CELL PROCESSES AND ENERGY

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1 CHAPTER 5 CELL PROCESSES AND ENERGY SECTION 5 1 The Cell in Its Environment (pages ) This section tells how things move into and out of cells. The Cell Membrane as Gatekeeper (page 158) 1. The cell membrane has a structure that makes it. 2. Is the following sentence true or false? A selectively permeable membrane allows all substances to pass through it. 3. Is the following sentence true or false? A cell membrane is usually permeable to oxygen, water, and carbon dioxide. 4. Complete the concept map. Substances enter or leave a cell by Diffusion Molecules in Motion (page 159) 5. Is the following sentence true or false? Diffusion is the main method by which small molecules move into and out of cells. Science Explorer Grade 6 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 53

2 CHAPTER 5, Cell Processes and Energy (continued) 6. In diffusion, molecules move from an area of concentration to an area of concentration. 7. What is concentration? 8. Draw molecules on Part B of the diagram below to show how the molecules are distributed inside and outside the cell after diffusion has occurred. A B Osmosis The Diffusion of Water Molecules (page 160) 9. The diffusion of water molecules through a selectively permeable membrane is called. Match the shape of each red blood cell with the concentration of water it is floating in. See Figure 2 on page 160. Shape of Cell Water Concentration 10. normal 11. shrunken 12. swollen a. Low concentration of water molecules outside the cell b. Concentration of water molecules is the same inside and outside of the cell c. High concentration of water molecules outside the cell 54 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 6

3 Active Transport (pages ) 13. Two ways of moving things into and out of cells that do NOT need energy are and. 14. Moving materials through a cell membrane without using energy is called transport. 15. How does active transport differ from passive transport? 16. List two ways that the cell moves things by active transport. a. b. Why Are Cells Small? (page 162) 17. Is the following sentence true or false? As a cell gets larger, it takes longer for a molecule to reach the middle of the cell. SECTION 5 2 The Cell and Energy (pages ) This section explains how plants make food by using the energy from sunlight. This section also explains how cells get energy from food. What Is Photosynthesis? (page 163) 1. In the process of photosynthesis, plants use the energy from to make food. 2. The green pigment in chloroplasts, called, absorbs light energy from the sun. Science Explorer Grade 6 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 55

4 CHAPTER 5, Cell Processes and Energy (continued) The Events of Photosynthesis (pages 164) 3. List the two stages in the process of photosynthesis. a. b. 4. Is the following sentence true or false? Besides the energy from sunlight, the cell needs water and carbon dioxide to make sugar. 5. Circle the letter of each product of photosynthesis. a. water b. carbon dioxide c. oxygen d. sugars 6. Write the chemical equation for the process of photosynthesis. 7. What word does the arrow in the chemical equation stand for? 8. Circle the letter of each raw material of photosynthesis. a. carbon dioxide b. glucose c. water d. oxygen Storing and Releasing the Energy in Food (pages 165) 9. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about the products of photosynthesis. a. Plant cells use the glucose for food. b. Some of the glucose is made into other compounds, such as cellulose. c. Most of the oxygen passes out of the plant. d. Most of the glucose passes out of the plant. 10. Is the following sentence true or false? Photosynthesis produces the carbon dioxide that most living things need to survive. 56 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 6

5 11. Complete the following table about how living things use the sun s energy. How Living Things Use Energy From the Sun Living Thing Autotroph or Heterotroph? Obtains Energy From the Sun Directly or Indirectly? Plant Caterpillar Bluebird 12. How do cells get energy? What is Respiration? (page 166) 13. What happens during respiration? 14. Why do cells carry out respiration continuously? 15. Is the following sentence true or false? Respiration that takes place inside of cells is the same as breathing air in and out of the lungs. 16. Write the chemical equation for the process of cellular respiration. Science Explorer Grade 6 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 57

6 CHAPTER 5, Cell Processes and Energy (continued) 17. Use the table below to list the raw materials and products of respiration. Respiration Raw Materials Products Comparing Photosynthesis and Respiration (page 167) 18. Complete the cycle diagram below, which describes the relationship between photosynthesis and respiration. See Figure 9 on page 167. Photosynthesis Respiration Plants produce. Animals use. Plants use. Animals produce. 19. Is the following sentence true or false? Together, photosynthesis and respiration form a cycle that keeps the levels of oxygen and carbon dioxide fairly constant in Earth s atmosphere. 58 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 6

7 Fermentation (pages ) 20. What is fermentation? 21. Is the following sentence true or false? Fermentation releases more energy than respiration. 22. List the two types of fermentation, and tell where each takes place. a. b. 23. Is the following sentence true or false? Lactic acid fermentation takes place when cells use oxygen more slowly than it is replaced. Reading Skill Practice Writing a summary can help you remember the important ideas of what you have read. Write a summary of the process of photosynthesis. Your summary should be much shorter than the text on which it is based. Do your work on a separate sheet of paper. SECTION 5 3 Cell Division (pages ) This section explains how cells grow and divide. The Cell Cycle (page 171) 1. The regular sequence of growth and division that cells undergo is called the. Science Explorer Grade 6 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 59

8 CHAPTER 5, Cell Processes and Energy (continued) Stage 1: Interphase (pages ) 2. List three things that the cell is doing during interphase. a. b. c. 3. Circle the letter of the process in which the cell copies its DNA. a. interphase b. cell cycle c. replication d. division Stage 2: Mitosis (page 172) 4. Circle the letter of each sentence that is true about mitosis. a. The cell makes a copy of its DNA. b. The cell divides into two new cells. c. The cell s nucleus divides into two new nuclei. d. One copy of DNA is distributed into each daughter cell. 5. List the four phases of mitosis. a. b. c. d. 6. Label the parts of the structure in the diagram below. 60 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 6

9 Stage 3: Cytokinesis (page 173) 7. During cytokinesis, the divides and the organelles are divided between the two new cells. 8. Is the following sentence true or false? During cytokinesis in plant cells, the new cell membrane forms before the new cell wall does. Length of the Cell Cycle (pages ) 9. Is the following sentence true or false? All cells have a cell cycle that lasts the same amount of time. 10. Look at the circle graph in Figure 13 on page 173. How long is interphase in a human liver cell? DNA Replication (pages ) 11. Why does a cell make a copy of its DNA before mitosis occurs? 12. Circle the letter of each molecule that makes up the sides of the DNA ladder. a. deoxyribose b. glucose c. phosphate d. nitrogen 13. Name the nitrogen bases that pair up to make up the rungs of the DNA ladder. a. pairs with. b. pairs with. 14. Is the following sentence true or false? DNA replication begins when the two sides of the DNA molecule unwind and separate. 15. At the end of replication, new DNA molecules are formed. Science Explorer Grade 6 Guided Reading and Study Workbook 61

10 CHAPTER 5, Cell Processes and Energy (continued) WordWise Answer the clues to solve the crossword puzzle Clues down 1. Process in which molecules move from an area of higher concentration to an area of lower concentration 2. The stage of the cell cycle in which the cell s nucleus divides 3. Condensed genetic material, or chromatin, that is double stranded 7. The movement of materials through a cell membrane using energy is transport. Clues across 1. Nucleic acid that is passed from parent to offspring 3. The final stage of the cell cycle in which the cytoplasm divides 4. A pigment found in chloroplasts 5. The diffusion of water through a selectively permeable membrane 6. The first stage of the cell cycle in which the cell prepares to divide 8. A process by which cells get energy from food without using oxygen 62 Guided Reading and Study Workbook Science Explorer Grade 6

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