Chapter 9 Mitochondrial Structure and Function

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 9 Mitochondrial Structure and Function"

Transcription

1 Chapter 9 Mitochondrial Structure and Function

2 1 2 3 Structure and function Oxidative phosphorylation and ATP Synthesis Peroxisome Overview 2

3 Mitochondria have characteristic morphologies despite variable appearance. Typical mitochondria are beanshaped organelles but may be round or threadlike. The size and number of mitochondria reflect the energy requirements of the cell. Structure and Function 3

4 The balance between fusion and fission is likely a major determinant of mitochondrial number, length, and degree of interconnection. Fusion and Fission 4

5 Inner and outer mitochondrial membranes enclose two spaces: the matrix and intermembrane space. The outer mitochondrial membrane serves as its outer boundary. The inner mitochondrial membrane is subdivided into two interconnected domains: Inner boundary membrane Cristae where the machinery for ATP is located Mitochondrial Structure 5

6 The outer membrane is about 50%; the inner membrane is more than 75% protein. The inner membrane contains cardiolipin but not cholesterol, both are true of bacterial membranes. The outer membrane contains a large poreforming protein called porin. The inner membrane is impermeable to even small molecules; the outer membrane is permeable to even some proteins. Mitochondrial Membranes 6

7 Contains a circular DNA molecule, ribosomes, and enzymes. RNA and proteins can be synthesized in the matrix. The mitochondrial matrix 7

8 OXIDATIVE METABOLISM Role of Mitochondria in the Formation of ATP 8

9 Overview of carbohydrate metabolism in eukaryotic cells 9

10 The first steps in oxidative metabolism Glycolysis produces pyruvate, NADH, and two molecules of ATP. Aerobic organisms use O2 to extract more than 30 additional ATPs from pyruvate and NADH. Pyruvate is transported across the inner membrane and decarboxylated to form acetyl CoA, which enters the next stage. Glycolysis 10

11 It is a stepwise cycle where substrate is oxidized and its energy conserved. The two-carbon acetyl group from acetyl CoA is condensed with the four-carbon oxaloacetate to form a six-carbon citrate. During the cycle, two carbons are oxidized to CO2, regenerating the four-carbon oxaloacetate needed to continue the cycle. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle 11

12 Four reactions in the cycle transfer a pair of electrons to NAD+ to form NADH, or to FAD+ to form FADH2. Reaction intermediates in the TCA cycle are common compounds generated in other catabolic reactions making the TCA cycle the central metabolic pathway of the cell. Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle 12

13 The reduced coenzymes FADH2 and NADH are the primary products of the TCA cycle. NADH formed during glycolysis enters the mitochondria via malate-aspartate or glycerol phosphate shuttles. As electrons move through the electrontransport chain, H + are pumped out across the inner membrane. Reduced Coenzymes 13

14 ATP is formed by the controlled movement of H+ back across the membrane through the ATPsynthesizing enzyme. The coupling of H + translocation to ATP synthesis is called chemiosmosis. Three molecules of ATP are formed from each pair of electrons donated by NADH; two molecules of ATP are formed from each pair of electrons donated by FADH2. Reduced Coenzymes 14

15 Strong oxidizing agents have a high affinity for electrons; strong reducing agents have a weak affinity for electrons Redox reactions are accompanied by a decrease in free energy. The transfer of electrons causes charge separation that can be measured as a redox potential. Oxidation-Reduction (Redox) Potentials 15

16 Flavoproteins are polypeptides bound to either FAD or FMN. Cytochromes contain heme groups bearing Fe or Cu metal ions. Three cooper atoms are located within a single protein complex and alternate between Cu2+/Cu3+ Ubiquinone (coenzyme Q) is a lipid-soluble molecule made of five-carbon isoprenoid units. Iron-sulfur proteins contain Fe in association with inorganic sulfur. Electron Carriers 16

17 Electron-Transport Complexes 17

18 Complex I (NADH dehydrogenase) catalyzes transfer of electrons from NADH to ubiquinone and transports four H+ per pair. Complex II (succinate dehydrogenase) catalyzes transfer of electrons from succinate to FAD to ubiquinone without transport of H+. Complex III (cytochrome bc1) catalyzes the transfer of electrons from ubiquinone to cytochrome c and transports four H+ per pair. Electron-Transport Complexes 18

19 Complex IV (cytochrome c oxidase) catalyzes transfer of electrons to O2 and transports H+ across the inner membrane. Cytochrome oxidase is a large complex that adds four electrons to O2 to form two molecules of H2O. The metabolic poisons CO, N3 (nitride), and CN (cyanide) bind catalytic sites in Complex IV. Electron-Transport Complexes 19

20 Electrons are transferred one at a time. Energy released by O2 reduction is presumably used to drive conformational changes. These changes would promote the movement of H+ ions and through the protein. Cytochrome oxidase 20

21 Oxidative phosphorylation 21

22 The F1 particle is the catalytic subunit, and contains three catalytic sites for ATP synthesis. The F0 particle attaches to the F1 and is embedded in the inner membrane. The F0 base contains a channel through which protons are conducted from the inter-membrane space to the matrix. ATP synthase 22

23 Movement of protons through ATP synthase alters the binding affinity of the active site. Each active site goes through distinct conformations that have different affinities for substrates and product. Binding sites on the catalytic subunit can be tight, loose, or open. ATP is synthesized through rotational catalysis where the stalk of ATP synthase rotates relative to the head. There is structural and experimental evidence to support this mechanism Binding Change Mechanism 23

24 A variety of disorders are known that result from abnormalities in mitochondria structure/function. Majority of mutations linked to mitochondrial diseases are traced to mutations in mtdna. Mitochondrial disorders are inherited maternally. It is speculated that accumulations of mutations in mtdna is a major cause of aging. In mice encoding a mutation in their mtdna, signs of premature aging develop. Additional findings suggest that mutations in mtdna may cause premature aging but are not sufficient for the normal aging process. Diseases that Result from Abnormal Mitochondrial Function 24

25 PEROXISOMES 25

26 Oxidize very-longchain fatty acids Form by splitting from preexisting organelles, import preformed proteins, and engage in oxidative metabolism. Peroxisomes 26

27 Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2), a reactive and toxic compound, is formed in peroxisomes and is broken down by the enzyme catalase. Plants contain a special peroxisome called glyoxysome, which can convert fatty acids to glucose by germinating seedlings. Peroxisomes 27

28 Patients with Zellweger syndrome lack peroxisomal enzymes due to defects in translocation of proteins from the cytoplasm into the peroxisome. Adrenoleukodydstrophy is caused by lack of a peroxisomal enzyme, leading to fatty acid accumulation in the brain and destruction of the myelin sheath of nerve cells. Peroxisomal Dysfunction 28

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action Summary of Metabolism Mechanism of Enzyme Action 1. The substrate contacts the active site 2. The enzyme-substrate complex is formed. 3. The substrate molecule is altered (atoms are rearranged, or the

More information

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second

More information

Chem 306 Chapter 21 Bioenergetics Lecture Outline III

Chem 306 Chapter 21 Bioenergetics Lecture Outline III Chem 306 Chapter 21 Bioenergetics Lecture Outline III I. HOW IS ATP GENERATED IN THE FINAL STAGE CATABOLISM? A. OVERVIEW 1. At the end of the citric acid cycle, all six carbons of glucose have been oxidized

More information

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

Electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation & mitochondrial transport systems. Joško Ivica

Electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation & mitochondrial transport systems. Joško Ivica Electron transport chain, oxidative phosphorylation & mitochondrial transport systems Joško Ivica Electron transport chain & oxidative phosphorylation collects e - & -H Oxidation of foodstuffs oxidizes

More information

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration Phases of aerobic cellular respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Transition or Acetyl-CoA reaction 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport system Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration These phases are nothing more than metabolic

More information

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages:

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions The Calvin cycle 1. Capturing energy from sunlight 2. Using energy to make ATP and NADPH 3. Using ATP and

More information

What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme.

What affects an enzyme s activity? General environmental factors, such as temperature and ph. Chemicals that specifically influence the enzyme. CH s 8-9 Respiration & Metabolism Metabolism A catalyst is a chemical agent that speeds up a reaction without being consumed by the reaction. An enzyme is a catalytic protein. Hydrolysis of sucrose by

More information

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Overview of Glucose Breakdown The overall equation for the complete breakdown of glucose is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP The

More information

The amount of cellular adenine is constant. -It exists as either ATP, ADP, or AMP (the concentration of these vary)

The amount of cellular adenine is constant. -It exists as either ATP, ADP, or AMP (the concentration of these vary) Electron transport chain Final stage of aerobic oxidation! Also known as: -oxidative phosphorylation(when coupled to ATP synthase) -respiration (when coupled to ATP synthase) Purpose: -Recycle reduced

More information

Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation

Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation CHM333 LECTURES 37 & 38: 4/27 29/13 SPRING 2013 Professor Christine Hrycyna Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation Final stages of aerobic oxidation of biomolecules in eukaryotes occur in the

More information

ATP accounting so far ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN & CHEMIOSMOSIS. The Essence of ETC: The Electron Transport Chain O 2

ATP accounting so far ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN & CHEMIOSMOSIS. The Essence of ETC: The Electron Transport Chain O 2 accounting so far The final stage of cellular respiration: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN & CHEMIOSMOSIS Glycolysis 2 Kreb s cycle 2 Life takes a lot of energy to run, need to extract more energy than 4! There

More information

Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain

Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain 2006-2007 Cellular respiration What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP ATP accounting so far Glycolysis 2 ATP Kreb s cycle 2 ATP Life takes

More information

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration.

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. : Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture. Photosynthesis and cellular

More information

Oxidative Phosphorylation

Oxidative Phosphorylation Oxidative Phosphorylation NADH from Glycolysis must be transported into the mitochondrion to be oxidized by the respiratory electron transport chain. Only the electrons from NADH are transported, these

More information

21.8 The Citric Acid Cycle

21.8 The Citric Acid Cycle 21.8 The Citric Acid Cycle The carbon atoms from the first two stages of catabolism are carried into the third stage as acetyl groups bonded to coenzyme A. Like the phosphoryl groups in ATP molecules,

More information

Electron Transport System. May 16, 2014 Hagop Atamian hatamian@ucdavis.edu

Electron Transport System. May 16, 2014 Hagop Atamian hatamian@ucdavis.edu Electron Transport System May 16, 2014 Hagop Atamian hatamian@ucdavis.edu What did We learn so far? Glucose is converted to pyruvate in glycolysis. The process generates two ATPs. Pyruvate is taken into

More information

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Electrons carried in NADH Mitochondrion Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvic acid Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

More information

008 Chapter 8. Student:

008 Chapter 8. Student: 008 Chapter 8 Student: 1. Some bacteria are strict aerobes and others are strict anaerobes. Some bacteria, however, are facultative anaerobes and can live with or without oxygen. If given the choice of

More information

Chapter 19a Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation. Multiple Choice Questions

Chapter 19a Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation. Multiple Choice Questions Chapter 19a Oxidative Phosphorylation and Photophosphorylation Multiple Choice Questions 1. Electron-transfer reactions in mitochondria Page: 707 Difficulty: 1 Ans: E Almost all of the oxygen (O 2 ) one

More information

Copyright 2000-2003 Mark Brandt, Ph.D. 54

Copyright 2000-2003 Mark Brandt, Ph.D. 54 Pyruvate Oxidation Overview of pyruvate metabolism Pyruvate can be produced in a variety of ways. It is an end product of glycolysis, and can be derived from lactate taken up from the environment (or,

More information

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? A) Biotin participates in the decarboxylation.

More information

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term used for the metabolic pathway in which

More information

Chapter 14- RESPIRATION IN PLANTS

Chapter 14- RESPIRATION IN PLANTS Chapter 14- RESPIRATION IN PLANTS Living cells require a continuous supply of energy for maintaining various life activities. This energy is obtained by oxidizing the organic compounds (carbohydrates,

More information

Anabolic and Catabolic Reactions are Linked by ATP in Living Organisms

Anabolic and Catabolic Reactions are Linked by ATP in Living Organisms Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism Microbial Metabolism Metabolism refers to all chemical reactions that occur within a living a living organism. These chemical reactions are generally of two types: Catabolic:

More information

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Production of acetyl-coa (activated acetate) Page: 603 Difficulty: 2 Ans: A Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by

More information

Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase

Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase Pyruvic Acid Dehydrogenase Complex Pyruvate to ACETYL coa CC CoA + CO 2 Mitochondria 3 carbon Pyruvate to 2 carbon ACETYL Coenzyme A Pyruvate Acetyl CoA + CO 2 + NADH + H + CO2

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways Photoautotrophs make ATP during photosynthesis and use it to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates

More information

Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation. The Mitochondrion. Electron Transport. Oxidative Phosphorylation. Control of ATP Production

Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation. The Mitochondrion. Electron Transport. Oxidative Phosphorylation. Control of ATP Production Electron Transport and Oxidative Phosphorylation The Mitochondrion Electron Transport Oxidative Phosphorylation Control of ATP Production C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O G ' = -2823 kj. mol -1 C 6 H

More information

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman An Introduction to Metabolism Most biochemical processes occur as biochemical pathways, each individual reaction of which is catalyzed

More information

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes

1. Enzymes. Biochemical Reactions. Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism. 1. Enzymes. 2. ATP Production. 3. Autotrophic Processes Chapter 5: Microbial Metabolism 1. Enzymes 2. ATP Production 3. Autotrophic Processes 1. Enzymes Biochemical Reactions All living cells depend on biochemical reactions to maintain homeostasis. All of the

More information

Microbial Metabolism. Chapter 5. Enzymes. Enzyme Components. Mechanism of Enzymatic Action

Microbial Metabolism. Chapter 5. Enzymes. Enzyme Components. Mechanism of Enzymatic Action Chapter 5 Microbial Metabolism Metabolism is the sum of all chemical reactions within a living organism, including anabolic (biosynthetic) reactions and catabolic (degradative) reactions. Anabolism is

More information

Cellular Respiration & Metabolism. Metabolism. Coupled Reactions: Bioenergetics. Cellular Respiration: ATP is the cell s rechargable battery

Cellular Respiration & Metabolism. Metabolism. Coupled Reactions: Bioenergetics. Cellular Respiration: ATP is the cell s rechargable battery Cellular Respiration & Metabolism Metabolic Pathways: a summary Metabolism Bioenergetics Flow of energy in living systems obeys: 1 st law of thermodynamics: Energy can be transformed, but it cannot be

More information

CHAPTER 15: ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 15: ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS CHAPTER 15: ANSWERS T SELECTED PRBLEMS SAMPLE PRBLEMS ( Try it yourself ) 15.1 ur bodies can carry out the second reaction, because it requires less energy than we get from breaking down a molecule of

More information

BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004

BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004 BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004 Name: Section: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, A. the universe

More information

Microbial Metabolism. Biochemical diversity

Microbial Metabolism. Biochemical diversity Microbial Metabolism Biochemical diversity Metabolism Define Requirements Energy Enzymes Rate Limiting step Reaction time Types Anabolic Endergonic Dehydration Catabolic Exergonic Hydrolytic Metabolism

More information

-Loss of energy -Loss of hydrogen from carbons. -Gain of energy -Gain of hydrogen to carbons

-Loss of energy -Loss of hydrogen from carbons. -Gain of energy -Gain of hydrogen to carbons Cellular Respiration- Equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 +6H20 and energy -The energy is released from the chemical bonds in the complex organic molecules -The catabolic process of releasing energy from food

More information

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy?

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy? Biology 1406 Exam 2 - Metabolism Chs. 5, 6 and 7 energy - capacity to do work 5.10 kinetic energy - energy of motion : light, electrical, thermal, mechanical potential energy - energy of position or stored

More information

The Electron Transport Chain

The Electron Transport Chain The Electron Transport hain February 19, 2003 Bryant Miles The citric acid cycle oxidizes acetate into two molecules of 2 while capturing the electrons in the form of 3 NAD molecules and one molecule of

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2015 SCORING GUIDELINES

AP BIOLOGY 2015 SCORING GUIDELINES AP BIOLOGY 2015 SCORING GUIDELINES Question 2 Figure 1. Glycolysis and pyruvate oxidation Figure 2. Krebs cycle Figure 3. Electron transport chain Cellular respiration includes the metabolic pathways of

More information

Photosynthesis (CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 )

Photosynthesis (CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 ) The vital role of A This is the energy-rich compound that is the source of energy for all living things. It is a nucleotide, comprising a 5C sugar (ribose); an organic base (adenosine); and 3 phosphate

More information

ATP Synthesis. Lecture 13. Dr. Neil Docherty

ATP Synthesis. Lecture 13. Dr. Neil Docherty PG1005 The Electron Transport Chain and ATP Synthesis Lecture 13 Dr. Neil Docherty My Teaching Objectives Define and describe the electron transport chain Explain how electron transfer couples to proton

More information

The Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate

The Aerobic Fate of Pyruvate The Aerobic Fate of yruvate February 12, 2003 Bryant Miles I could tell that some of you were not impressed by the mere 2 ATs produced per glucose by glycolysis. The 2 AT s produced are only a small fraction

More information

Inhibitors & Uncouplers

Inhibitors & Uncouplers Inhibitors & Uncouplers February 24, 2003 Bryant Miles The electron transport chain was determined by studying the effects of particular inhibitors. 2 3 3 Rotenone 3 Rotenone is a common insecticide that

More information

Chapter 3 The respiratory electron transport chain

Chapter 3 The respiratory electron transport chain 6 Chapter 3 The respiratory electron transport chain In this chapter, I will describe function and location of the native cytochrome b (Cb) in the mitochondrial electron transport chain. In the frame of

More information

Citric Acid Cycle. Cycle Overview. Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A. Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle. Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle

Citric Acid Cycle. Cycle Overview. Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A. Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle. Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle Citric Acid Cycle Cycle Overview Metabolic Sources of Acetyl-Coenzyme A Enzymes of the Citric Acid Cycle Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle The Amphibolic Nature of the Citric Acid Cycle Cycle Overview

More information

Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane

Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane Each of respiratory enzyme complexes couples the energy released by electron transfer across it to an uptake of protons from water in

More information

Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle

Regulation of the Citric Acid Cycle Regulation of the itric Acid ycle I. hanges in Free Energy February 17, 2003 Bryant Miles kj/mol 40 20 0 20 40 60 80 Reaction DGo' DG TA Free Energy hanges 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 1.) itrate Synthase 2.) Aconitase

More information

Cellular Respiration An Overview

Cellular Respiration An Overview Why? Cellular Respiration An Overview What are the phases of cellular respiration? All cells need energy all the time, and their primary source of energy is ATP. The methods cells use to make ATP vary

More information

Biochemistry of cellular organelles

Biochemistry of cellular organelles Kontinkangas, L101A Biochemistry of cellular organelles Lectures: 1. Membrane channels; 2. Membrane transporters; 3. Soluble lipid/metabolite-transfer proteins; 4. Mitochondria as cellular organelles;

More information

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Name Period Chapter 10: Photosynthesis This chapter is as challenging as the one you just finished on cellular respiration. However, conceptually it will be a little easier because the concepts learned

More information

CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT

CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT Completion: complete each statement. (1 point each) 1. All cells arise from. 2. The basic unit of structure

More information

Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme.

Figure 5. Energy of activation with and without an enzyme. Biology 20 Laboratory ENZYMES & CELLULAR RESPIRATION OBJECTIVE To be able to list the general characteristics of enzymes. To study the effects of enzymes on the rate of chemical reactions. To demonstrate

More information

Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to:

Todays Outline. Metabolism. Why do cells need energy? How do cells acquire energy? Metabolism. Concepts & Processes. The cells capacity to: and Work Metabolic Pathways Enzymes Features Factors Affecting Enzyme Activity Membrane Transport Diffusion Osmosis Passive Transport Active Transport Bulk Transport Todays Outline -Releasing Pathways

More information

CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Chapter 19 & 20. Biochemistry by Campbell and Farell (7 th Edition) By Prof M A Mogale

CELLULAR RESPIRATION. Chapter 19 & 20. Biochemistry by Campbell and Farell (7 th Edition) By Prof M A Mogale CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 19 & 20 Biochemistry by Campbell and Farell (7 th Edition) By Prof M A Mogale 1. Cellular respiration (energy capture) The enzymatic breakdown of food stuffs in the presence

More information

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. AP bio fall 2014 final exam prep Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, a. the energy of a system

More information

THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN. Oxidative phosphorylation

THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN. Oxidative phosphorylation THE ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN Oxidative phosphorylation Overview of Metabolism Mitochondria Structure -Schematic Mitochondria Structure -Photomicrograph Overview of ETC Impermiable to ions Permiable via

More information

- Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood brings oxygen to the cells.

- Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood brings oxygen to the cells. Cellular respiration - how cells make energy - Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - ATP - this is provided by the lungs - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood

More information

RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION: AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC OXIDATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES. Bio 171 Week 6

RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION: AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC OXIDATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES. Bio 171 Week 6 RESPIRATION AND FERMENTATION: AEROBIC AND ANAEROBIC OXIDATION OF ORGANIC MOLECULES Bio 171 Week 6 Procedure Label test tubes well, including group name 1) Add solutions listed to small test tubes 2) For

More information

The Citric Acid Cycle

The Citric Acid Cycle The itric Acid ycle February 14, 2003 Bryant Miles I. itrate Synthase + 3 SoA The first reaction of the citric acid cycle is the condensation of acetyloa and oxaloacetate to form citrate and oas. The enzyme

More information

Electron Transport System

Electron Transport System Electron Transport System Lecture 29 Key Concepts Peter Mitchell's Chemiosmotic Theory The Electron Transport System is a series of Redox reactions Complex I: NADH-ubiquinone oxidoreductase Complex II:

More information

Visualizing Cell Processes

Visualizing Cell Processes Visualizing Cell Processes A Series of Five Programs produced by BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES Content Guide for Program 3 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Copyright 2001, BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES www.ebiomedia.com

More information

Energy & Enzymes. Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy.

Energy & Enzymes. Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. Energy & Enzymes Life requires energy for maintenance of order, growth, and reproduction. The energy living things use is chemical energy. 1 Energy exists in two forms - potential and kinetic. Potential

More information

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8 How ells Harvest Energy hapter 7 & 8 Evolution of Metabolism A hypothetical timeline for the evolution of metabolism - all in prokaryotic cells!: 1. ability to store chemical energy in ATP 2. evolution

More information

Student name ID # 2. (4 pts) What is the terminal electron acceptor in respiration? In photosynthesis? O2, NADP+

Student name ID # 2. (4 pts) What is the terminal electron acceptor in respiration? In photosynthesis? O2, NADP+ 1. Membrane transport. A. (4 pts) What ion couples primary and secondary active transport in animal cells? What ion serves the same function in plant cells? Na+, H+ 2. (4 pts) What is the terminal electron

More information

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism

Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism Chapter 8: Energy and Metabolism 1. Discuss energy conversions and the 1 st and 2 nd law of thermodynamics. Be sure to use the terms work, potential energy, kinetic energy, and entropy. 2. What are Joules

More information

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Twenty Three 1

Copyright 2010 Pearson Education, Inc. Chapter Twenty Three 1 23.2 Glucose Metabolism: An Overview When glucose enters a cell from the bloodstream, it is immediately converted to glucose 6- phosphate. Once this phosphate is formed, glucose is trapped within the cell

More information

Copyright 2000-2003 Mark Brandt, Ph.D. 59

Copyright 2000-2003 Mark Brandt, Ph.D. 59 The Tricarboxylic Acid Cycle Background (why are eight enzymes necessary?) In principle, acetyl-coa could be converted to carbon dioxide very simply. However, doing so has three potential problems: 1)

More information

b. What is/are the overall function(s) of photosystem II?

b. What is/are the overall function(s) of photosystem II? Use your model and the information in Chapter 10 of Biology, 7th edition, to answer the questions. 1. The various reactions in photosynthesis are spatially segregated from each other within the chloroplast.

More information

1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because:

1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: Section 10 Multiple Choice 1- Fatty acids are activated to acyl-coas and the acyl group is further transferred to carnitine because: A) acyl-carnitines readily cross the mitochondrial inner membrane, but

More information

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen

Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen Nitrogen Concept 1 - Thinking Practice 1. If the following molecules were to undergo a dehydration synthesis reaction, what molecules would result? Circle the parts of each amino acid that will interact and draw

More information

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose Energy in a Cell Reinforcement and Study Guide Section.1 The Need for Energy In your textbook, read about cell energy. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. energy phosphate adenine

More information

CITRIC ACID (KREB S, TCA) CYCLE

CITRIC ACID (KREB S, TCA) CYCLE ITRI AID (KREB S, TA) YLE Date: September 2, 2005 * Time: 10:40 am 11:30 am * Room: G202 Biomolecular Building Lecturer: Steve haney 515A Mary Ellen Jones Building stephen_chaney@med.unc.edu 9663286 *Please

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Ch23_PT MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) All of the following statements concerning digestion are correct except A) The major physical

More information

Cell Structure & Function!

Cell Structure & Function! Cell Structure & Function! Chapter 3! The most exciting phrase to hear in science, the one that heralds new discoveries, is not 'Eureka!' but 'That's funny.! -- Isaac Asimov Animal Cell Plant Cell Cell

More information

Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration 1 of 5 11/9/2011 8:11 PM Name: Hour: Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration Energy in General 1. Differentiate an autotroph from a hetertroph as it relates to obtaining energy and the processes

More information

APh/BE161: Physical Biology of the Cell Winter 2009 Recap on Photosynthesis Rob Phillips

APh/BE161: Physical Biology of the Cell Winter 2009 Recap on Photosynthesis Rob Phillips APh/BE161: Physical Biology of the Cell Winter 2009 Recap on Photosynthesis Rob Phillips Big picture: why are we doing this? A) photosynthesis will explain shortly, b) more generally, interaction of light

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS

MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS MULTIPLE CHOICE QUESTIONS 1. Most components of energy conversion systems evolved very early; thus, the most fundamental aspects of energy metabolism tend to be: A. quite different among a diverse group

More information

MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY: ESSAY OUTLINE. What are peroxisomes? What do they do? And, how are proteins targeted to them?

MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY: ESSAY OUTLINE. What are peroxisomes? What do they do? And, how are proteins targeted to them? MOLECULAR CELL BIOLOGY: ESSAY OUTLINE What are peroxisomes? What do they do? And, how are proteins targeted to them? Are they related to the ER/Golgi? Are they more like mitochondria? Or, are they completely

More information

Chapter 4. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets. 63 www.ck12.org

Chapter 4. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets. 63 www.ck12.org Chapter 4 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Derek Ramsey, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:monarch_butterfly_ Danaus_plexippus_Feeding_Down_3008px.jpg, and

More information

Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107

Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107 UNIT 1: Biochemistry Chapter 2: Cell Structure and Function pg. 70-107 Organelles are internal structures that carry out specialized functions, interacting and complementing each other. Animal and plant

More information

Ch. 8 Enzymes as catalysts

Ch. 8 Enzymes as catalysts Chapt. 8 Enzymes as catalysts Ch. 8 Enzymes as catalysts Student Learning Outcomes: Explain general features of enzymes as catalysts: Substrate -> Product Describe nature of catalytic sites general mechanisms

More information

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Enzyme characteristics Made of protein Catalysts: reactions occur 1,000,000 times faster with enzymes Not part of reaction Not changed or affected by reaction Used over and

More information

Bioenergetics. Free Energy Change

Bioenergetics. Free Energy Change Bioenergetics Energy is the capacity or ability to do work All organisms need a constant supply of energy for functions such as motion, transport across membrane barriers, synthesis of biomolecules, information

More information

Metabolism Poster Questions

Metabolism Poster Questions Metabolism Poster Questions Answer the following questions concerning respiration. 1. Consider the mitochondrial electron transport chain. a. How many hydrogen ions can be pumped for every NADH? b. How

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION reflect Wind turbines shown in the photo on the right are large structures with blades that move in response to air movement. When the wind blows, the blades rotate. This motion generates energy that is

More information

Cellular Respiration. Chapter Outline. Before You Begin

Cellular Respiration. Chapter Outline. Before You Begin 8 Cellular Respiration Triathlete racing past photosynthesizing trees and vegetation. A triathlete racing a bike, a bacterium with undulating flagella, an ocelot climbing a tree, or a snail moving slowly

More information

Metabolism Lecture 7 METABOLIC_REGULATION Restricted for students enrolled in MCB102, UC Berkeley, Spring 2008 ONLY

Metabolism Lecture 7 METABOLIC_REGULATION Restricted for students enrolled in MCB102, UC Berkeley, Spring 2008 ONLY Bryan Krantz: University of California, Berkeley MCB 102, Spring 2008, Metabolism Lecture 7 Reading: Ch. 15 of Principles of Biochemistry, Principles of Metabolic Regulation, Illustrated with Glucose and

More information

Bio 101 Section 001: Practice Questions for First Exam

Bio 101 Section 001: Practice Questions for First Exam Do the Practice Exam under exam conditions. Time yourself! MULTIPLE CHOICE: 1. The substrate fits in the of an enzyme: (A) allosteric site (B) active site (C) reaction groove (D) Golgi body (E) inhibitor

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps):

Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): 1) How many ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule used in fermentation?

More information

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain.

Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1. 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. Cellular Respiration Worksheet 1 1. What are the 3 phases of the cellular respiration process? Glycolysis, Krebs Cycle, Electron Transport Chain. 2. Where in the cell does the glycolysis part of cellular

More information

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta

Compartmentalization of the Cell. Objectives. Recommended Reading. Professor Alfred Cuschieri. Department of Anatomy University of Malta Compartmentalization of the Cell Professor Alfred Cuschieri Department of Anatomy University of Malta Objectives By the end of this session the student should be able to: 1. Identify the different organelles

More information

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Stored Energy What is Photosynthesis? plants convert the energy of sunlight into the energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates sugars and starches. SUMMARY EQUATION:

More information

Oxygen Metabolism and Oxygen Toxicity

Oxygen Metabolism and Oxygen Toxicity xygen Metabolism and xygen Toxicity February 26, 2003 Bryant Miles Chemiosmotic Theory Chemiosomitic Theory state that the free energy of electron transport is coupled to the pumping of protons from the

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation. How cells produce ATP when oxygen is present 9.1. looking closer at. Pyruvate oxidation 9.3

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation. How cells produce ATP when oxygen is present 9.1. looking closer at. Pyruvate oxidation 9.3 Unit 2 ell Structure and Function 9 ellular Respiration and Fermentation This hydroelectric dam on the Duero, a river between Spain and Portugal, uses pumps to move water from the lower reservoir to the

More information