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1 Biology I Cellular Respiration Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY! Now, we need a place to disassemble the molecule and release all that stored up energy we put in it during. Where does this occur (which organelle)? Where do we find this organelle? What types of cells would we find lots of these organelles in? Animals, including humans get most of their from the food they. The energy in is stored in proteins, carbohydrates, and fats. Our cells transfer in organic compounds, especially glucose, to ATP through. So, we ate a meal of spaghetti. Spaghetti contains lots of. As we digest spaghetti, these carbohydrates get. What types of organisms undergo cellular respiration? Step 1 of Cellular Respiration is Glycolysis means to split glycogen The primary fuel for cellular respiration is Glucose is formed when, like starch and glucose, are broken down. o If not enough carbohydrates are consumed, organisms can break down to make ATP gram of fat releases more energy than grams of carbohydrates do o Proteins and nucleic acids can be used too but the cell uses them to other cell parts

2 OK.. So.. Now for the steps of glycolysis Having fun yet?? Glycolysis occurs in the Step 1 Breaking Down Glucose ATP molecules help break down glucose into two smaller units A from is added to the 6-carbon compound o Now, the molecule is reactive An enzyme will now break it into two 3-carbon sugars, each with a phosphate group Step 2 NADH Production Each 3-carbon compound reacts with another group (not from ATP) As they (3-carbon compounds) react further, atoms including their electrons are to two molecules of NAD+ o This produces two molecules of the electron carrier, NADH is used in other cell processes Step 3 Pyruvate Production 3-carbon is converted into a 3-carbon molecule of o Process produces ATP molecules In glycolysis, there is a net gain of ATP molecules is the starting material in glycolysis. There are three products. What are the three products? Use figure 11 on page 209 to assist you. The only source of energy for some is glycolysis Glycolysis is an process Anaerobic means? Some organisms use oxygen to release even more energy from glucose. These processes are aerobic. Aerobic means? How are the products of photosynthesis and cellular respiration related?

3 Aerobic Respiration requires The Krebs cycle requires The Krebs cycle converts from glycolysis into & Pyruvate releases a molecule to form a 2-carbon compound o An enzyme attaches this 2-carbon compound to a 4-carbon compound forms a 6-carbon compound The 6-carbon compound releases one carbon dioxide molecule, and then another o is released each time This energy forms an electron carrier, The remaining 4-carbon compound is converted back to the 4-carbon compound that began the cycle o Conversion takes place in a series of steps that produce ATP, then FADH2, and another NADH The 4-carbon compound combines with a new 2-carbon unit from pyruvate to continue the cycle Products of the Krebs cycle Each time the carbon-carbon bonds are rearranged or broken, is released o Total yield from one time through Krebs Cycle is one, three, and one o Electron carriers energy through the electron transport chain, which powers ATP synthase Electron Transport Chain The 2 nd stage of the aerobic respiration is the This takes place in the inner membranes of the 1. The carried by NADH and FADH2 pass through electron transport chain Energy is transferred into each molecule through which the electrons pass Some of the molecules are hydrogen ion pumps 2. Energy from the electrons is used to transport hydrogen ions, out of the inner mitochondrial compartment

4 As H+ accumulate in the outer compartment, a across the inner membrane is created 3. Hydrogen ions through on the inner membrane of the mitochondria Movement provides energy Energy is used to produce several ATP molecules from ADP 4. An oxygen atom with these electrons and two H+ ions to form two water molecules If oxygen is not present, the ETC. Electron carriers cannot be So Krebs cycle also stops Without oxygen, a cell can produce ATP only by So let s review All of the above for what yield?? 1 ATP, 3 NADH, and 1 FADH2. That s a crazy amount of work for what seems like very little energy.. Especially crazy when you know learn the next statement Just so you know The human body uses about 1 million molecules of ATP per cell per second. There are more than 100 trillion cells in the human body. That s about 100,000,000,000,000,000,000 ATP molecules used in your body each second.. OK.. Now we move on to fermentation Fermentation uses the pyruvate that was formed in glycolysis to further break down carbohydrates in the absence of oxygen Think back.. What does the electron transport chain require? The two ATP molecules and one molecule of the electron carrier NADH needs to transfer electrons to convert pyruvate into ATP. In the absence of oxygen, there must be another way This way is fermentation There are two types of fermentation: lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation

5 Lactic Acid Fermentation Pyruvate is converted to Occurs in cells during vigorous exercise o During vigorous exercise, cells go with little or no o becomes only source of ATP as long as glucose lasts Alcoholic Fermentation An removes carbon dioxide from the 3-carbon pyruvate to form a 2- carbon molecule A second enzyme adds electrons and hydrogen from NADH to the molecule to form In both lactic acid fermentation and alcoholic fermentation, is recycled to be used in glycolysis again.

6 Using the above image, answer the following questions. What is necessary for cellular respiration to occur? What happens next?. This process nets ATP What is the product of glycolysis? In the presence of oxygen, what happens next? then, In the absence of oxygen, what happens after the production of pyruvate? What are the two types of fermentation and what are their products? If after the Krebs cycle is complete, oxygen becomes unavailable, what happens? (page 211) If oxygen is still available after the Krebs cycle is complete, how many total ATP can be produced by the Krebs cycle and electron transport chain collectively?. Now include glycolysis as well.. Efficiency of Cellular Respiration The total amount of ATP produced in cellular respiration depends on the presence or absence of In the first stage of cellular respiration, is broken down to during glycolysis Glycolysis is an process o Results in net gain of ATP In the second stage of cellular respiration, pyruvate either passes through the or undergoes When oxygen is not present, occurs The NAD+ that is recycled during fermentation allows glycolysis to continue producing ATP Cells release energy most efficiently when is present For each molecule of glucose, ATP molecules are produced during the. The Krebs cycle feeds NADH and FADH2 to the o Electron transport chain can produce up to ATP molecules

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