1. f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide.

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "1. f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide."

Transcription

1 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1. f. Students know usable energy is captured from sunlight by chloroplasts and is stored through the synthesis of sugar from carbon dioxide. Photosynthesis is a complex process in which visible sunlight is converted into chemical energy in carbohydrate molecules. This process occurs within chloroplasts and specifically within the thylakoid membrane (lightdependent reaction) and the stroma (light-independent reaction). During the light-dependent reaction, water is oxidized and light energy is converted into chemical bond energy generating ATP, NADPH + H+, and oxygen gas. During the light-independent reaction (Calvin cycle), carbon dioxide, ATP, and NADPH + H+ react, forming phosphoglyceraldehyde, which is then converted into sugars. Notes: Photosynthesis Photosynthesis relies on sunlight. In fact all life on earth relies on sunlight directly (producers) or indirectly (consumers). Photosynthesis is the trapping of light energy and converting it into chemical energy. Plants, algae, and cyanobacteria have independently evolved the ability to capture light energy and convert it into chemical energy. This process requires special molecules, membranes and organelles. In plants the: molecule is chlorophyll membranes are the thylakoids and organelles are the chloroplasts. Chlorophyll is a green pigment which releases an electron or two when it absorbs red or blue wavelengths of light (it reflects, thus its color, green light). Other pigments increase the range of light absorbed by plants. For example carotinoids absorb red and orange light and transfer the energy to a special chlorophyll molecule.

2 Thylakoid membranes contain all the molecular structures necessary to convert light energy into chemical energy. This process requires the following components: Photosystems -- are a large group of antenna pigments which capture and transfer light energy to a central chlorophyll molecule. Electron transport chains, similar to those found in mitochondria, which accept electrons given off by chlorophyll and use the electrons' energy to make NADPH (similar to NADH) and ATP. Other molecules associated with making ATP and splitting water molecules (photolysis). Chloroplasts are the organelles responsible for both phases of photosynthesis -- the light dependent reactions as well as the light independent or dark reactions. The structure of chloroplasts are essential to their function. Each chloroplast has two membranes which separate the organelle into two compartments. The outer compartment is called the stroma. It is here in the stroma where the dark reactions take place, converting CO 2 and H 2 O into glucose. This process is called the Calvin Cycle. The inner membrane is the thylakoid which forms stacks of membranes called grana -- a structure which maximizes the surface area necessary to capture and convert light energy efficiently. Photosynthesis can be summarized by the equation below. Note that it is simply the opposite of the equation for respiration. 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

3 Photosynthesis generated O2 About 1 to 2 billion years after the origin of the earth photosynthetic bacteria evolved, and began to change the nature of the Earth's atmosphere irrevocably. Over the next 1 to 2 billion years they gradually increased the concentration of oxygen in the atmosphere to levels that were probably higher than we now enjoy. As a result, organisms evolved the ability to use the oxygen in metabolism. Because of the great oxidizing ability of O2 this allowed cells using aerobic metabolism to extract much more energy from food materials. Cells capable of aerobic metabolism then rapidly took over the biosphere which they still dominate. The importance of photosynthesis is two fold. 1. It allows cells to directly trap the energy of the sun and convert it into hydrocarbon fuel, like glucose. 2. Photosynthesis splits molecules of water (H2O) releasing molecular oxygen (O2) Photosynthesis can be summarized as a chemical reaction: 12 H2O + 6 CO > 6 O2 + C6H12O6 + 6H2O 12 molecules of water plus 6 molecules of carbon dioxide react together to yield 6 molecules of oxygen, one molecule of glucose, and six molecules of water. This equation may seem nonsensical since you could easily subtract out six water molecules and get a balanced equation: 6 H2O + 6 CO > 6 O2 + C6H12O6 But as we will see, the 12 oxygen atoms in the 12 water molecules all go into forming the 6 O2 molecules, while half of the 12 oxygens in the 6 CO2 molecules are reduced to form H2O. So, we see that photosynthesis both creates O2 for aerobic respiration, and glucose to be used as fuel in that respiration. If this seems a useless cycle, remember that a plant does this to provide raw materials for its own use, including generating energy when light is not available, and animals consume the materials created by plants to provide for their needs. In effect, animals are living indirectly on the energy of the sun's radiation Photosynthesis in plants Photosynthesis in plants occurs in specialized structures called chloroplasts. Chloroplasts include stacked membranes called the thylakoid membrane system. Surrounding the thylakoids is a space called the stroma. In the thylakoid membranes the energy of sunlight is absorbed, and where energy (in the form of ATP) and reducing potential (in the form of reduced NADP, or NADPH) are formed. What is the role of NADP in this reaction? What do you think its function is? It is not to carry hydrogen (protons) but rather to carry electrons. It is reduced (gains an electron) and that negative charge is balanced by a proton, giving the reduced form, NADPH. In the stroma the oxidized form of carbon, CO2, is reduced by NADPH, and through phosphorylation, fused to form hexoses (6 carbon sugars) including glucose.

4 To absorb light energy plants employ a variety of pigment molecules. Most important among these are the chlorophylls. They absorb light in the violet-to-blue range, and in the red. Because they absorb those colors they give the plant its green color. Carotenoids also absorb in the violet-to-yellow range. Other pigments (phycobilins) absorb in the rest of the spectrum. Only the chlorophyll molecules are directly involved in photosynthesis-the other molecules transfer their captured energy to chlorophylls located in what is called reaction centers. Light-dependent reactions The first half of photosynthesis is the generation of ATP and NADPH. Packets of light energy (or "quantas") are called photons. A photon striking, and being absorbed by a chlorophyll molecule imparts a small amount energy, which raises an electron to a higher energy level. Remember that atoms are organized with their electrons in "shells" surrounding the nucleus. Each successive shell has a higher energy level. Normally all of the electrons in an atom will fill the lowest possible energy levels. The absorbed energy will kick an electron up to a higher energy level. This is an unstable situation, and the electron soon returns to its original shell, and energy. Since "energy is neither created nor destroyed" the excess energy is passed on to another chlorophyll molecule, with the loss of some energy as heat. Eventually, the energy may be absorbed by the chlorophyll at the reaction center. At that point the reactions leading to ATP and NADPH production can occur. The pigment molecules are organized in groups of around 200 to 300 called "photosystems". There are two types of photosystems (photosystem I and II) which have different functions in photosynthesis

5 Photosystem I and cyclic photophosphorylation The oldest form of photosynthesis involves a cyclic pathway using photosystem I. A molecule of chlorophyll P700 is excited by a photon. It donates an electron to an electron transport chain which uses it to generate ATP molecules (we'll see how later). At the end of the chain the electron is donated back to chlorophyll P700. This form of photosynthesis generates only ATP without splitting water, generating oxygen, or fixing carbon (making carbohydrates from CO2). To increase their yield of energy, cells evolved a second photosystem (photosystem II) which allows much more efficiently captures light energy.

6 Photosystem II and the noncyclic pathway [Showed the movie of noncylic photophosphorylation] A closer look at ATP formation How is ATP created in thylakoid membranes? The key is the fact that in passing electrons down the electron transport chain protons are pumped from outside to inside the membrane. In addition, protons outside the thylakoid in the stroma are consumed in forming NADPH. This creates a proton gradient between the inside and outside of the thylakoid. A proton pump present in the membrane transfers the protons out into the stroma, along the concentration gradient, the energy of that transfer is used to generate ATP. Transfer of protons through the transporter induces a change in conformation which is then used to transfer a phosphate onto ADP to create ATP. The "dark reaction" & the formation of hexoses The ATP and NADPH molecules generated then are used in the construction of molecules of six carbon sugars, called hexoses, including glucose. The reaction occurs as a cycle, with the constant regeneration of the starting material The cycle is called the Calvin-Benson cycle. In the cycle a carbon dioxide is added to ribulose bisphosphate (RuBP) forming a six carbon sugar which splits to give two molecules of phosphoglycerate (PGA).

7 PGA is reduced to phosphoglyceraldehyde (PGAL) with the consumption of one ATP and one NADPH Of twelve PGAL, two are used to form a phosphohexose (e.g., glucose-phosphate), the other ten recycle to make more RuBP (with the consumption of more ATP molecules) The balance sheet of photosynthesis comes out even since each molecule of H2O split to form O2 yields 4 electrons which is used to generate 3 ATP and 2 NADPH. Fixing each molecule of CO2 uses 3 ATP and 2 NADPH. To make one molecule of hexose requires six turns of the Calvin-Benson cycle (converting the carbons of six CO2 molecules into the hexose) using a total of 18 ATPs and 12 NADPH. Calvin Cycle The following formula summarizes the Calvin cycle. C5 + CO2 + ATP + NADPH ---> C6H12O6 where C5 is a fivecarbon molecule, such as pyruvate, when is recycled as glucose is synthesized. The Calvin cycle is the last step in photosynthesis. The purpose of the Calvin Cycle is to take the energy from photosystem I and fix carbon. Carbon fixation means building organic molecules by adding carbon onto a chain. In order to do this, you have to start with an organic molecule, a starter molecule. In this case, the starter molecule is a 5-chain carbon compound (C5). I'll skip the names of most of the organic molecules in this process. We'll cover it in AP Biology. The first step in the Calvin cycle is for the 3C5 to bind with 3CO2, producing a six 3-carbon organic molecules (6C3). Next, 6ATP and 6NADPH energizes the binding of a C3 to make a 6-carbon molecule (C6), glucose. The remaining 5C3 continues moving through the Calvin cycle, being turned back into the starter C5 organic molecule. The following chemical equation summarizes the Calvin cycle.

8 Photosynthesis Photosynthesis is the process where plants convert sunlight into energy, then store it as carbohydrates, sugars, such as glucose. Photosynthesis may be the most important process in ecosystems, for it both brings in energy needed within the ecosystem, and produce oxygen (O2) needed for cellular respiration, and the production of more ATP. Photosynthesis has three basic steps: 1. Energy is captured from the sunlight. 2. Light energy is converted into chemical energy in the form of ATP and NADPH. 3. Chemical energy is used to power the synthesis or organic molecules (e.g. carbohydrates) from carbon dioxide (CO2). This process can be summed with the following chemical equation: CO2 + H2O + light ---> C6H12O6 + O2 In terrestrial plants, this process takes place in leaves, specifically within the organelle chloroplast So what exactly happens? First lets look at the structure of chloroplast. Chloroplast contains stacks of flattened organelles called a thylakoid. One stack of thylakoids is called a grana. Grana float within a cytoplasm-like fluid in the chloroplast called stroma. How does this work? Think light as a packet of energy, like a battery, called photons. When sunlight shines

9 on a plant, the photons hits the plants, plugging into pigments called chlorophyll. Chlorophyl fills the thylakoids. But photons have different colors, similar to having AA and AAA batteries. AA batteries are longer than AAA batteries, and they also have slightly different charges. So each battery needs a different type of plug, and so does the different color photons. So there are two primary types of chlorophyll, chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. Photons with a wavelength peaking at 680nm plugs into chlorophyll a, while photons with a wavelength peaking at 650nm plugs into chlorophyll b. By having both pigments, plants more than double the amount of photons that is can convert. Other pigments, such as carotenoids, also increases the range of photons which can be captured. But carotenoids are not a good at absorbing photons as chlorophyll. Once chlorophylhas absorbed the photons, the energy is transferred down a chain until ATP and NADPH is charged. This process occurs in two separate, but connected systems, photosystem I and photosystem II. Photosystem I picks up photons at 700nm, while photosystem II photons at 680nm. The energy absorbed by photosystem II is passed on to photosystem I, which charges NADPH. When light hits a plant, chlorophyll absorbs the photons. The energy that it absorbs is picked up by photosystem II. Photosystem II takes the energy, along with H2O, and passes that energy to an electron acceptor, Q. O2 is released at this point. The electron acceptor, Q, now has energy. Q takes that energy, and shuttles it off to photosystem I. As that energy is being shuttled from Q to photosystem I, ADP gets charged, becoming ATP. Photosystem I now takes that energy, and charges NADP+. When NADP+ is charged, it loses a hydrogen, and becomes NADPH. Notice that NADPH has now loosed its positive charge by picking up a negative electron. This entire process can be summarized with the following chemical equation. H2O + light + ADP + P ---> O2 + ATP + e- After the above steps occur in photosystem II, the electron is finally sent to photosystem I, where the following happens. e- + NADP+ + H ---> NADPH Now there are two high energy molecules, fully charged and ready to be used. Plants makes more energy that it needs immediately, so the NADPH and ATP is used to make glucose as follows: CO2 + ATP + NADPH ---> C6H12O6 This happens through another process called the Calvin cycle.

10

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy

Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration. Stored Energy Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Stored Energy What is Photosynthesis? plants convert the energy of sunlight into the energy in the chemical bonds of carbohydrates sugars and starches. SUMMARY EQUATION:

More information

2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The general equation describing photosynthesis is light + 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2

2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS. The general equation describing photosynthesis is light + 6 H 2 O + 6 CO 2 C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6 O 2 2. PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is the process by which light energy is converted to chemical energy whereby carbon dioxide and water are converted into organic molecules. The process occurs in most algae,

More information

Review Questions Photosynthesis

Review Questions Photosynthesis Review Questions Photosynthesis 1. Describe a metabolic pathway. In a factory, labor is divided into small individual jobs. A carmaker, for example, will have one worker install the front windshield, another

More information

Biology. Slide 1of 51. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall

Biology. Slide 1of 51. End Show. Copyright Pearson Prentice Hall Biology 1of 51 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis 2of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 3of 51 Inside

More information

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8

Evolution of Metabolism. Introduction. Introduction. Introduction. How Cells Harvest Energy. Chapter 7 & 8 How ells Harvest Energy hapter 7 & 8 Evolution of Metabolism A hypothetical timeline for the evolution of metabolism - all in prokaryotic cells!: 1. ability to store chemical energy in ATP 2. evolution

More information

8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Slide 1 of 51

8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Slide 1 of 51 8-3 The of Photosynthesis 1 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 2 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast Chloroplasts

More information

Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reactions

Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis Part I: Overview & The Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis: The BIG Picture Photosynthesis is the process by which PHOTOAUTOTROPHS convert the energy in SUNLIGHT into the energy stored

More information

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose

Name Date Class. energy phosphate adenine charged ATP chemical bonds work ribose Energy in a Cell Reinforcement and Study Guide Section.1 The Need for Energy In your textbook, read about cell energy. Use each of the terms below just once to complete the passage. energy phosphate adenine

More information

Photosynthesis January 23 Feb 1, 2013 WARM-UP JAN 23/24. Mr. Stephens, IB Biology III 1

Photosynthesis January 23 Feb 1, 2013 WARM-UP JAN 23/24. Mr. Stephens, IB Biology III 1 WARM-UP JAN 23/24 Mr. Stephens, IB Biology III 1 Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration What is the connection between Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration? Energy Production Inorganic Molecules Specialized

More information

Photosynthesis (Life from Light)

Photosynthesis (Life from Light) Photosynthesis Photosynthesis (Life from Light) Energy needs of life All life needs a constant input of energy o Heterotrophs (consumers) Animals, fungi, most bacteria Get their energy from other organisms

More information

Green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in photosynthesis

Green pigment that absorbs solar energy and is important in photosynthesis PHOTOSYNTHESIS REVIEW SHEET FOR TEST Part A: Match the terms below with the correct description Chlorophyll Chloroplast Electromagnetic spectrum Electron transport chain Grana Light-dependant reactions

More information

2. 1. What are the three parts of an ATP molecule? (100 points)

2. 1. What are the three parts of an ATP molecule? (100 points) Photosynthesis Date Created: 12/8/14, 11:22:50 AM Questions: 34 Date Modified: 12/17/14, 8:27:08 AM 1. ATP & Photosynthesis Review Game 30 Multiple Choice Questions Final Question Correct Answers = +$100

More information

Equation for Photosynthesis

Equation for Photosynthesis Photosynthesis Definition The process by which cells harvest light energy to make sugars (glucose). -Sugar is used to power the process of cellular respiration, which produces the ATP that cells utilize

More information

Photosynthesis Practice. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best.

Photosynthesis Practice. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best. Photosynthesis Practice Fill in the blanks. Name Date Period 1. Molecules that collect light energy are called _P. 2. Chlorophyll a and b absorb _B -_V and _R wavelengths of light best. 3. _C is the main

More information

> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2

> C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Photosynthesis- is the process that converts light energy into chemical energy. This chemical energy is usually a carbohydrate. Only photoautrotrops can do photosynthesis. Heterotrophs must obtain their

More information

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration

AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration AP Bio Photosynthesis & Respiration Multiple Choice Identify the letter of the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. What is the term used for the metabolic pathway in which

More information

Photosynthesis Notes

Photosynthesis Notes Photosynthesis Notes Energy and Living Things: All living organisms must have energy to survive. Organisms get this energy from food. Organisms either make their own food or consume other organisms to

More information

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy?

* Is chemical energy potential or kinetic energy? The position of what is storing energy? Biology 1406 Exam 2 - Metabolism Chs. 5, 6 and 7 energy - capacity to do work 5.10 kinetic energy - energy of motion : light, electrical, thermal, mechanical potential energy - energy of position or stored

More information

Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane

Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane Electron Transport Generates a Proton Gradient Across the Membrane Each of respiratory enzyme complexes couples the energy released by electron transfer across it to an uptake of protons from water in

More information

Jan Baptisa van Helmont (1648)

Jan Baptisa van Helmont (1648) Instructions To help you navigate these slides, you should set your viewer to display thumbnails of these slides. On many viewers, this can be done by pressing the F4 key. The slides should be viewed in

More information

Photosynthesis-Review. Pigments. Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts 5. Pigments are located in the thylakoid membranes. An Overview of Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis-Review. Pigments. Chloroplasts. Chloroplasts 5. Pigments are located in the thylakoid membranes. An Overview of Photosynthesis An Overview of Photosynthesis Photosynthesis-Review 1. Photosynthesis uses the energy of sunlight to convert water and carbon dioxide into high-energy sugars and oxygen. 6 CO 2 + 6 H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 +

More information

VII. NARRATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS: TRANSFORMING LIGHT TO LIFE

VII. NARRATION FOR PHOTOSYNTHESIS: TRANSFORMING LIGHT TO LIFE 7. Why do leaves turn color in the fall? 8. How are photosystems I and II different? How are they related? 9. What is the source of energy for dark reactions? 10. Describe the C3 cycle. 11. What is the

More information

Biology Slide 1 of 51

Biology Slide 1 of 51 Biology 1 of 51 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis 2 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast 1. In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 3 of 51 Inside a Chloroplast

More information

Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2

Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2. An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2 PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis An anabolic, endergonic, carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) requiring process that uses light energy (photons) and water (H 2 O) to produce organic macromolecules (glucose). photons SUN

More information

Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis?

Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis? Like The Guy From Krypton Photosynthesis: Energy from Sunlight What Is Photosynthesis? Photosynthesis: synthesis from light The broad outline: Plants take in CO 2 and release water and O 2 Light is required

More information

Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps):

Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): Biology 20 Cellular Respiration Review NG Know the process of Cellular Respiration (use this picture if it helps): 1) How many ATP molecules are produced for each glucose molecule used in fermentation?

More information

Bioenergetics Module A Anchor 3

Bioenergetics Module A Anchor 3 Bioenergetics Module A Anchor 3 Key Concepts: - ATP can easily release and store energy by breaking and re-forming the bonds between its phosphate groups. This characteristic of ATP makes it exceptionally

More information

Chapter 6. Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis

Chapter 6. Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis Chapter 6 Capturing Solar Energy: Photosynthesis Including some materials from lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education, Inc. 6.1

More information

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria

Chloroplasts and Mitochondria Name: KEY Period: Chloroplasts and Mitochondria Plant cells and some Algae contain an organelle called the chloroplast. The chloroplast allows plants to harvest energy from sunlight to carry on a process

More information

-Loss of energy -Loss of hydrogen from carbons. -Gain of energy -Gain of hydrogen to carbons

-Loss of energy -Loss of hydrogen from carbons. -Gain of energy -Gain of hydrogen to carbons Cellular Respiration- Equation C6H12O6 + 6O2 6CO2 +6H20 and energy -The energy is released from the chemical bonds in the complex organic molecules -The catabolic process of releasing energy from food

More information

CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY

CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY CHAPTER 6: PHOTOSYNTHESIS CAPTURING & CONVERTING ENERGY 2 PROCESSES OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Photosynthesis is actually 2 processes: light reactions - convert solar energy (sunlight) to chemical energy (ATP &

More information

Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis: Converting light energy into chemical energy. Photoautotrophs capture sunlight and convert it to chemical energy

Photosynthesis. Photosynthesis: Converting light energy into chemical energy. Photoautotrophs capture sunlight and convert it to chemical energy Photosynthesis: Converting light energy into chemical energy Photosynthesis 6 + 12H 2 O + light energy Summary Formula: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + 6H 2 O 6 + 6H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Photosythesis provides

More information

Lecture 7 Outline (Ch. 10)

Lecture 7 Outline (Ch. 10) Lecture 7 Outline (Ch. 10) I. Photosynthesis overview A. Purpose B. Location II. The light vs. the dark reaction III. Chloroplasts pigments A. Light absorption B. Types IV. Light reactions A. Photosystems

More information

Photosynthesis P P P. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs (page 201) Chemical Energy and ATP (pages 202 203) Chapter 8. Name Class Date

Photosynthesis P P P. Autotrophs and Heterotrophs (page 201) Chemical Energy and ATP (pages 202 203) Chapter 8. Name Class Date Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Section 8 1 Energy and Life (pages 201 203) This section explains where plants get the energy they need to produce food. It also describes the role of the chemical compound ATP

More information

Photosynthesis. Name. Light reactions Calvin cycle Oxidation Reduction Electronegativity Photosystem Electron carrier NADP+ Concentration gradient

Photosynthesis. Name. Light reactions Calvin cycle Oxidation Reduction Electronegativity Photosystem Electron carrier NADP+ Concentration gradient Vocabulary Terms Photoautotroph Chemoautotroph Electromagnetic spectrum Wavelength Chloroplast Thylakoid Stroma Chlorophyll Absorption spectrum Photosynthesis Light reactions Calvin cycle Oxidation Reduction

More information

Ch. 4 ATP & Photosynthesis

Ch. 4 ATP & Photosynthesis Name: Biology G Vocabulary Section 4.1 Ch. 4 ATP & Photosynthesis Period: ADP Adenosine Diphosphate ATP Adenosine Triphosphate Chemosynthesis Vocabulary Section 4.2 Photosynthesis Chlorophyll Thylakoid

More information

CHAPTER 4. Section 1 Do we get energy from food?

CHAPTER 4. Section 1 Do we get energy from food? Section 1 Do we get energy from food? CHAPTER 4 Food contains energy but it has to be broken down in order to be used. That means that energy comes from food but not directly. All cells, including plant

More information

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman SOME Important Points About Cellular Energetics by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman An Introduction to Metabolism Most biochemical processes occur as biochemical pathways, each individual reaction of which is catalyzed

More information

Photosynthesis (CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 )

Photosynthesis (CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 ) The vital role of A This is the energy-rich compound that is the source of energy for all living things. It is a nucleotide, comprising a 5C sugar (ribose); an organic base (adenosine); and 3 phosphate

More information

Name Date Period PHOTOSYNTHESIS HW REVIEW ENERGY AND LIFE

Name Date Period PHOTOSYNTHESIS HW REVIEW ENERGY AND LIFE 1 Name Date Period PHOTOSYNTHESIS HW REVIEW ENERGY AND LIFE MULTIPLE CHOICE: CIRCLE ALL THE ANSWERS THAT ARE TRUE. THERE MAY BE MORE THAN ONE CORRECT ANSWER! 1. Which molecule stores more than 90 times

More information

Photosynthesis Reactions. Photosynthesis Reactions

Photosynthesis Reactions. Photosynthesis Reactions Photosynthesis Reactions Photosynthesis occurs in two stages linked by ATP and NADPH NADPH is similar to NADH seen in mitochondria; it is an electron/hydrogen carrier The complete process of photosynthesis

More information

Biology I. Chapter 8/9

Biology I. Chapter 8/9 Biology I Chapter 8/9 NOTEBOOK #1 Interest Grabber Suppose you earned extra money by having a part-time job. At first, you might be tempted to spend all of the money, but then you decide to open a bank

More information

4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis

4.2 Overview of Photosynthesis KEY CONCEPT The overall process of photosynthesis produces sugars that store chemical energy. Radiant Energy Chemical Energy A. Organisms are classified according to how they obtain energy. 1. Autotroph/Producers

More information

Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration 1 of 5 11/9/2011 8:11 PM Name: Hour: Chapter 9 Review Worksheet Cellular Respiration Energy in General 1. Differentiate an autotroph from a hetertroph as it relates to obtaining energy and the processes

More information

SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test. [25 marks]

SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test. [25 marks] Part 1: Multiple Choice SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test Mr. Dykstra Name: [25 marks] 1. Which of the following molecules links glucose oxidation, fatty acid catabolism, and the catabolism of

More information

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION

PHOTOSYNTHESIS AND CELLULAR RESPIRATION reflect Wind turbines shown in the photo on the right are large structures with blades that move in response to air movement. When the wind blows, the blades rotate. This motion generates energy that is

More information

MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR LIFE ON EARTH? THE SUN!!

MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR LIFE ON EARTH? THE SUN!! MAIN SOURCE OF ENERGY FOR LIFE ON EARTH? THE SUN!! THE BASICS OF PHOTOSYNTHESIS Almost all plants are photosynthetic autotrophs, as are some bacteria and protists Autotrophs generate their own organic

More information

Name Class Date. Describe the role of ATP in cellular activities. Explain where plants get the energy they need to produce food.

Name Class Date. Describe the role of ATP in cellular activities. Explain where plants get the energy they need to produce food. 8.1 Energy and Life Lesson Objectives Describe the role of ATP in cellular activities. Explain where plants get the energy they need to produce food. Lesson Summary Chemical Energy and ATP Energy is the

More information

3. In what part of the chloroplast do the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis take place? Chloroplast. Name Class Date

3. In what part of the chloroplast do the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis take place? Chloroplast. Name Class Date The Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place in chloroplasts. Inside chloroplasts are saclike membranes called thylakoids. These thylakoids are arranged in stacks. A stack of thylakoids is called

More information

Question. Which of the following are necessary in order for photosynthesis to occur? A. water B. light energy C. carbon dioxide D.

Question. Which of the following are necessary in order for photosynthesis to occur? A. water B. light energy C. carbon dioxide D. Photosynthesis is the process through which plants convert light energy to chemical energy in order to produce food The energy involved in photosynthesis is eventually stored in the chemical bonds of molecules

More information

ATP & Photosynthesis Honors Biology

ATP & Photosynthesis Honors Biology ATP & Photosynthesis Honors Biology ATP All cells need for life. Some things we use energy for are: Moving Thinking Sleeping Breathing Growing Reproducing ENERGY Labeled Sketch: The principal chemical

More information

Photosynthesis Chapter 8 E N E R G Y T O M A K E F O O D?

Photosynthesis Chapter 8 E N E R G Y T O M A K E F O O D? Photosynthesis Chapter 8 H O W D O E S T H E P L A N T U S E T H E S U N S E N E R G Y T O M A K E F O O D? http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=pe82qtkssh4 Autotroph vs. Heterotroph Autotrophs/Producers-organisms

More information

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis

Chapter 10: Photosynthesis Name Period Chapter 10: Photosynthesis This chapter is as challenging as the one you just finished on cellular respiration. However, conceptually it will be a little easier because the concepts learned

More information

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages:

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions The Calvin cycle 1. Capturing energy from sunlight 2. Using energy to make ATP and NADPH 3. Using ATP and

More information

CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT

CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT CELL/ PHOTOSYNTHESIS/ CELLULAR RESPIRATION Test 2011 ANSWER 250 POINTS ANY WAY IN WHICH YOU WANT Completion: complete each statement. (1 point each) 1. All cells arise from. 2. The basic unit of structure

More information

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration

Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Unit 5 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Advanced Concepts What is the abbreviated name of this molecule? What is its purpose? What are the three parts of this molecule? Label each part with the

More information

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C.

pathway that involves taking in heat from the environment at each step. C. Study Island Cell Energy Keystone Review 1. Cells obtain energy by either capturing light energy through photosynthesis or by breaking down carbohydrates through cellular respiration. In both photosynthesis

More information

Visualizing Cell Processes

Visualizing Cell Processes Visualizing Cell Processes A Series of Five Programs produced by BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES Content Guide for Program 3 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Copyright 2001, BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES www.ebiomedia.com

More information

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds 5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds In this section, you will distinguish among aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation explain how carbohydrates are oxidized

More information

Metabolism Poster Questions

Metabolism Poster Questions Metabolism Poster Questions Answer the following questions concerning respiration. 1. Consider the mitochondrial electron transport chain. a. How many hydrogen ions can be pumped for every NADH? b. How

More information

Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes

Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes Cell Energy (Photosynthesis and Respiration) Notes I. Energy ability to do work; forms of energy: heat, light, chemical, electrical, mechanical, kinetic, potential A. Energy for living things comes from

More information

Chapter 4. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets. 63 www.ck12.org

Chapter 4. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets. 63 www.ck12.org Chapter 4 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Worksheets (Opening image copyright by Derek Ramsey, http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/file:monarch_butterfly_ Danaus_plexippus_Feeding_Down_3008px.jpg, and

More information

8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis

8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis 8.3 The Process of Photosynthesis Lesson Objectives Describe what happens during the light-dependent reactions. Describe what happens during the light-independent reactions. Identify factors that affect

More information

Photosynthesis. Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis

Photosynthesis. Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis Photosynthesis Nearly all of the usable energy on this planet came, at one time or another, from the sun by the process of photosynthesis Photosynthesis In the process of photosynthesis, plants convert

More information

Cell. (1) This is the most basic unit of life inside of our bodies.

Cell. (1) This is the most basic unit of life inside of our bodies. Cytology Overview Cell (1) This is the most basic unit of life inside of our bodies. ATP (2) Each of our cell s requires energy in order to carry out its day to day func>ons. This is the energy all cells

More information

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action

Summary of Metabolism. Mechanism of Enzyme Action Summary of Metabolism Mechanism of Enzyme Action 1. The substrate contacts the active site 2. The enzyme-substrate complex is formed. 3. The substrate molecule is altered (atoms are rearranged, or the

More information

APh/BE161: Physical Biology of the Cell Winter 2009 Recap on Photosynthesis Rob Phillips

APh/BE161: Physical Biology of the Cell Winter 2009 Recap on Photosynthesis Rob Phillips APh/BE161: Physical Biology of the Cell Winter 2009 Recap on Photosynthesis Rob Phillips Big picture: why are we doing this? A) photosynthesis will explain shortly, b) more generally, interaction of light

More information

Photosynthesis: Harvesting Light Energy

Photosynthesis: Harvesting Light Energy Photosynthesis: Harvesting Light Energy Importance of Photosynthesis A. Ultimate source of energy for all life on Earth 1. All producers are photosynthesizers 2. All consumers and decomposers are dependent

More information

Energy Processing Metabolism and ATP

Energy Processing Metabolism and ATP Energy Processing Metabolism and ATP Classwork 1. What is metabolism? 2. What role do enzymes play in metabolic pathways? 3. How are catabolic pathways related to energy production? 4. Anabolic steroids

More information

ATP & Photosynthesis

ATP & Photosynthesis ATP & Photosynthesis Lets...sing Today in class: 1. Finish worksheets on ATP, chloroplast, and mitochondria (finish as homework) 2. Started a more in depth look at the process of photosynthesis (slides

More information

4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP. KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy.

4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP. KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy. 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP KEY CONCEPT All cells need chemical energy. 4.1 Chemical Energy and ATP Molecules in food store chemical energy in their bonds. Starch molecule Glucose molecule The chemical

More information

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Lecture Outline Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere Life on Earth is solar powered. The chloroplasts of plants use a process called photosynthesis to capture light

More information

Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Objectives Analyze the flow of energy through living systems. (5.1) New Vocabulary. Vocabulary Review. Chapter 5.

Chapter 5. Chapter 5. Objectives Analyze the flow of energy through living systems. (5.1) New Vocabulary. Vocabulary Review. Chapter 5. Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Section 1 and Section 2 Photosynthesis and Cellular Respiration Why It s Important Every cell in your body needs energy to function. This energy is acquired through

More information

BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004

BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004 BCOR 011 Exam 2, 2004 Name: Section: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. According to the first law of thermodynamics, A. the universe

More information

Cellular Respiration Page 9

Cellular Respiration Page 9 Cellular Respiration Page 9 I. The Importance of Food A. Food provides living things with the chemical building blocks they need to grow and reproduce. B. Food serves as a source of for the cells of the

More information

Cell Energetics Practice

Cell Energetics Practice Cell Energetics Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The ultimate source of energy for almost all living organisms is: a. heat. b.

More information

A. Incorrect! No, while this statement is correct, it is not the best answer to the question.

A. Incorrect! No, while this statement is correct, it is not the best answer to the question. Biochemistry - Problem Drill 18: Photosynthesis No. 1 of 10 1. What is photosynthesis? Select the best answer. (A) Photosynthesis happens in the chloroplasts. (B) Light absorption by chlorophyll induces

More information

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage?

2. Which type of macromolecule contains high-energy bonds and is used for long-term energy storage? Energy Transport Study Island 1. During the process of photosynthesis, plants use energy from the Sun to convert carbon dioxide and water into glucose and oxygen. These products are, in turn, used by the

More information

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs

Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Questions/ Main Ideas 8 1 Energy and Life Autotrophs and Heterotrophs Chemical Energy and ATP Energy is the ability to do work. Nearly every activity in modern society depends on one kind of energy or

More information

Photosynthesis and (Aerobic) Respiration. Photosynthesis

Photosynthesis and (Aerobic) Respiration. Photosynthesis Photosynthesis and (Aerobic) Respiration These two processes have many things in common. 1. occur in organelles that seem to be descended from bacteria (endosymbiont theory): chloroplasts and mitochondria

More information

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following?

Cellular Energy. 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? Cellular Energy 1. Photosynthesis is carried out by which of the following? A. plants, but not animals B. animals, but not plants C. bacteria, but neither animals nor plants D. all living organisms 2.

More information

Keystone Biology Review Bioenergetics

Keystone Biology Review Bioenergetics Keystone Biology Review Bioenergetics Photosynthesis Is the process whereby organisms convert light energy into chemical bond energy of glucose It occurs in the Chloroplasts of plant cells Photosynthesis

More information

b. What is/are the overall function(s) of photosystem II?

b. What is/are the overall function(s) of photosystem II? Use your model and the information in Chapter 10 of Biology, 7th edition, to answer the questions. 1. The various reactions in photosynthesis are spatially segregated from each other within the chloroplast.

More information

Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration

Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Energy, Photosynthesis & Cellular Respiration Name: Period: Date: I. ATP: Energy In A Molecule All is broken down by the body into small molecules through digestion o By the time food reaches your, it

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis. Concept 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food

Chapter 10. Photosynthesis. Concept 10.1 Photosynthesis converts light energy to the chemical energy of food Chapter 10 Photosynthesis Lecture Outline Overview: The Process That Feeds the Biosphere Life on Earth is solar powered. The chloroplasts of plants use a process called photosynthesis to capture light

More information

Name Class Date. Figure 8-1

Name Class Date. Figure 8-1 Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Chapter Test A Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following is an autotroph? a. mushroom

More information

Energy and Photosynthesis. Pre-AP Biology HHS

Energy and Photosynthesis. Pre-AP Biology HHS Energy and Photosynthesis Pre-AP Biology HHS Energy in Living Things Two Groups of Living Organisms in the Way they meet their Energy needs: Autotrophs: plants and other living things that build organic

More information

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways Photoautotrophs make ATP during photosynthesis and use it to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates

More information

While reading these chapters, constantly ask yourself, How is this information helping me to understand how cells get energy from food?

While reading these chapters, constantly ask yourself, How is this information helping me to understand how cells get energy from food? Biology 160 Reading Guide 07: Photosynthesis NAME: This is DUE: Come prepared to share your findings with your group. ** Fill this reading guide out as you are reading the chapters. This will help you

More information

Chapter 7. How Cells Release Chemical energy

Chapter 7. How Cells Release Chemical energy Chapter 7 How Cells Release Chemical energy Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathway Plants and all other photoautotrophs get energy from the sun, heterotrophs get by eating plants and one another ATP

More information

A B C D. Name Class Date

A B C D. Name Class Date Chapter 8 Photosynthesis Chapter Test A Multiple Choice Write the letter that best answers the question or completes the statement on the line provided. 1. Which of the following is an autotroph? a. mushroom

More information

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 7 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Including some materials from lectures by Gregory Ahearn University of North Florida Ammended by John Crocker Copyright 2009 Pearson Education,

More information

Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION HARVESTING FREE ENERGY Photosynthesis takes free energy and puts it into carbohydrates/sugars Carbohydrates can be stored for later use; light can not and neither can ATP

More information

BCOR 11 Exploring Biology Exam # 2

BCOR 11 Exploring Biology Exam # 2 BCOR 11 Exploring Biology Exam # 2 Name Section For this Multiple Choice Exam you should record your choice of the best answer for each question on the SCANTRON sheet. You must use a number 2 pencil for

More information

Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Period

Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Period Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Cell Biology 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions

More information

Major concepts: Notes: Capturing Cell Energy

Major concepts: Notes: Capturing Cell Energy 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

GCE A Level. Biology. Energy and respiration. сᴏᴏʟιᴏ

GCE A Level. Biology. Energy and respiration. сᴏᴏʟιᴏ GCE A Level Biology Energy and respiration сᴏᴏʟιᴏ 2013-2014 Q 1(a) Describe how ATP is synthesized by oxidative phosphorylation. [June 2012 # 1] Reduced NAD and reduced FAD are passed to the electron transport

More information