JC BIOLOGY DEFINITIONS

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1 JC BIOLOGY DEFINITIONS

2 7 characteristics of living things - feeding, respiration, movement, sensitivity, growth, reproduction, excretion. Tissue similar cells doing the same job, muscle, blood, skin. Organ group of tissues working together, lung, heart, and kidney. System - group of organs working together, digestive, breathing

3 PLANT CELL ANIMAL CELL Cell wall No cell wall Chloroplasts present No chloroplasts Large permanent vacoule Small/no vacoule

4 Food types - carbohydrates, fats, protein, minerals, vitamins Balanced diet - contains the correct amount of each food type and water Digestion breaking down of food using enzymes Enzyme - protein catalysts made by the body that breaks down food

5 Respiration - release of energy from food (using oxygen) C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 = 6CO H 2 O + Energy Aerobic respiration needs oxygen to release energy Anaerobic respiration does not use oxygen to release energy Excretion - getting rid of waste produced in the body. Egestion - getting rid of undigested waste.

6 Blood plasma transports food, chemicals and heat Red blood cells transport oxygen White blood cells fight disease and infections Platelets clot the blood Heart pumps blood around the body

7 tendons - connect muscle to bone Ligaments connect bone to bone. joints ball + socket hip, shoulder hinge - knee, elbow pivot - base of skull fused - pelvis, skull Gliding / sliding - ankle, wrist.

8 Antagonistic muscles - muscles that work in pairs opposite to each other, biceps and triceps. Sensory nerve - carries messages to the brain from the senses. Motor nerve - carries messages from the brain to a muscle.

9 Ovulation - release of the egg from the ovary Insemination - male placing the sperm in the female vagina Implantation - fertilised egg attaches to the lining of the womb Menstruation - shedding of the lining of the womb through the vagina Pregnancy length of time the female is carrying the unborn child

10 Placenta allows materials to pass between the mother and the baby Contraception is the prevention of fertilisation Fertilisation male sex cell fuses with the female sex cell to form a zygote Family planning - couple deciding how many children to have and the space between them Chromosomes - thread-like structures found in the nucleus carrying genes Genes - are chemicals that pass on characteristics from parent to child, it is a section of DNA which has the ability to produce a certain protein

11 Invertebrates animals that do not have backbones Vertebrates animals that have a backbone Photosynthesis - way plants make their food using carbon dioxide, water, sunlight, chlorophyll Transpiration - loss of water vapour from the surface of the plant Transpiration Stream - flow of water from the roots to the leaves.

12 Tropism - is a growth response of a plant to a stimulus: geotropism = response to gravity; phototropism = response to light Asexual reproduction new individuals are formed from only one parent

13 Pollination transfer of pollen from the stamen to the carpel Dispersal carrying of the seed as far away as possible from the parent plant Germination is the growth of a seed to form a new plant

14 Habitat - place where plants / animals live Population members of a particular type of plant or animal in a habitat Community all the plants and animals in a habitat Producer - makes own food, green plant

15 Consumers animals that get their food by eating plants or other animals Herbivore - eats plants only rabbit Carnivore - eats animals only fox Omnivore - eats both plants and animals human

16 Decomposers organisms that feed on dead plants and animals Food chain is a list of organisms in which each one is eaten by the next one in the chain Adaptation is a structure or habit that helps the organism to survive in its habitat Competition takes place when two or more organisms require something that is in short supply e.g. food food web two or more interconnected food chains Tropic level - position in the food chain

17 Pollution - any undesirable change in the environment caused by human activity Humus - decayed remains of plants and animals. Parasite is a living thing that gets its food from another living thing Saprophytes get their food from a dead source Antibiotic chemicals made by bacteria and fungi which kill the reproduction of other bacteria Biotechnology use of living things to produce useful products

18 ARTERY VEIN From the heart Blood at high pressure/no valves Thick walls Carries O 2 (except pulmonary artery To the heart Blood at low pressure/valves present Thin walls Carries CO 2 except pulmonary vein

19 WIND POLLINATED No Coloured petals No nectary Long feathery stigma No scent Anther outside flower INSECT POLLINATED Coloured petals nectary Stigma inside flower scented Anther inside flower

20 PHOTOSYNTHESIS RESPIRATION green plants only Daylight only CO 2 in and O 2 out Chlorophyll necessary All living things Day and night O 2 in and CO 2 out No chlorophyll necessary

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