains a fluid called the nucleoplasm. Contains (DNA strands which form chromosomes during cell division).

2 Nucleolus Dark region in the Nucleoplasm. One or more found in the nucleus. Site where (rrna) is produced or stored. Involved in interactions between the nucleus and the cytoplasm Chromatin The of the cell. Condenses to form chromosomes during cell division. Composed of Protein and DNA Chromosomes Rod - shaped bodies in the nucleus, particularly during cell division. Contains the ( ). Condensed chromatin Each eukaryotic species has a characteristic number of chromosomes. A typical human cell has chromosomes, but sex cells (eggs and sperm) have only chromosomes. Cytoplasm A substance, which can change from the solid to the liquid state with the addition of heat or change in metabolic activity.. Cell Membrane or Plasma Membrane Composed of (fats with Phosphorous). Acts as around the cells contents. Acts as a to allow movement of materials of the cell. Located around the outside of the cell. Single membrane around organelles within the cell including the vacuoles, lysosomes, E.R., Golgi Apparatus. Double membrane around the nucleus and mitochondria.

3 Smooth Endoplasmic Reticulum System of interconnected flattened tubes, sacs, or canals. Begins at the nuclear envelope and branches throughout the cytoplasm to the cell membrane. Moves molecules from one area to another. Location of. Cells that produce have abundant smooth ER. Section of both types of ER can break free "blebbing" to produce small membrane bound sacs of either proteins or lipids called vesicles. Also seems to have other enzymes in the smooth ER of the that help and. These include alcohol and barbiturates. Frequent exposure to toxic molecules leads to the proliferation of smooth ER, increasing tolerance to the target and other drugs. Amount of ER in a cell depending on the cell's activity. Rough ER Like Smooth ER, but with attached. Abundant in cells that produce large amounts of for export from the cell. Golgi Body or Golgi Apparatus Stack of a half dozen or more flattened sacs. On one side receives protein-filled vesicles from the E.R. at the other side. From here the vesicles move to different locations in the cell. Many transport vesicles from the ER travel to the Golgi apparatus for of their contents. The Golgi is a center of. The Golgi apparatus is especially extensive in cells specialized for.

4 Vacuoles and Vesicles Storage area for. - a small vacuole Storage site for various kinds of molecules Can be made by the Golgi Apparatus or from an in-folding of the cell membrane Lysosomes Special vacuoles formed by the golgi body (double membrane). Contains powerful used to entering the cell or organelles that are of no further use (autodigestion). Several inherited diseases affect lysosomal metabolism. These individuals lack a functioning version of a normal hydrolytic enzyme. These diseases include Pompe's disease in the liver and Tay-Sachs disease in the brain. Ribosomes Contain subunits. Function as sites for. Found on E.R. (proteins for export) or in the cytoplasm (proteins for use in the cell). Mitochondria Burn glucose to produce (ATP). Use up oxygen an give off carbon dioxide(this process is called cellular respiration). Equation for : Composed of two membranes.

5 Considered the of the cell. The inner membranes loop back and forth through the inner fluid, matrix, of the mitochondria increasing its surface area and producing shelf-like structures called. This inner membrane is the site of cellular respiration. Cytoskeleton Provides to maintain the, anchor the organelles, and allow them to move when appropriate. Composed of and. Cilia Short, numerous, that are used for by many unicellular organisms. Membrane-bound collections of microtubules Flagella Like cilia but can be much. Also for of organisms and gametes (sperm). Plant and Animal Cells As you worked through the last topic, you may have recalled some differences between plant and animal cells: In plants, the surrounds the entire cell and provides support and protection. Plants are able to stand upright because of their cell walls. Animal cells do not have a cell wall. Plant cells have. Chloroplasts are involved in. Plants use this process to make their own using light energy, carbon dioxide, and water. Plant cells have a much than animal cells ( ). This large vacuole helps support the cell by creating pressure against the cell wall.

6 Prokaryotic Cells - Primitive (simple) cells Do not contain a or many, other than, because prokaryotic cells lack internal membranes. The only known Kingdom to consist of prokaryotic cells is the Monera ( ). Eukaryotic Cells - Complex cells Have a. Contains. Each organelle carries out a certain function. Examples of Eukaryotic cells include. Prokaryotic cells are considered to be because the chemical reactions occur all over the cytoplasm rather than in

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