Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase"

Transcription

1 Lactic Acid Dehydrogenase Pyruvic Acid Dehydrogenase Complex Pyruvate to ACETYL coa CC CoA + CO 2 Mitochondria 3 carbon Pyruvate to 2 carbon ACETYL Coenzyme A Pyruvate Acetyl CoA + CO 2 + NADH + H + CO2 to blood for excretion Acetyl CoA multiple fates #1 oxidized in mitochondria via Krebs Cycle #2 converted to fatty acid #3 may be waisted but will not be wasted 3 FFA + glycerol triglyceride adipiose tissue Mitochondrial reactions

2 Citric Acid Cycle Requires oxygen 3 carbon Pyruvate or Lactate(from glycolysis) converted to 2 carbon acetyl CoA (which enters Citric Acid Cycle) and 1 molecule of CO 2 (which is a waste product that has to be excreted). NADH also produced Citric Acid Cycle consists of eight separate biochemical reactions that are directed by enzymes of mitochondrial matrix uses: Acetyl coa (from glycolysis or FFA) and oxaloacetate to produce: hydrogen carrier molecules for entry into electron transport system (3 NADH and FADH 2 ) 1 ATP from substrate Oxaloacetate for use in same cycle again 2 molecules of CO 2 (which is a waste product that has to be excreted)

3 In mitochondrial matrix Pyruvate 3C Acetyl-CoA Key Carbon atom Oxaloacetate Citrate C Malate Isocitrate 6C Fumarate Ketoglutarate 1C Succinate 4C Succinyl + 4C 1C Fig. 2-11, p. 29 Oxidative Phosphorylation ATP is synthesized using energy from electrons associated with NADH and FADH 2 as they are transferred to O 2 4H+ O 2 2 H 2 O Two protein group process: electron transport system and ATP synthase

4 The ATP produced captures energy available in nutrients in a form that can be used by other cellular components to do cell work Fig. 2-12, p Glucose 2 NADH 2 NADH 6 NADH 2 FADH 2 10 NADH Glycolysis 2 Pyruvate Pyruvate to acetate 2 Acetyl-CoA 2 turns of citric acid cycle Electron transfer 2 FADH 2 2 x 1.5 ATP/FADH 2 3 Electron transfer 10 x 2.5 ATP/NADH Oxidative phosphorylation ATP Cytosol Mitochondrial matrix Mitochondrial inner membrane Total 32 ATP Fig. 2-13, p. 32

5 Fatty Acid to Acetyl coa What is a fatty acid? Beta oxidation is the process by which fatty acids, in the form of Acyl-CoA molecules, are broken down in mitochondria to generate Acetyl-CoA, a. Activation of fatty acids in the cytosol b. Transport of fatty acids into mitochondria a. Fatty acids are transported across the outer mitochondrial membrane by carnitine-palmitoyl transferase I b. They are then couriered across the inner mitochondrial membrane by carnitine c. Beta oxidation occurs in the mitochondrial matrix: Two-carbon molecules acetyl-coa are repeatedly cleaved from the fatty acid. a) Acetyl-CoA can then enter the TCA cycle, which produces NADH and FADH2. b) NADH and FADH2 are subsequently used in the electron transport chain to produce ATP

6 What is a fatty acid? A fatty acid is a with a long unbranched carbon chain tail Most naturally occurring fatty acids have a chain of four to 28 carbons. The number of carbon atoms is usually even. Pictured is a rough representation of a C16 fatty acid. Activation: in cytolsol ATP ADP + activated *C on fatty acid

7 The acid and activated carbon are cleaved in a series of reactions. End products of step of 1 cycle of beta oxidation are Acetyl CoA, NADH+H + and FADH 2 and an activated fatty acid that is 2 carbons shorter ATP after 1 cycle NADH+H ATP + 1 H2O FADH ATP + 1 H2O Acetyl CoA (KREBS CYCLE) 3 NADH+H +, 1 FADH 2 + 1ATP 3 NADH+H + 9ATP + 3 H2O 1 FADH 2 2ATP + 1 H2O TOTAL = 10 ATP per Acetyl CoA entering Krebs Cycle 14 ATP produced, 1 spent, NET = 13

8 16C FATTY ACID 8 ACETYL CoA (x 10 = 80 ATP) 7 NADH+H + (x 2.5 = 17.5 ATP) 7 FADH 2 (x 1.5 = 10.5 ATP) TOTAL 108 ATP 1 for activation = NET 107 ATP

9 Amino Acid oxidation transamination (or aminotransfer): reaction between an amino acid and a keto acid transminase amino acid 1 + ketoacid 2 ketoacid 1 + amino acid 2 The former amino acid is now a keto acid that can be used in the Krebs cycle The former keto acid is now a nonessential amino acid that has the amino group Deamination Deamination is the process by which amino acids are broken down there is an excess of protein intake. The amino group is removed from the amino acid and converted to ammonia. The rest of the amino acid is made up of mostly carbon and hydrogen, and is recycled or oxidized for energy. Ammonia is toxic to the human system, and enzymes convert it to urea or uric acid by addition of carbon dioxide molecules urea cycle, which also takes place in the liver. Urea and uric acid can safely diffuse into the blood and then be excreted in urine. Urea cycle deaminase +

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline

AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline AP BIOLOGY CHAPTER 7 Cellular Respiration Outline I. How cells get energy. A. Cellular Respiration 1. Cellular respiration includes the various metabolic pathways that break down carbohydrates and other

More information

Pyruvate Oxidation and the Krebs Cycle. Courtney, Chelsey, Morgan, GSchilbeG, Tessa

Pyruvate Oxidation and the Krebs Cycle. Courtney, Chelsey, Morgan, GSchilbeG, Tessa Pyruvate Oxidation and the Krebs Cycle Courtney, Chelsey, Morgan, GSchilbeG, Tessa Pyruvate Oxidation Pyruvate Oxidation Pyruvate is a glucose molecule cut in half Pyruvate oxidation is the second stage

More information

The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation

The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation Honors Biology Chapter 6.8 6.12 Study Sheet The Citric Acid Cycle and Oxidative Phosphorylation PYRUVATE OXIDATION DRAW THE DETAILED REACTION BELOW: REACTION SUMMARY: SUBSTRATES: PRODUCTS: THE CITRIC ACID

More information

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle Bởi: OpenStaxCollege If oxygen is available, aerobic respiration will go forward. In eukaryotic cells, the pyruvate molecules produced at the end of glycolysis

More information

monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids

monosaccharides fatty acids amino acids Cellular Energy In order to sustain life (steady state), cells constantly expend energy in the form of ATP hydrolysis the hydrolysis of ATP yields a molecule of ADP (adenosine diphosphate) and a Phosphate

More information

Chapter 22. Structure and Function. Structure of Acetyl CoA Conversion of. Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA The Mitochondria

Chapter 22. Structure and Function. Structure of Acetyl CoA Conversion of. Pyruvate to Acetyl CoA The Mitochondria Copyright! The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 22.1 The Mitochondria Denniston Topping Caret 5 th Edition Chapter 22 Aerobic Respiration and Energy Production

More information

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration

8/13/2009. Cellular Metabolism. Metabolism. Cellular Metabolism. Summary of Cellular Respiration. Aerobic Cellular respiration Metabolism Cellular Metabolism Consists of all of the chemical reactions that take place in a cell Biol 105 Lecture 6 Read Chapter 3 (pages 63 69) Cellular Metabolism Aerobic cellular respiration requires

More information

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism)

Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Energy Production In A Cell (Chapter 25 Metabolism) Large food molecules contain a lot of potential energy in the form of chemical bonds but it requires a lot of work to liberate the energy. Cells need

More information

Chapter 7. How Cells Release Chemical energy

Chapter 7. How Cells Release Chemical energy Chapter 7 How Cells Release Chemical energy Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathway Plants and all other photoautotrophs get energy from the sun, heterotrophs get by eating plants and one another ATP

More information

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 1 of 37

9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Electron Transport Slide 1 of 37 1 of 37 9-2 The Krebs Cycle and Oxygen is required for the final steps of cellular respiration. Because the pathways of cellular respiration require oxygen, they are aerobic. 2 of 37 The Krebs Cycle The

More information

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle OpenStax-CNX module: m47334 1 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle Robert Bear David Rintoul Based on Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle by OpenStax College This work is produced

More information

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE Introduction In this Cbse Biology Notes on the Citric Acid Cycle, also called the Krebs Cycle, we will pick up where we left off in the last section with the aerobic product of glycolysis,

More information

Using the Energy from Photosynthesis. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Energy Produced through the Breakdown of Glucose

Using the Energy from Photosynthesis. Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Energy Produced through the Breakdown of Glucose Harvesting Energy: and Cellular Chapter 8 Using the Energy from Photosynthesis 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + light C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 + heat Some ATP is produced in photosynthesis, but most energy is stored in sugars.

More information

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs.

The correct answer is d C. Answer c is incorrect. Reliance on the energy produced by others is a characteristic of heterotrophs. 1. An autotroph is an organism that a. extracts energy from organic sources b. converts energy from sunlight into chemical energy c. relies on the energy produced by other organisms as an energy source

More information

Lecture: 4 Biochemistry Anwar J Almzaiel. Citric acid cycle

Lecture: 4 Biochemistry Anwar J Almzaiel. Citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle Citric acid cycle (Krebs cycle, tricarboxylic acid cycle) is a series of reactions in mitochondria that bring about the catabolism of acetyl residues, liberating hydrogen equivalents,

More information

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle

Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle OpenStax-CNX module: m44433 1 Oxidation of Pyruvate and the Citric Acid Cycle OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 3.0 By the

More information

: The Body s Energy Shuttles. *The body s energy shuttles NADH, FADH 2

: The Body s Energy Shuttles. *The body s energy shuttles NADH, FADH 2 Chapter 8 Metabolism Chapter Outline I. Energy: Fuel for Work. *Energy is necessary to do any kind of work. The body converts chemical energy from food sources carbohydrates, proteins, and fats into a

More information

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration Phases of aerobic cellular respiration 1. Glycolysis 2. Transition or Acetyl-CoA reaction 3. Krebs cycle 4. Electron transport system Chapter 7 Cellular Respiration These phases are nothing more than metabolic

More information

Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Period

Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Period Ch. 6 Cellular Respiration Name Period California State Standards covered by this chapter: Cell Biology 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions

More information

Cellular Respiration. Sylvia S. Mader BIOLOGY. Chapter 8: pp. 133-149. Insert figure 8.2 here. 10th Edition

Cellular Respiration. Sylvia S. Mader BIOLOGY. Chapter 8: pp. 133-149. Insert figure 8.2 here. 10th Edition Chapter 8: pp. 133-149 BIOLOGY 10th Edition Cellular Respiration Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Insert figure 8. here and Cytoplasm e F ADH Mitochondrion

More information

The Chemical Reactions in Glycolysis

The Chemical Reactions in Glycolysis 12.4 Glycolysis From Hydrolysis Products to Common Metabolites The Chemical Reactions in Glycolysis In the body, energy must be transferred in small amounts to minimize the heat released in the process.

More information

To get from intermembrane space to matrix involves pyruvate translocase (symporter that also moves H + into matrix).

To get from intermembrane space to matrix involves pyruvate translocase (symporter that also moves H + into matrix). 1 Chapter 12 - The Citric Acid Cycle Summary: Yields reduced coenzymes (NADH and QH 2 ) and some ATP (2). Preparative step is oxidative decarboxylation involving coenzyme A. Occurs in eucaryotic mitochondrion

More information

Cellular Respiration

Cellular Respiration Cellular Respiration INTRODUCTION TO CELLULAR RESPIRATION Nearly all the cells in our body break down sugars for ATP production Most cells of most organisms harvest energy aerobically The aerobic harvesting

More information

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP

Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP Chapter 6 How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy Standard 1.g. Cellular Respiration Is the main way that chemical energy is harvested from food and converted to ATP Is an aerobic process Yields The Relationship

More information

Ch. 20 Tricarboxylic acid cyle. TCA cycle (Kreb s cycle) or citric acid cycle: Generates 2/3 of ATP

Ch. 20 Tricarboxylic acid cyle. TCA cycle (Kreb s cycle) or citric acid cycle: Generates 2/3 of ATP Chapt. 20 TCA cycle Ch. 20 Tricarboxylic acid cyle Student Learning Outcomes: Describe relevance of TCA cycle Acetyl CoA funnels products Describe reactions of TCA cycle in cell respiration: 2C added,

More information

Metabolism. Metabolism. Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. Bioenergetics. 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules

Metabolism. Metabolism. Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body. Bioenergetics. 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules Metabolism Metabolism Total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body 1. Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules 2. Catabolic reactions Breakdown of molecules Bioenergetics Converting foodstuffs

More information

CHAPTER 15: ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS

CHAPTER 15: ANSWERS TO SELECTED PROBLEMS CHAPTER 15: ANSWERS T SELECTED PRBLEMS SAMPLE PRBLEMS ( Try it yourself ) 15.1 ur bodies can carry out the second reaction, because it requires less energy than we get from breaking down a molecule of

More information

SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test. [25 marks]

SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test. [25 marks] Part 1: Multiple Choice SBI4U: Respiration and Photosynthesis Test Mr. Dykstra Name: [25 marks] 1. Which of the following molecules links glucose oxidation, fatty acid catabolism, and the catabolism of

More information

THE CELLULAR RESPIRATION SAGA II: THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE & OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION

THE CELLULAR RESPIRATION SAGA II: THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE & OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION THE CELLULAR RESPIRATION SAGA II: THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE & OXIDATIVE PHOSPHORYLATION PLAYERS OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION NAD+ is a coenzyme that is reduced to using electrons Becomes reduced + H NAD + H + H

More information

An outline of glycolysis.

An outline of glycolysis. An outline of glycolysis. Each of the 10 steps shown is catalyzed by a different enzyme. Note that step 4 cleaves a six-carbon sugar into two three-carbon sugars, so that the number of molecules at every

More information

Cellular respiration. Cellular respiration. Respiration and fermentation. Respiration as a redox rxn. Redox reactions.

Cellular respiration. Cellular respiration. Respiration and fermentation. Respiration as a redox rxn. Redox reactions. Cellular respiration So why do we breathe? The big picture Heterotrophs cannot make their own food to supply their energy needs Instead they break down food to use the chemical energy stored in organic

More information

The process by which cells break down organic molecules (food) to make ATP is called cellular respiration

The process by which cells break down organic molecules (food) to make ATP is called cellular respiration Energy flows into an ecosystem as sunlight and leaves as heat Photosynthesis makes O 2 and organic molecules (like sugars and proteins), which are used in cellular respiration Cells use chemical energy

More information

The Citric Acid Cycle

The Citric Acid Cycle Mary K. Campbell Shawn O. Farrell http://academic.cengage.com/chemistry/campbell Chapter 19 The Citric Acid Cycle Paul D. Adams University of Arkansas Major pathways of glucose utilization 1 2 4 3 C 6

More information

BIOCHEMISTRY. Glycolysis

BIOCHEMISTRY. Glycolysis BIOCHEMISTRY Glycolysis 1 Regulation of Glucose Metabolism Regulation of Glucose Metabolism 2 3 Phosphofructokinase Key enzyme in the control of glycolysis Allosteric regulation Allosteric regulation of

More information

What s the point? ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP

What s the point? ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=vcpnk92uswy What s the point? Cellular Respiration The point Stage 4: is to make ATP! Electron Transport Chain ATP 2013-2014 Cellular respiration ATP accounting so far Even

More information

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8

Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration. Chapter 8 Harvesting Energy: Glycolysis and Cellular Respiration Chapter 8 Overview of Glucose Breakdown The overall equation for the complete breakdown of glucose is: C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + ATP The

More information

19. The Citric Acid Cycle

19. The Citric Acid Cycle 19. The Citric Acid Cycle 19.1 The Central Role of Citric Acid Cycle Play in Metabolism Evolution of aerobic metabolism - Nutrients are oxidized to carbon dioxide and water. - Organisms can obtain far

More information

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Cellular Respiration and Fermentation LECTURE PRESENTATIONS For CAMPBELL BIOLOGY, NINTH EDITION Jane B. Reece, Lisa A. Urry, Michael L. Cain, Steven A. Wasserman, Peter V. Minorsky, Robert B. Jackson Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

More information

Chapter 3: Bioenergetics

Chapter 3: Bioenergetics Chapter 3: Bioenergetics Introduction Metabolism: total of all chemical reactions that occur in the body Anabolic reactions Synthesis of molecules Catabolic reactions Breakdown of molecules Bioenergetics

More information

2. Now examine aspects of the last stage in greater detail

2. Now examine aspects of the last stage in greater detail IX. Metabolism and Energy Production A. Introduction Slide 1. R `ism a. Stage I: Breakdown of macromolecules into their building blocks (1) Proteins amino acids (2) Polysaccharides, disaccharides monosaccharides

More information

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy

How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy How Cells Harvest Chemical Energy I. Introduction A. In eukaryotes, cellular respiration 1. harvests energy from food 2. yields large amounts of ATP 3. B. A similar process takes place in many prokaryotic

More information

1/21/2009. ATP PC system Immediate source of ATP

1/21/2009. ATP PC system Immediate source of ATP Scott K. Powers Edward T. Howley Theory and Application to Fitness and Performance SEVENTH EDITION Chapter Presentation prepared by: Brian B. Parr, Ph.D. University of South Carolina Aiken Copyright 2009

More information

How is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Long-distance runners have many slow fibers in their muscles

How is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Long-distance runners have many slow fibers in their muscles How is a Marathoner Different from a Sprinter? Long-distance runners have many slow fibers in their muscles Slow fibers break down glucose aerobically (using oxygen) for ATP production These muscle cells

More information

9-1 Notes. Chemical Pathways

9-1 Notes. Chemical Pathways 9-1 Notes Chemical Pathways Chemical Energy & Food Food provides living things with the chemical building blocks to grow and reproduce. One gram of the sugar glucose releases 3811 calories of heat energy.

More information

Disciplina: SLC0673. Ciclos energéticos vitais. Prof. Dr. Andrei Leitão

Disciplina: SLC0673. Ciclos energéticos vitais. Prof. Dr. Andrei Leitão Disciplina: SLC0673 Ciclos energéticos vitais Prof. Dr. Andrei Leitão The citric acid cycle, The tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle or The Krebs cycle Cellular Respiration Rather than being reduced to lactate,

More information

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds

5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds 5.3 Cellular Respiration Releases Energy from Organic Compounds In this section, you will distinguish among aerobic respiration, anaerobic respiration, and fermentation explain how carbohydrates are oxidized

More information

Metabolism and Bioenergetics Part 1: Intro and Acetyl CoA

Metabolism and Bioenergetics Part 1: Intro and Acetyl CoA Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Metabolism Part 2 Activity. Metabolism and Bioenergetics Part 1: Intro and Acetyl CoA Metabolism ALL biochemical reactions involving

More information

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation

Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Name: AP Biology Mr. Croft Chapter 7 Active Reading Guide Cellular Respiration and Fermentation Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second

More information

Buddhist Chi Hong Chi Lam Memorial College A.L. Bio. Notes (by Denise Wong) Energetics... Page 18. Respiration

Buddhist Chi Hong Chi Lam Memorial College A.L. Bio. Notes (by Denise Wong) Energetics... Page 18. Respiration Energetics... Page 18 Respiration Syllabus : The importance of respiration in converting chemical energy in food to chemical energy in ATP. The sites of respiration the sites of the various biochemical

More information

Introduction Chapter 6. 6.1 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide energy for life. 6.3 Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules

Introduction Chapter 6. 6.1 Photosynthesis and cellular respiration provide energy for life. 6.3 Cellular respiration banks energy in ATP molecules Introduction Chapter 6 In eukaryotes, cellular respiration harvests energy from food, yields large amounts of, and Uses to drive cellular work. A similar process takes place in many prokaryotic organisms.

More information

Lecture Notes Respiration

Lecture Notes Respiration Lecture Notes Respiration We will consider two processes by which organisms harvest energy from food molecules: Aerobic Respiration more efficient, occurs in presence of O 2 Anaerobic Respiration less

More information

Cellular Respiration Review

Cellular Respiration Review MULTIPLE CHOICE: Circle ALL that are TRUE. There may be MORE THAN one correct answer. is the first step in cellular respiration that begins releasing energy stored in glucose. A. Alcoholic fermentation

More information

ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1

ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1 ENERGY AND METABOLISM 1 Respiration and Fermentation 1. Some bacteria can use carbon dioxide rather than oxygen as the prime oxidizing molecule and therefore produce methane (CH4) rather than water as

More information

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture.

More information

The matrix contains Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, enzymes of Krebs Cycle, and other pathways, e.g., fatty acid oxidation & amino acid metabolism.

The matrix contains Pyruvate Dehydrogenase, enzymes of Krebs Cycle, and other pathways, e.g., fatty acid oxidation & amino acid metabolism. Glycolysis occurs in the cytosol of cells. matrix Pyruvate enters the mitochondrion to be metabolized further. cristae intermembrane space Mitochondrial Compartments: inner membrane mitochondrion outer

More information

pyruvate, lactic acid, CO2, NADH, FADH2 pyruvate, NADH, ATP

pyruvate, lactic acid, CO2, NADH, FADH2 pyruvate, NADH, ATP 1. Glycolysis leads to the production of and two molecules of ATP. In the absence of oxygen, fermentation leads to the production of. Glycolysis plus the citric acid cycle can convert the carbons of glucose

More information

Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY!

Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY! Biology I Cellular Respiration Name: Date: Hour: OK OK OK.. I m sure you all thought that I wouldn t possibly ask you to know more for this chapter SORRY! Now, we need a place to disassemble the molecule

More information

ATP and Cellular Respiration NOTES

ATP and Cellular Respiration NOTES ATP AND ENERGY: ATP and Cellular Respiration NOTES Living things need continuous input of ENERGY to sustain life ENERGY is defined as the capacity of a system to perform work or an action. Living organisms

More information

PG1005. Lecture 12. Kreb s Citric Acid Cycle

PG1005. Lecture 12. Kreb s Citric Acid Cycle PG1005 Lecture 12 Kreb s Citric Acid Cycle Dr. Neil Docherty My Teaching Objectives To discuss the transition from pyruvate generation in the cytosol to the establishment of electron harvesting reactions

More information

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration

Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Electrons carried in NADH Mitochondrion Glucose Glycolysis Pyruvic acid Krebs Cycle Electrons carried in NADH and FADH 2 Electron Transport Chain Cytoplasm Mitochondrion

More information

2. Give the formula (with names) for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration.

2. Give the formula (with names) for the catabolic degradation of glucose by cellular respiration. Chapter 9: Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture.

More information

Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy. Killer Bees. ATP -- Energy Storage. Chapter 8

Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy. Killer Bees. ATP -- Energy Storage. Chapter 8 Cellular Respiration: How Cells Use Stored Energy Chapter 8 Killer Bees Descendents of African honeybees that were imported to Brazil in the 1950s More aggressive, wider-ranging than other honeybees Africanized

More information

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Production of acetyl-coa (activated acetate) Page: 603 Difficulty: 2 Ans: A Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by

More information

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE. aka Krebs cycle or Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE. aka Krebs cycle or Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE aka Krebs cycle or Tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle Overview of Citric Acid Cycle Feed to cycle is the acetyl group note that this is already partially oxidized In this cycle, we will

More information

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE TRICARBOXYLIC ACID(TCA) CYCLE KREBS CYCLE

THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE TRICARBOXYLIC ACID(TCA) CYCLE KREBS CYCLE THE CITRIC ACID CYCLE TRICARBOXYLIC ACID(TCA) CYCLE KREBS CYCLE Production of Acetyl-CoA Reactions of the citric acid cycle Regulation of the citric acid cycle Sir Hans Adolf Krebs A medical doctor and

More information

Metabolism. Functions of food. Metabolism is all the chemical reactions of the body. source of energy essential nutrients

Metabolism. Functions of food. Metabolism is all the chemical reactions of the body. source of energy essential nutrients Metabolism Functions of food source of energy essential nutrients Metabolism is all the chemical reactions of the body some reactions produce the energy stored in ATP that other reactions consume all molecules

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name Advanced Biology Enzyme and Cellular Respiration Test Part I Multiple Choice (75 points) MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The

More information

A) citrate to isocitrate. B) fumarate to malate. C) malate to oxaloacetate. D) succinate to fumarate. E) succinyl-coa to succinate

A) citrate to isocitrate. B) fumarate to malate. C) malate to oxaloacetate. D) succinate to fumarate. E) succinyl-coa to succinate Section 9 Key 1- There is reciprocal regulation of glycolytic and gluconeogenic reactions interconverting fructose-6-phosphate and fructose-1,6-bisphosphate. Which one of the following statements about

More information

REVIEW OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION

REVIEW OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION REVIEW OF CELLULAR RESPIRATION 1. What happens to electrons as they are transported along the electron transport chain? a) they lose energy b) the gain energy c) they are pumped into the space between

More information

The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP

The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP The Structure and Hydrolysis of ATP ATP drives endergonic reactions by phosphorylation, transferring a phosphate group to some other molecule, such as a reactant The recipient molecule is now called a

More information

2. What structure absorbs this energy in the plants cell? In other words, where is photosynthesis occurring in the plant?

2. What structure absorbs this energy in the plants cell? In other words, where is photosynthesis occurring in the plant? Section: 3.4 Name: Opening Activity: What is the equation for photosynthesis? Latin Root Word: Review of Old Information: Review of Old Information: 1. All energy begins as what type of energy and from

More information

Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain

Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain Cellular Respiration Stage 4: Electron Transport Chain 2006-2007 Cellular respiration What s the point? The point is to make ATP! ATP ATP accounting so far Glycolysis 2 ATP Kreb s cycle 2 ATP Life takes

More information

coupled reactions ATP energy coupler

coupled reactions ATP energy coupler Metabolism - 1 Our discussions of proteins, carbohydrates and lipids included the role of these nutrients as fuel or energy-providing molecules. For humans, the major function of carbohydrates is to provide

More information

Electron Transport System. May 16, 2014 Hagop Atamian hatamian@ucdavis.edu

Electron Transport System. May 16, 2014 Hagop Atamian hatamian@ucdavis.edu Electron Transport System May 16, 2014 Hagop Atamian hatamian@ucdavis.edu What did We learn so far? Glucose is converted to pyruvate in glycolysis. The process generates two ATPs. Pyruvate is taken into

More information

Aerobic Respiration: steps

Aerobic Respiration: steps Chapter 5 Metabolism: Aerobic Respiration Dr. Amy Rogers Bio 139 Fall 2006 Office Hours: Mondays & Wednesdays, 8:30-10:00 AM Some figures taken from Krogh Biology: A Guide to the Natural World Bacterial

More information

Citric Acid Cycle. in a manner that conserves the liberated free energy for ATP production

Citric Acid Cycle. in a manner that conserves the liberated free energy for ATP production What is it? Series of rxns that oxidize acetyl CoA to 2CO 2 in a manner that conserves the liberated free energy for ATP production Breakdown products of glc, fats and amino acids are all oxidized via

More information

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages:

Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Photosynthesis takes place in three stages: Light-dependent reactions Light-independent reactions The Calvin cycle 1. Capturing energy from sunlight 2. Using energy to make ATP and NADPH 3. Using ATP and

More information

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration

How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration How Cells Release Chemical Energy Cellular Respiration Overview of Carbohydrate Breakdown Pathways Photoautotrophs make ATP during photosynthesis and use it to synthesize glucose and other carbohydrates

More information

Cellular Respiration An Overview

Cellular Respiration An Overview Why? Cellular Respiration An Overview What are the phases of cellular respiration? All cells need energy all the time, and their primary source of energy is ATP. The methods cells use to make ATP vary

More information

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 16 The Citric Acid Cycle Multiple Choice Questions 1. Which of the following is not true of the reaction catalyzed by the pyruvate dehydrogenase complex? A) Biotin participates in the decarboxylation.

More information

Summary of Metabolic Pathways (Ch 21,23 and 25)

Summary of Metabolic Pathways (Ch 21,23 and 25) Summary of Metabolic Pathways (Ch 21,23 and 25) 21.1 Energy and Life Energy can be converted from one form to another, but can t be created or destroyed. -A consequence of this is that we need a constant

More information

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration.

1. Explain the difference between fermentation and cellular respiration. : Harvesting Chemical Energy Name Period Overview: Before getting involved with the details of cellular respiration and photosynthesis, take a second to look at the big picture. Photosynthesis and cellular

More information

Cellular Respiration. Chemical Energy and Food (page 221) Overview of Cellular Respiration (page 222) Chapter 9. Mitochondrion.

Cellular Respiration. Chemical Energy and Food (page 221) Overview of Cellular Respiration (page 222) Chapter 9. Mitochondrion. Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration Section 9 1 Chemical Pathways (pages 221 225) This section explains what cellular respiration is. It also describes what happens during a process called glycolysis and describes

More information

Chapter 18 Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production

Chapter 18 Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production Chapter 18 Metabolic Pathways and Energy Production 1 Metabolism Metabolism involves all chemical reactions that provide energy and substances needed for growth catabolic reactions that break down large,

More information

Biochemistry of muscle

Biochemistry of muscle Biochemistry of muscle Department of Animal Science and Food Sciences Advance Meat Science and Muscle Biology The ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the ultimate source of energy for: The contractile process.

More information

The Krebs cycle is a central pathway for recovering energy from three major metabolites: carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids.

The Krebs cycle is a central pathway for recovering energy from three major metabolites: carbohydrates, fatty acids, and amino acids. Chapter 16 - Citric Acid Cycle TCA (tricarboxylic acid cycle) Citric acid cycle and Krebs cycle. Named after Sir Hans Krebs, Nobel Laureate. He worked as an assistant professor for Otto Warburg (Nobel

More information

Chapter 12 - The Citric Acid Cycle

Chapter 12 - The Citric Acid Cycle Chapter 12 - The Citric Acid Cycle The citric acid cycle (tricarboxylic acid cycle) is amphibolic (both catabolic and anabolic) The cycle is involved in the aerobic catabolism of carbohydrates, lipids

More information

Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION

Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION Chapter 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION HARVESTING FREE ENERGY Photosynthesis takes free energy and puts it into carbohydrates/sugars Carbohydrates can be stored for later use; light can not and neither can ATP

More information

Photosynthesis and Respiration

Photosynthesis and Respiration Chemical Reactions and Enzymes Do Now Photosynthesis and Respiration 4 Minutes Share Out What is SUCCESS? Success is not gained by defeat Success does not occur over night Success can emerge at anytime

More information

Chapter 17 Fatty Acid Catabolism

Chapter 17 Fatty Acid Catabolism Multiple Choice Questions 1. Digestion, mobilization, and transport of fats Lipoprotein lipase acts in: A) hydrolysis of triacylglycerols of plasma lipoproteins to supply fatty acids to various tissues.

More information

Amphibolic nature of Krebs Cycle. How what we are is what we eat

Amphibolic nature of Krebs Cycle. How what we are is what we eat Amphibolic nature of Krebs Cycle How what we are is what we eat In aerobic organisms, the citric acid cycle is an amphibolic pathway, one that serves in both catabolic and anabolic processes. Since the

More information

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Slide 1 Chapter 9 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy PowerPoint Lecture Presentations for Biology Eighth Edition Neil Campbell and Jane Reece Lectures by Chris Romero, updated by Erin Barley

More information

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section C: Related Metabolic Processes

CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY. Section C: Related Metabolic Processes CHAPTER 9 CELLULAR RESPIRATION: HARVESTING CHEMICAL ENERGY Section C: Related Metabolic Processes 1. Fermentation allows some cells to produce ATP without the help of oxygen 2. Glycolysis and the Krebs

More information

Chapter 9 & 24 Muscle Metabolism

Chapter 9 & 24 Muscle Metabolism Chapter 9 & 24 Muscle Metabolism Annie Leibovitz/Contact Press Images Introduction: Muscle Metabolism Energy for Contraction Energy is never created nor destroyed, only stored or released Bonds = energy

More information

- Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood brings oxygen to the cells.

- Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood brings oxygen to the cells. Cellular respiration - how cells make energy - Oxygen is needed for cellular respiration [OVERHEAD, fig. 6.2, p. 90 / 4th: 6.1] - ATP - this is provided by the lungs - lungs provide oxygen to blood, blood

More information

130 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy

130 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy 130 Cellular Respiration: Harvesting Chemical Energy Formation of Acetyl CoA. The junction between glycolysis and the Krebs Cycle is the oxidation of pyruvate to acetyl CoA: Pyruvate molecules are translocated

More information

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Un-lecture.part II. NOTE: number corresponds to slides posted on the website.

Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Un-lecture.part II. NOTE: number corresponds to slides posted on the website. Enzymes and Metabolic Pathways Un-lecture.part II NOTE: number corresponds to slides posted on the website. 44. ETS and Oxidative phosphorylation: When we completed the Krebs cycle, all of the bonds between

More information

Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Metabolism Part 1 Activity.

Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Metabolism Part 1 Activity. Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Metabolism Part 1 Activity. Carbohydrates Part 5: Catabolism Stage 1 (Hydrolysis) & Stage 2 (Glycolysis) An overview of catabolism

More information

Electron Transport and oxidative phosphorylation (ATP Synthesis) Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college

Electron Transport and oxidative phosphorylation (ATP Synthesis) Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college Electron Transport and oxidative phosphorylation (ATP Synthesis) Dr. Abir Alghanouchi Biochemistry department Sciences college All of the reactions involved in cellular respiration can be grouped into

More information

Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions)

Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) Transfers of electrons during chemical reactions (oxidation-reduction reactions) Relocation of electrons in food molecules releases energy which can be used to synthesize ATP ATP is used to do ALL types

More information