Photosynthesis. Chemical Energy (e.g. glucose) - They are the ultimate source of chemical energy for all living organisms: directly or indirectly.

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1 Photosynthesis Light Energy transduction Chemical Energy (e.g. glucose) - Only photosynthetic organisms can do this (e.g. plants) - They are the ultimate source of chemical energy for all living organisms: directly or indirectly. Autotrophs are organisms, which can make their own food. Hetrotrophs are organisms that need to eat other organisms. Photosynthesis does not occur at night. Carbon Dioxide + Water Glucose + Oxygen 6CO 2 + H 2 O C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 Leaf structure in relation to photosynthesis midrib enlarged section waxing cuticle epidermal cell palisade cell chloroplast xylem vessel mesophyll cell phloem sieve tube guard cell air space

2 Order in leaf: Waxing cuticle Upper epidermis Palisade layer wax layer transparent to let through reduces water loss. for protection and structure. It is relatively transparent. tightly packed to stop passing. Contain lots of chloroplasts to make photosynthesis most efficient. Spongy mesophyll layer lets oxygen leave and CO 2 enter and leave. Some photosynthesis takes place but not a lot. Lower epidermis Vein guard cell and stomata (pores) allow gas exchange and water loss. composed of two layers. Xylem takes water from roots to the leaf for photosynthesis. Phloem takes products of photosynthesis around the plant. Leaves are well adapted for the task of photosynthesis for a number of reasons: 1. Their broad, flat shape offers a large surface area for absorbing and CO 2 2. Most leaves are thin so gas diffusion is rapid. 3. Air spaces in the spongy mesophyll layer allow good diffusion of gas. 4. There are many stomata in the lower surface of he leaf, which allow the exchange of O 2 and CO 2 with air outside the leaf. 5. The palisade cells are tightly packed with chloroplasts and they have a tall cylindrical shape. This allows the maximum amount of to be trapped by the cells. 6. The veins, which contain xylem and phloem, supply the leaf cells with water and mineral salts and they remove the products of photosynthesis. 7. The cells of the upper epidermis lack chloroplasts so the maximum amount of passes through to the palisade cells beneath. 8. Leaves tend not to overlap each other so that they can all get maximum sun. 9. Leaves move so that they get maximum.

3 Aerobic Respiration Glucose + Oxygen Carbon Dioxide + Water + Energy C 6 H 12 O 6 + 6O 2 6CO 2 + 6H 2 O + 36ATP Bicarbonate indicator (used to test for levels of CO 2 ) more less Yellow CO 2 Red CO 2 Purple/Dark Red Exposed to day Day excluded A B C D Elodea (pond plant) only Snail only Elodea and snail Control (nothing except solution) E F G H Elodea (pond plant) only Snail only Elodea and snail Control (nothing except solution) Tube Colour change Explanation A pale red dark red Photosynthesis as there is day less CO 2 B pale red yellow Aerobic respiration snail has produced CO 2 C pale red pale red CO 2 produced by snail is used by plant and O 2 produced by plant is used by snail D pale red pale red Nothing occurs naturally has no effect E pale red yellow No for plant to photosynthesise F pale red yellow Snail still respires is irrelevant G pale red yellow Plant can t photosynthesise but still respires. Both snail and plant produce CO 2 more CO 2. H pale red pale red Proves that does not affect it.

4 Role of plant in photosynthesis LIGHT Excess O 2 (waste) is released into the air. stored respired water + CO 2 Glucose + O 2 Carbon Dioxide water 1. Water enters by osmosis 2. Water is carried up through the plant in Xylem vessels 3. CO 2 enters leaf through stomata by diffusion 4. Water joins with CO 2 to make Glucose and Oxygen. 5. Some sugar is used in respiration, some is stored as starch and some is carried in solution to other parts of the plant in the phloem. This is stored or respired. 6. Oxygen produced is waste and is released into the air through stomata.

5 Use of Glucose produced by photosynthesis Glucose is soluble, so can be carried easily around the plant. This is called translocation. Glucose with minerals such as nitrates, can be turned into amino acids, which can be turned into proteins, which are used for cell structure and for enzymes. Sucrose for fruits to make them sweet. Also, sucrose can be used to transport energy around the plant. Glucose would be used by cells before reaching the correct place that is why it is translocated as sucrose. The fruit is made so that it can spread the seeds. Built up into cellulose, which is used to make cell walls Built into oil, which is stored in the seeds as an energy source. It is used for the cell membrane, structure and for the wax cuticle. Glucose needs minerals to make amino acids. This is very important. Glucose contains: Carbon Hydrogen and Oxygen Amino Acids contain: Carbon Hydrogen Oxygen and Nitrogen For other things like oil, sucrose and cellulose, minerals are not needed. Gas exchange Respired by cells to provide immediate energy source Stored as starch, which is insoluble and compact so can be stored easily but can be broken down again whenever needed. Seeds and roots may have stored starch. Night Dusk/dawn Day As it is dark, no photosynthesis occurs, but respiration still takes place Dim little photosynthesis enough to equal respiration, so there is no net gas exchange. Bright, so photosynthesis is faster than respiration. There is more Carbon Dioxide taken in than Oxygen taken out.

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