1 Energy Flow Through an Ecosystem Food Chains, Food Webs, and Ecological Pyramids
2 What is Ecology? ECOLOGY is a branch of biology that studies ecosystems.
3 Ecological Terminology Environment Ecology Biotic vs. Abiotic Population Community Ecosystem Biosphere
4 Environment surroundings of an organism including the plants, animals and microbes with which it interacts. Ecology study of how living organisms interact with the physical and biological environments. Abiotic - non-living chemical and physical factors of the environment (e.g. temperature, light, water, soil, nutrients). Biotic living organisms that are part of the environment.
5 Population a group of individuals of the same species living in the same geographic area. Community all interacting populations living in the same geographic area. Ecosystem all interacting communities of organisms and abiotic factors of the environment within a defined area. Biosphere the global ecosystem, including all the earth s regions that can support life (land, air, water).
6 The 3-Step ENERGY Pathway of Ecosystems
7 ENERGY in the ecosystem ENERGY! BEGINS WITH SUNLIGHT
8 LIGHT 1. CHEMICAL ENERGY 2. HEAT 3.
9 photosynthesis CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + O 2 GLUCOSE chemical energy
10 The chemical reaction by which green plants use water and carbon dioxide and light from the sun to make glucose. ENERGY is stored in glucose; glucose is stored as starch.
11 respiration Glucose O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 CO 2 + H 2 O work for cells HEAT
12 6O 2 + C 6 H 12 O 6 6H 2 O + 6CO 2 + energy CELLULAR RESPIRATION is the chemical reaction that releases the energy in glucose so the cell can do work.
13 Note: although the vast majority are, some ecosystems are not based around solar energy. For example, some organisms are able to use sulfur from hydrothermal vents as a source of energy.
14 FOOD CHAINS and TROPHIC LEVELS
15 Organisms that can make glucose during photosynthesis are called PRODUCERS.
16 Organisms that cannot make their own glucose are called CONSUMERS.
17 The transfer of energy from sun to producer to consumers can be shown in a FOOD CHAIN.
18 A food chain (follow the ENERGY coming from the SUN)
19 A food chain 1 PRODUCERS (autotrophs capture ENERGY coming from the SUN)
20 A food chain 1 PRODUCERS 2 Primary consumers (herbavores that get ENERGY & MATERIALS from the PRODUCERS they eat)
21 (carnivores that get ENERGY & MATERIALS from the HERBIVORES they eat) A food chain 1 PRODUCERS 2 Primary consumers 3 Secondary Consumers
24 1 2 trophic levels tell how far away each feeding level is from THE SUN Notice that the arrows point in the direction of energy flow. 3 4
27 THE 10% RULE and ECOLOGICAL PYRAMIDS
28 The maximum amount of ENERGY that passes from one trophic level to the next is usually around 10%. About 90% of the ENERGY at each trophic level is used to keep the organisms alive and is converted to HEAT.
29 Where does the energy go?? Energy from lower trophic level Energy not used 10 % Egested energy Urinary waste Gross energy intake 90% Digested energy Assimilated energy Resting energy Activity Growth Reproduction Maintenance or respiration Production
30 Where does the energy go?? Energy from lower trophic level Energy not used 10 % Urinary waste Gross energy intake Digested energy Assimilated energy Resting energy Activity Growth Reproduction
31 Where does the energy go?? Energy from lower trophic level Energy not used and available to be passed to the next level Urinary waste Gross energy intake Digested energy Assimilated energy Resting energy Activity Growth Reproduction
32 Always start with the SUN.
33 PRODUCERS HERBIVORES 1st Order CARNIVORES Producers are the BASE of the energy pyramid because 2nd Order their ENERGY comes direct CARNIVORES from the SUN. 3rd Order CARNIVORES
34 Producers use most of the energy they make (90%) for themselves.
35 The 10% of energy that is not used by producers can be passed on to organisms that cannot make their own energy.
36 PRODUCERS Primary Consumers 1st Order CARNIVORES HERBIVORES 2nd Order exist on only 10% of the ENERGY that PRODUCERS acquire. CARNIVORES 3rd Order CARNIVORES
37 Most (90%) of the energy the primary consumer gets from the producer is used by the consumer.
38 Some of the energy moves into the atmosphere as heat.
39 Some energy in the primary consumer is not lost to the atmosphere or used by the consumer itself. This 10% of energy is available for another consumer.
40 PRODUCERS Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers 2nd Order CARNIVORES 3rd Order Carnivores get only 10% of the HERBIVORES energy intake. CARNIVORES
41 Most (90%) of the energy the secondary consumer gets from the primary consumer is used by the secondary consumer.
42 Some of the energy is lost as heat, but some (10%) energy is stored and can passed on to another consumer.
43 PRODUCERS Primary Consumers Secondary Consumers Tertiary Consumers 3rd Order CARNIVORES There isn t much ENERGY left near the top.
44 PRODUCERS Primary Consumers The 10% RULE... Secondary Consumers Tertiary Consumers Quartenary Consumers...results in this Ecological PYRAMID
45 Ecological pyramids show: That the amount of available energy decreases down the food chain It takes a large number of producers to support a small number of primary consumers It takes a large number of primary consumers to support a small number of secondary consumers
46 There are three types of Ecological Pyramids 1.Pyramid of Numbers 2.Pyramid of Biomass 3.Pyramid of Energy
47 Pyramid of Numbers Shows the number of organisms at each trophic level.
48 Pyramids of numbers will often be pyramid-shaped - but not always. If the producer is a large plant such as an oak tree, the second layer of the pyramid representing primary consumers (caterpillars in this example) will be much larger than the base. In this case it would make more sense to draw a pyramid of biomass.
49 Pyramid of Biomass Shows the total mass of living tissue at each level e.g. shows that a large amount of tree mass is needed to feed a single caterpillar.
50 Pyramid of Biomass Units are in mass per unit area. For example: g/m 2 grams per square meter
51 Example Pyramid of Biomass
52 The 10% rule applies to Pyramids of Biomass
53 1 lb. For every 1 lb. of halibut, how many lbs. of seals can be supported??
54 1 lb. For every 1 lb. of halibut, 0.1 lbs. of seal can be supported! 0.1 lbs
55 30,000 lbs. For a 30 lb. halibut, 30,000 lbs. of phytoplankton are necessary! 3,000 lbs. 300 lbs. 30 lbs. 2nd Order CARNIVORES
56 Pyramid of Energy shows the total amount of incoming energy ate each successive level based on the idea that 90% of the energy is lost as heat at each trophic level and only 10% of the energy is passed on.
57 Pyramid of Energy energy units are in joules (J) or Kilocalories (kcal)
58 FOOD WEBS! Show all the possible FOOD CHAINS. Show all the OMNIVORES. Show multiple feeding preferences.
60 Typically decomposers (saprotrophs and detritovores) are placed beneath producers in the food web
61 Oooops! What s wrong with this food web?
62 Oooops! What s wrong with this food web? 1. No producers. 2. Arrows point backwards.
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