ATP accounting so far ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN & CHEMIOSMOSIS. The Essence of ETC: The Electron Transport Chain O 2

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1 accounting so far The final stage of cellular respiration: ELECTRON TRANSPORT CHAIN & CHEMIOSMOSIS Glycolysis 2 Kreb s cycle 2 Life takes a lot of energy to run, need to extract more energy than 4! There s got to be a better way! What s the point? A working muscle recycles over 10 million s per second The Essence of ETC: Electron Transport Chain series of molecules built into inner mitochondrial membrane along cristae Consists of transport proteins & enzymes transport of electrons down ETC linked to pumping of to create gradient* yields ~28 from 1 glucose! only in presence of O 2 (aerobic respiration) The Electron Transport Chain and FADH 2 molecules derived from glycolysis and the Kreb s Cycle each contain electrons they gained from their formation (or FADH 2 ) molecules carry these electrons to the inner membrane of the mitochondrion and electron transfer begins *NAD+ and FAD = electron carriers takes H s (and their e ) to electron transport tchain! hi! O 2 1

2 Remember the Electron Carriers? Glycolysis glucose G3P Krebs cycle Electron Transport Chain Intermembrane space Inner mitochondrial membrane FADH 2 Q C Time to break open the bank! dehydrogenase Mitochondrial matrix cytochrome bc complex cytochrome c oxidase complex Electron Transport Chain (ETC) ETC & Redox A series of electron acceptors (proteins) are embedded in the cristae. These proteins are arranged in order of increasing electronegativity. The weakest attractor of electrons ( dehydrogenase) is at the start of the chain and the strongest (cytochrome oxidase) is at the end. These electrons are passed through a series of electron carriers, one step at a time. As the electrons are passed along, one substance is oxidized, the other is reduced. (REDOX rxns) What is the driving force? 2

3 ETC & Redox ETC & Redox As electrons move through the chain, a seriesof redox reactions occur. This causes the electrons to have more stable positions relative to the nuclei of the atoms they associate with and so they release free energy. This energy is used to pump protons (H+ ions) from the matrix into the intermembrane space. This creates an electrochemical gradient, creatingpotential difference (voltage) similar to a battery. At the end of the chain, the electrons are so stable that only oxygen is strong enough to oxidize the last protein complex. Oxygen strips 2 electrons from the final protein complex and forms water with 2 protons from the matrix. Electrons & Protons ( ) passes electrons to ETC H cleaved off & FADH 2 electrons stripped from H atoms (protons) electrons passed from one electron carrier to next in mitochondrial membrane (ETC) transport proteins in membrane pump (protons) across inner membrane to intermembrane space TA-DA!! Moving electrons do the work! Q e e FADH 2 FAD NAD O 2 H 2 O cytochrome cytochrome c dehydrogenase bc complex oxidase complex C e ADP + P i H+ The ETC Structure The ETC consists of: 1. 4 protein complexes 2. Associated cofactors (located in the protein complexes) 3. 2 mobile electron carriers 3

4 The ETC Structure Protein Complexes Complex I: dehydrogenase complex Complex II: (really long name) (basically second entry point for electrons stripped from the molecule succinate & FADH 2 ) The ETC Structure Complex III Cytochrome bc complex Complex IV Cytomechrome c oxidase complex The ETC Structure Mobile Electron Carriers Ubiquinone/Coenzyme i Q transfers electrons from Complex I and II to Complex III Cytochrome C Transfers electrons from Complex III to Complex IV dehydrogenase cytochrome bc complex 4

5 Synthase Protons enter the matrix through proton channels associatedwith synthase (ase). As passes through, enough free energy is released to create from the phosphorylation of ADP. Conditions must be aerobic because oxygen acts as the final electron and acceptor (water is formed as a byproduct). Chemiosmosis & Oxidative Phosphorylation Protons begin to accumulate in the intermembrane space which creates an electrochemical gradient that stores free energy known as a proton motive force (PMF). This gradient has 2 components: 1. an electrical component caused by a higher positive charge 2. a chemical component caused by a higher h concentration of protons Chemiosmosis The diffusion of ions across a membrane build up of proton gradient just stsoso H+ could flow through synthase enzyme to build Chemiosmosis links the Electron Transport Chain to synthesis 5

6 Oxidative Phosphorylation These protons are unable to diffuse through the phospholipid bilayer and are forced to pass through special proton channels called synthase (ase). When protons move through ase, the free energy drives the synthesis of from ADP and Pi found in the matrix (oxidative phosphorylation). is then transported out into the cytoplasm by facilitated diffusion and can be used to drive endergonic processes such as movement and active transport. Pyruvate from cytoplasm 2 Acetyl CoA Krebs cycle Mitochondrial matrix Inner mitochondrial membrane e 2. Electrons provide energy 1. Electrons are harvested and to pump protons carried to the transport system. across the e membrane. H 2 O FADH 2 e 3. Oxygen joins with 1 protons to form O 2 2 water. + 2 CO 2 4. Protons diffuse back in down their concentration gradient, driving the synthesis of. Q 32 Intermembrane space C Electron transport system e O 2 synthase Review!! 1.Glycolysis: occurs in the cytoplasm: anaerobic 2.Pyruvateenters the mitochondrion, i converts to Acetyl CoA 3.Kreb s Cycle: Acetyl CoA broken down into CO2 drives production of, FADH2 and 4.Electron Transport Chain: powers the electron transport system that chemiosmotically produces Note on & FADH and FADH 2 enter the ETC at different locations thus releasingdifferent amounts of free energy produced in glycolysis cannot pass through the inner mitochondrial membrane into the matrix. 2 shuttle systems pass electrons from cytosolic to the matrix. This results in a smaller production of 6

7 Yield The theoretic yield of per glucose molecule is about However, it turns out that theactual yield is only 30 realistically. (Due to the fact that produces an average of 2.5, not 3 and FAD produces an average of 1.5, not 2). Efficiency of energy conversion for aerobic respiration is much higher than the 2.2% of glycolysis. It is 32% efficient for aerobic. This allows multicellular organisms to exist. (compare to a car engine that is about 25% efficient!) et ance Shee Bala Summary of cellular respiration C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ~30 Where did the glucose come from? Where did the O 2 come from? Where did the CO 2 come from? Where did the CO 2 go? Where did the H 2 O come from? Where did the come from? What else is produced that is not listed in this equation? Why do we breathe? Taking it beyond What is the final electron acceptor in Electron Transport Chain? O 2 So what happens if O 2 unavailable? ETC backs up nothing to pull electrons down chain & FADH 2 can t unload H production ceases cells run out of energy and you die! 7

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