Photosynthesis takes place in three stages:

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1 Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions The Calvin cycle 1. Capturing energy from sunlight 2. Using energy to make ATP and NADPH 3. Using ATP and NADPH to power the synthesis of carbohydrates from CO 2 6 CO H 2 O carbon dioxide water + Light energy C 6 H 12 O 6 glucose + 6 H 2 O water + 6 O 2 oxygen

2 6.5 Building New Molecules Light-dependent reactions provide the raw material 1. ATP serves as the source of energy 2. NADPH provides the reducing power The Calvin Cycle (C 3 photosynthesis) is the pathway that assembles the new molecules It takes place in the stroma of the chloroplast

3 6.6 An Overview of Cellular Respiration Cellular respiration is the harvesting of energy from breakdown of organic molecules produced by plants The overall process may be summarized as C 6 H 12 O 6 glucose + 6 O 2 oxygen 6 CO 2 carbon dioxide + 6 H 2 O water + energy (heat or ATP) Cellular respiration is carried out in two stages: 1. Glycolysis 2. Oxidation Occurs in the cytoplasm Occurs in the mitochondria

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5 6.7 Using Coupled Reactions to Make ATP Glycolysis is the first stage in cellular respiration Takes place in the cytoplasm Occurs in the presence or absence of oxygen Involves ten enzyme-catalyzed reactions These convert the 6-carbon glucose into two 3-carbon molecules of pyruvate

6 Fig An overview of aerobic respiration Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration

7 Fig Glycolysis

8 Fig Glycolysis This coupled reaction is called substrate-level phosphorylation

9 Fig An overview of aerobic respiration Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration

10 The Krebs Cycle Takes place in the mitochondria It consists of nine enzyme-catalyzed reactions that can be divided into three stages Stage 1 Acetyl coa binds a four-carbon molecule producing a six-carbon molecule Stage 2 Two carbons are removed as CO 2 Stage 3 The four-carbon starting material is regenerated

11 Fig How the Krebs cycle works 1 CoA (Acetyl-CoA) carbon molecule (Starting material) 6-carbon molecule 6-carbon molecule NADH 4-carbon molecule (Starting material) NADH CO 2 FADH 2 4-carbon molecule ATP 5-carbon molecule NADH CO 2 4-carbon molecule

12 Fate of Glucose Glucose is entirely consumed in the process of cellular respiration It is converted to six molecules of CO 2 Its energy is preserved in Four ATP molecules Ten NADH electron carriers Two FADH 2 electron carriers

13 Fig An overview of aerobic respiration Oxygen is the terminal electron acceptor in aerobic respiration

14 6.9 Using the Electrons to Make ATP The NADH and FADH 2 carry their high-energy electrons to the inner mitochondrial membrane There they transfer them to a series of membraneassociated carriers the electron transport chain Three of these carriers are protein complexes that pump protons out of the matrix The electrons are finally donated to oxygen to form water

15 Fig The electron transport chain Intermembrane space H + H + H + Inner mitochondrial membrane NADH activates all three pumps e FADH 2 NADH+ H + NAD + FADH 2 activates only two pumps e 2H + + ½O 2 H 2 O Protein complex I Mitochondrial matrix Protein complex II Protein complex III

16 The proton pumps lead to an increase in proton concentration in the intermembrane space The proton gradient induces the protons to reenter the matrix through ATP synthase channels The proton reentry drives the synthesis of ATP by chemiosmosis Fig. 6.25

17 Fig An overview of the electron transport chain and chemiosmosis Pyruvate from cytoplasm H + H + Intermembrane space NADH e H + Acetyl-CoA Krebs cycle NADH 1. Electrons are harvested and carried to the transport system. FADH 2 e e 2. Electrons provide energy to pump protons across the membrane. H 2 O 3. Oxygen joins with protons to form water. 1 O H + O 2 CO 2 2 ATP 32 ATP H + Mitochondrial matrix 4. Protons diffuse back in, driving the synthesis of ATP. ATP synthase

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19 Glycolysis + Mitochondrial reactions = 36 ATP

20 Other Sources of Energy Food sources, other than sugars, can be used in cellular respiration These complex molecules are first digested into simpler subunits These subunits are modified into intermediates These intermediates enter cellular respiration at different steps

21 Fermentation The use of organic terminal electron acceptors The electrons carried by NADH are donated to a derivative of pyruvate This allows the regeneration of NAD + that keeps glycolysis running Two types of fermentation are common among eukaryotes Lactic fermentation Ethanolic fermentation

22 Pyruvate is oxidized Pyruvate is reduced Occurs in animal muscle cells Occurs in yeast cells Fig. 6.19

23 Fermentation (No O 2 ) Removes byproducts of glycolysis which allows glycolysis to continue. No energetic yield (ATP not produced), but by allowing glycolysis to continue, cell can still receive 2 ATP.

24 Fig An overview of aerobic respiration

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