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1 Biology 1of 51

2 8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis 2of 51

3 Inside a Chloroplast Inside a Chloroplast In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside chloroplasts. Plant Chloroplast Plant cells 3of 51

4 Inside a Chloroplast Chloroplasts contain thylakoids saclike photosynthetic membranes. Single thylakoid Chloroplast 4of 51

5 Inside a Chloroplast Thylakoids are arranged in stacks known as grana. A singular stack is called a granum. Granum Chloroplast 5of 51

6 Inside a Chloroplast Proteins in the thylakoid membrane organize chlorophyll and other pigments into clusters called photosystems, which are the light-collecting units of the chloroplast. Photosystems Chloroplast 6of 51

7 Inside a Chloroplast Light H 2 O CO 2 NADP + ADP + P Lightdependent reactions Calvin Cycle cycle Chloroplast O 2 Sugars 7of 51

8 Electron Carriers Electron Carriers When electrons in chlorophyll absorb sunlight, the electrons gain a great deal of energy. Cells use electron carriers to transport these highenergy electrons from chlorophyll to other molecules. 8of 51

9 Electron Carriers One carrier molecule is NADP +. Electron carriers, such as NADP +, transport electrons. NADP + accepts and holds 2 high-energy electrons along with a hydrogen ion (H + ). This converts the NADP + into NADPH. 9of 51

10 Light-Dependent Reactions Light-Dependent Reactions The light-dependent reactions require light. The light-dependent reactions produce oxygen gas and convert ADP and NADP + into the energy carriers ATP and NADPH. 10 of 51

11 Light-Dependent Reactions 11 of 51

12 Light-Dependent Reactions Photosynthesis begins when pigments in photosystem II absorb light, increasing their energy level. Photosystem II 12 of 51

13 Light-Dependent Reactions These high-energy electrons are passed on to the electron transport chain. Photosystem II High-energy electron Electron carriers 13 of 51

14 Light-Dependent Reactions Enzymes on the thylakoid membrane break water molecules into: Photosystem II 2H 2 O High-energy electron Electron carriers 14 of 51

15 hydrogen ions oxygen atoms energized electrons Light-Dependent Reactions Photosystem II + O 2 2H 2 O High-energy electron Electron carriers 15 of 51

16 Light-Dependent Reactions The energized electrons from water replace the high-energy electrons that chlorophyll lost to the electron transport chain. Photosystem II 2H 2 O + O 2 High-energy electron 16 of 51

17 Light-Dependent Reactions As plants remove electrons from water, oxygen is left behind and is released into the air. Photosystem II 2H 2 O + O 2 High-energy electron 17 of 51

18 Light-Dependent Reactions The hydrogen ions left behind when water is broken apart are released inside the thylakoid membrane. Photosystem II 2H 2 O + O 2 High-energy electron 18 of 51

19 Light-Dependent Reactions Energy from the electrons is used to transport H + ions from the stroma into the inner thylakoid space. Photosystem II 2H 2 O + O 2 19 of 51

20 Light-Dependent Reactions High-energy electrons move through the electron transport chain from photosystem II to photosystem I. Photosystem II 2H 2 O + O 2 Photosystem I 20 of 51

21 Light-Dependent Reactions Pigments in photosystem I use energy from light to re-energize the electrons. 2H 2 O + O 2 Photosystem I 21 of 51

22 Light-Dependent Reactions NADP + then picks up these high-energy electrons, along with H + ions, and becomes NADPH. 2H 2 O + O 2 2 NADP NADPH 22 of 51

23 Light-Dependent Reactions As electrons are passed from chlorophyll to NADP +, more H + ions are pumped across the membrane. 2H 2 O + O 2 2 NADP NADPH 23 of 51

24 Light-Dependent Reactions Soon, the inside of the membrane fills up with positively charged hydrogen ions, which makes the outside of the membrane negatively charged. 2H 2 O + O 2 2 NADP NADPH 24 of 51

25 Light-Dependent Reactions The difference in charges across the membrane provides the energy to make ATP 2H 2 O + O 2 2 NADP NADPH 25 of 51

26 Light-Dependent Reactions H + ions cannot cross the membrane directly. ATP synthase 2H 2 O + O 2 2 NADP NADPH 26 of 51

27 Light-Dependent Reactions The cell membrane contains a protein called ATP synthase that allows H + ions to pass through it ATP synthase 2H 2 O + O 2 2 NADP NADPH 27 of 51

28 Light-Dependent Reactions As H + ions pass through ATP synthase, the protein rotates. ATP synthase 2H 2 O + O 2 2 NADP NADPH 28 of 51

29 Light-Dependent Reactions As it rotates, ATP synthase binds ADP and a phosphate group together to produce ATP. ATP synthase 2H 2 O + O 2 2 NADP ADP NADPH 29 of 51

30 Light-Dependent Reactions Because of this system, light-dependent electron transport produces not only high-energy electrons but ATP as well. ATP synthase 2H 2 O + O 2 2 NADP ADP NADPH 30 of 51

31 The Calvin Cycle What is the Calvin cycle? 31 of 51

32 The Calvin Cycle The Calvin cycle uses ATP and NADPH from the light-dependent reactions to produce high-energy sugars. Because the Calvin cycle does not require light, these reactions are also called the light-independent reactions. 32 of 51

33 The Calvin Cycle Six carbon dioxide molecules enter the cycle from the atmosphere and combine with six 5-carbon molecules. CO 2 Enters the Cycle 33 of 51

34 The Calvin Cycle The result is twelve 3-carbon molecules, which are then converted into higher-energy forms. 34 of 51

35 The Calvin Cycle The energy for this conversion comes from ATP and high-energy electrons from NADPH. Energy Input ADP 12 NADPH 12 NADP + 35 of 51

36 The Calvin Cycle Two of twelve 3-carbon molecules are removed from the cycle. Energy Input ADP 12 NADPH 12 NADP + 36 of 51

37 The Calvin Cycle The molecules are used to produce sugars, lipids, amino acids and other compounds ADP 12 NADPH 12 NADP + 6-Carbon sugar produced 37 of 51 Sugars and other compounds

38 The Calvin Cycle The 10 remaining 3-carbon molecules are converted back into six 5-carbon molecules, which are used to begin the next cycle ADP 6 12 ADP 12 NADPH 12 NADP + 5-Carbon Molecules Regenerated 38 of 51 Sugars and other compounds

39 The Calvin Cycle The two sets of photosynthetic reactions work together. The light-dependent reactions trap sunlight energy in chemical form. The light-independent reactions use that chemical energy to produce stable, highenergy sugars from carbon dioxide and water. 39 of 51

40 8-3 Continue to: -or - Click to Launch: 40 of 51

41 8-3 In plants, photosynthesis takes place inside the a. thylakoids. b. chloroplasts. c. photosystems. d. chlorophyll. 41 of 51

42 8-3 Energy to make ATP in the chloroplast comes most directly from a. hydrogen ions flowing through an enzyme in the thylakoid membrane. b. transfer of a phosphate from ADP. c. electrons moving through the electron transport chain. d. electrons transferred directly from NADPH. 42 of 51

43 8-3 NADPH is produced in light-dependent reactions and carries energy in the form of a. ATP. b. high-energy electrons. c. low-energy electrons. d. ADP. 43 of 51

44 8-3 What is another name for the Calvin cycle? a. light-dependent reactions b. light-independent reactions c. electron transport chain d. photosynthesis 44 of 51

45 8-3 Which of the following factors does NOT directly affect photosynthesis? a. wind b. water supply c. temperature d. light intensity 45 of 51

46 END OF SECTION

8-3 The Reactions of Photosynthesis Slide 1 of 51

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