Concepts for a sustainable energy supply of large cities

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1 Concepts for a sustainable energy supply of large cities Dr. Kurt Rohrig Fraunhofer IWES Buenos Aires, March 7, 2016

2 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Energy Concepts Motivation 3. Best Practice Projects in Germany 4. Approach for Integrated Energy Concepts

3 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Energy Concepts Motivation 3. Best Practice Projects in Germany 4. Approach for Integrated Energy Concepts

4 Fraunhofer Institut for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology Research Spectrum: Wind Energy from Materials to Grid Integration Energy System Technology for all Renewables Fraunhofer IWES Kassel Direktor: Prof. Dr. Clemens Hoffmann Fraunhofer IWES Nordwest Direktor: Prof. Dr. Andreas Reuter Anual Budget: ca. 32 Mio. Euro Staff: ca

5 Fraunhofer IWES Kassel Core Competences for Energy Systems Engineering Energy Economy and System Design Plant and Equipment Technology Electricity Networks Energy Systems Engineering Energy Informatics Energy Conversion Technology Energy Meteorology and Renewable Resources

6 Interaction of the components concerning the electricity market

7 Capacity expansion and dispatch optimisation input parameters results fuel costs technology costs potentials / restrictions time series for energy demand (power, heat, mobility) Europe and/or DE minimising costs in compliance with climate objectives optimal power mix optimaler heat mix installed capacities quantity structure CO 2 price markets: power market heat market (div. house types) gas market mobility profiles CO 2 market technology portfolio: wind power, PV power stoarge power-to-gas BEV PHEV/REEV run-of-river KWK climatisation kettle overhead line trucks condensing plants power-to-heat el. heat pumps

8 conventional generation and additional consumers (GW) Konventionelle Erzeugung Konventionelle Erzeugung renewable generation (GW) Erneuerbare Erzeugung Erneuerbare Erzeugung Demand and Generation in Germany 2035 Erzeugung und Strombedarf in Deutschland Meteo-Jahr 2006, 2011, 15./16. 5./6. Kalenderwoche GW Last load PV Photovoltaik wind Wind offshore Offshore wind Wind Wind onshore Onshore biomass Biomasse flexible Biomasse run-of-river Laufwasser Biomasse Laufwasser Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Wochentag Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Simulation: Demand and generation in Germany scenario 2035 import and export, sector coupling Netto-Export Netto-Export Netto-Import net import Netto-Import net export Residuallast RL - Im + Ex residual Residuallast PSW-Turbine load rl RL Batteriespeicher - imp - Im + + exp Ex PHS PSW-Turbine Öl turbine batteries Batteriespeicher Gas GuD/GT dissch. gas Gas Steinkohle turb. GuD/GT /CCPP CHP BHKW gas Gas - cogen. KWK heat Wärmepumpen Steinkohle pumps- KWK el. E-Mobilität Braunkohle cars climatisation Klimatisierung Wärmepumpen batteries Batteriespeicher E-Mobilität charge PHS PSW-Pumpe Klimatisierung pump PtH Batteriespeicher PtG PSW-Pumpe curtialment Abregelung PtH

9 conventional generation and additional consumers (GW) Konventionelle Erzeugung renewable generation (GW) Erneuerbare Erzeugung Demand and Generation in Germany 2050 Erzeugung und Strombedarf in Deutschland Meteo-Jahr 2006, 15./16. Kalenderwoche GW Last load PV Photovoltaik wind Wind offshore Offshore wind Wind onshore Onshore biomass Biomasse run-of-river Laufwasser Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mon Tue Wed Thu Fri Sat Sun Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Mo Di Mi Do Fr Sa So Wochentag Simulation: Demand and generation in Germany scenario 2050 import and export, sector coupling Netto-Export net import Netto-Import net export residual Residuallast load rl RL - imp - Im + + exp Ex PHS PSW-Turbine turbine batteries Batteriespeicher dissch. gas Gas turb. GuD/GT /CCPP CHP BHKW gas Gas - cogen. KWK heat Wärmepumpen pumps el. E-Mobilität cars climatisation Klimatisierung batteries Batteriespeicher charge PHS PSW-Pumpe pump PtH PtG curtialment Abregelung

10 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Energy Concepts Motivation 3. Best Practice Projects in Germany 4. Approach for Integrated Energy Concepts

11 Energy Concepts Motivation The transformation of an urban energy system to high share of RE and high efficiency is a long-term process dealing with high complexity. A systematic approach with a long-term energy concept is necessary, to achieve following goals: Reduction of carbon dioxide CO 2 Reduction of air pollution by fine dusts etc. Replacing fossil fuels by local RE Reducing energy import dependency Creation of local value by producing, installing and operating RE systems Increasing the energy efficiency Stabilizing energy prices for consumers

12 Energy Concepts Results Energy concepts are answering following questions: How will the energy demand develop based on the expected framework conditions (population, economy, efficiency measures, living standard,...) and the proposed energy efficiency measures? How much energy will be saved by energy efficiency measures? Which share of the expected energy demand can be met with RE, locally (generated in the city) and from the region around the city? Which capacities of power plants and heat/cold generation units (Solar, Wind, Geothermal, Hydro, Biomass,...) are necessary and how much energy will be delivered by each of the technologies? What will be the costs of implementing the energy concept and what could be the local added value? All results are delivered as reports and associated action plan recommendations

13 Energy Concepts Measures Counteraction Climate Change

14 Cornerstones of Energy Policy Sustainability Economics Triangle of Energy Policy Security of Supply

15 Outline 1. Introduction 2. Energy Concepts Motivation 3. Best Practice Projects in Germany 4. Approach for Integrated Energy Concepts

16 Energy Concepts: Projects, best practice examples Project Title Region Inhabitants Kombikraftwerk I + II Germany 81 Mio. RegModHarz SUN Rural Region (Harz) Rural and Urban (Northern Hesse) 250, ,000 Masterplan 100 % RES Frankfurt am Main Urban 700,000

17 The Kombikraftwerk Projects Kombikraftwerk 1 Proof: renewable energies can cover the German electricity demand at any time Kombikraftwerk 2 Demonstration of the ability of renewables to ensure frequency and voltage stability. Simulation of a 100% renewable power supply in Germany in a high spatial and temporal resolution Proof of the stability of a 100% renewable power system at any time Elaboration, simulation and (particular) demonstration of a 100% RES scenario for Germany please visit

18 The RegModHarz Project Installation of a virtual power plant (VPP) software for energy monitoring, unit control and market participation ICT-based technology, Field test of households processes demand and business models flexibility by bi-directional energy for regional energy management interfaces (BEMI) management Monitoring the power quality of the distribution grid by means of phasor maesurement units (PMU) Potentials and scenarios of renewable energies in the region

19 The SUN Projects SUN electricity Potentials and scenarios of renewable generation in the region Ways to strengthen the regional economy and incorporate inhabitants SUN2heat Potentials and scenarios of the heat supply by renewable energies Scenarios of coupling the regional heat and electricity market SUN2mobility Determination of the regional energy demand of mobility Potenzials of reducing the regional CO 2 Potentials and scenarios of the regional renewable mobility Regional energy supply structure with nearly 100% RES

20 Masterplan 100% Renewable Energy Frankfurt am Main Core topics: Energy system analysis (electricity, heat, mobility), CO 2 -balance Future system modelling Potentials for renewable energies Measures for energy efficiency Meassures for districts Scenarios ( ) Masterplan development for a 100% RES based energy supply of Frankfurt

21 The Sino-German New Energy Demonstration Cities Dunhuang Xintai Jiaxing Xiuzhou Source: d-maps.com 9/23/2015 Introduction of Sino -German CoRE Project Seite 21

22 Stadtwerke Union Nordhessen SUN SUN partners supply approx people in the region with about GWh electricity p. a. SUN partners employ approx people. SUN Fraunhofer / IWES / ENERGIEWENDE IN NORDHESSEN

23 Determining of the potentials SUN Fraunhofer / IWES / ENERGIEWENDE IN NORDHESSEN

24 Residual Load (Surplus, Deficits)

25 Potenzial for Heat/Cooling Supply in the SUN-Region

26 Coupling Electricity and Heat/Cooling

27 1. Introduction 2. Energy Concepts Motivation 3. Best Practice Projects in Germany 4. Approach for Integrated Energy Concepts

28 General Approach The analysis follows a multiple layer data analysis from statistics to specific data (as far as accessible)

29 Structure of the Energy System Frankfurt/M 2050 Based on 95% renewable energy sources regionally generated Result of a temporal highly resolved simulation (hourly basis). RES Potentials: All RE and waste potential of the city, 50% of the potential of the region and 11.6% of the potential of the federal state of Hessen from Wind und Biomass (= share of Frankfurt citizens of Hessen) Federal state»hessen«surrounding region»frankfurtrheinmain«wind PV Hydro Generation on city area 22% 20% 84% 0,4% Export District Import -18% 10% Electricity 24% Building level Accumulators 2.0 GWh 5% -5% City of Frankfurt am Main 4964 GWh 100% Consumer 17% Local mobility Efficiency: Reduction of the energy demand from 2012 to 2050 From fossil fuels + electr. to electric vehicles only - 79% Waste Solid Biomass Biogas 23% 17% 6% CHP CHP CHP CHP Boiler Heat pump 9% 21% Residential 32% 18% Services - 64% - 72% - 53% - 78% Solar thermal All data final energy Total generation 9759 GWh District and heating 42% industry 12% 22% Heat 36% Accumulators 2.3 GWh 5276 GWh 100% 42% 61% Industry - 11% - 10%

30 Design of (Regional) Virtual Power Plants Plant Operator Interfaces VPP Operator P l a n t communication VPP DV Port Central SPS Communication Box Portfolio- Commitment -Optimisation Prices and Prediction data Marketers Communication and Control Power Request Optimal Schedule Direct-Marketers VPP

31 Capacity and Potential of Electricity Producers What is the potential for wind and solar energy in the surrounding of BA? How much electrical energy can be produced?

32 Electrical Grid Analysis and Assessment A detailed analysis of the grid capacity is mandatory

33 Analysis of the demand (electricity, heat, mobility) Minimize the (hourly) difference between RES generation and demand

34 Analysis of the existing power generation portfolio The Flexibility of the conventional power generation is crucial

35 Energy Concept: Approach Discussion and Elaboration of Objectives/ Requirements for the Energy Concepts Determination of the energy system, status quo Determination of load profiles (time series) Potential and time series of Renewable Energy feed-in for the target years Energy concepts for the pilot regions/citiy Target years and boundary conditions Energy balance of the city / district Load time series of target years Load time series of target years

36 Summary and Conclusion Regional and local energy supply structures are embedded in global markets and structures The fluctuating character of RES is pronounced extremely on regional level and requires the exchange of electricity with other (remote) regions A full supply with regional located RES is only pronounced in rural areas and requires an extremely high storage capacity Regional energy management reduces the exchange (import and export) with the respective higher level, and thus the grid capacity The sector coupling electricity-heat-transport is the key component for increasing the flexibility and takes place in the distribution grid Regional energy management systems (VPP) are required for the interaction between sectors and for the provision of ancillary services

37 Capacity Building and Scientific Advice for the Development of an Integrated City Energy Concept Thank you for your attention. Dr. Kurt Rohrig Fraunhofer IWES

38 The Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft in Germany Fraunhofer-Gesellschaft, the largest organization for applied research in Europe undertakes applied research of direct utility to private and public enterprise and of wide benefit to society. 80 research units, including 66 Fraunhofer Institutes staff 2 billion annual research budget Research centers and representative offices in Europe, USA, Asia and in the Middle East. St. Ingbert Bremerhaven Saarbrücken Karlsruhe Pfinztal Ettlingen Stuttgart Darmstadt Würzburg Erlangen Freiburg Holzen Efringen- Kirchen Bremen Kaiserslautern Itzehoe Lübeck Nürnberg Freising Rostock Hannover Berlin Potsdam Teltow Braunschweig Magdeburg Cottbus Oberhausen Halle Dortmund Kassel Schkopau Leipzig Duisburg Schmallenberg Dresden St. Augustin Jena Aachen Euskirchen Chemnitz Wachtberg Ilmenau Fürth München Holzkirchen

39 Fraunhofer worldwide San José Vancouver London East Lansing Boston Cambridge Plymouth Storrs Maryland Newark Glasgow Southampton Brussels Paris Bolzano Porto Gothenburg Wrocław Vienna Budapest Graz Thessaloniki Jerusalem Cairo Dubai Beijing Seoul Sendai Tokyo Bangalore Ampang Singapore Salvador Campinas São Paulo Jakarta Santiago de Chile Subsidiary Center Project Center ICON / Strategic Cooperation Representative / Marketing Office Senior Advisor Stellenbosch Sydney

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