Coupling the electricity and heat sectors - the key to the transformation of the energy system

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1 Coupling the electricity and heat sectors - the key to the transformation of the energy system Workshop on Renewables and Energy Systems Integration Golden, CO September 2014 Dr. Kurt Rohrig, Fraunhofer IWES Dr. Dietrich Schmidt, Fraunhofer IBP

2 Fraunhofer IWES Kassel Core Competences for Energy Systems Engineering Energy Economy and System Design System Integration Energy Networks Energy System Engineering Energy Informatics Energy Storage System Technology Energy Meteorology and Renewable Resources

3 Introduction

4 Introduction Two main reasons for the coupling of power and heat Reduce import of primary energy (oil and gas) Enlarge flexibility of the electric supply system Needed actions to foster the coupling of the sectors Massive isolation of buildings Implementation of heat pumps and power-to-heat applications Development of new heating and cooling storage devices Improvement of (predictive) control strategies Business-models, business-models, business-models

5 Kosten [Mrd. Euro] Primary Energy Demand in Germany 3600 TWh 85 Bn Euro Gutschrift durch Brennstoffeinsparungen Heat -40 Sector PV Primary Energy Demand Wind Onshore Wind Offshore Andere Erneuerbare Infrastrukturkosten E-Mobility Power2Gas und weitere Speicher Wärmepumpen Gebäudeisolation Kapitalkosten Deckungsbeitrag (inkl. Kapitalkosten) Electricity Sector Mobility Sector Primary Energy Costs Electricity: high share for primary energy but import- and production-cost relative low Oil and Gas: expensive and hardly to substitute used in heat- and mobility-sector Electricity Sector Nuclear Black Coal Brown Coal Gas Szenariojahr Oil

6 Transformation of Germany s Energy Supply System Today 3570 TWh TWh by RES STROM Electricity 1440 TWh Electricity 1000 TWh Heating 1360 TWh WÄRME 330 TWh Heatpumps, Power2Heat Heating 850 TWh Transport 770 TWh VERKEHR Transport 330 TWh 120 TWh E-mobility 235 TWh Power2Gas

7 Core Competence: Energy Economy and System Design Modelling and Simulation of all Components We are trendsetters in dynamic simulations and future scenarios for cross-sector aspects of energy supplies

8 Power [GW] Leistung [GW] Leistung [GW] Power [GW] Flexibility by load management / demand side management residuale Last DSM-Haushalt Klimatisierung E-Kfz Wärmepumpen residuale Last DSM-Haushalt Klimatisierung E-Kfz Wärmepumpen /09 27/09 29/09 01/10 03/10 05/10 07/10 Existing electric consumption (electric heating of water, refrigerator washing machine, dishwasher) New consumers (e-mobile, heat pump, air conditioner) Industrial load management Day/Month Tag/Monat Volllaststunden Full load hours [h]

9 Power (MW) Power Surplus (MW) Need of Flexibility: Example Schleswig-Holstein / Hamburg Limit Extreme Case no Expansion of Transmission Grid RES-Curtailment for Schleswig-Holstein and Hamburg Total: 2,7 TWh Economic for P2H: 2,3 TWh and 1,3 GW P2H-Capacity 1. Grid, 2. P2H, 3. RES-Curtailment 10, ,000 6, ,000 2, Hour of Year Hours per Year On PV Off Last SH Last HH Last SH + HH Überschüsse SH+HH Jahresdauerlinie wirtschaftlich für PtH

10 Heat Demand [MW] Flexibility option: coupling of electricity and heat - Kassel Heat Pump Stored heat from P2H and CHP Heat by electricity surplus Heat Demand P2H CHP Electricity Surplus Electricity Lack Electricity and Heat production by CHP Electric Residual Load [MW]

11 Energy supply scenario s Supply structure Share of RES Plant technology Control and operation Building Industrial R&D in practical use (Hardware in the Loop) Electricity market District development Generation- Hub Coupling Electricity Heat Storage- Hub

12 Cooling load [kw] Kühlleistung in kw Temperatur in C Temperature [ C] PV and cooling: demand site management PV-Kühllast cooling load Netzkühllast Grid cooling load Kühllast Cooling ohne load DSM without DSM Raumtemperatur Room temperature mit DSM with DSM Raumtemperatur Room temperature ohne DSM without DSM Büro Juli Office : 17 th of July Pre-cooling to 22 C instead of 24 C Increased use of locally generated electricity Positive gridinteraction Tagstunden in h Hours Cooling load shifting of 3 hours 0 Reduced costs

13 Buildings as energy storages 1.09 TWh/K 1,090,000,000 kwh/k

14 Future role of buildings Energy producer + Energy storage = Stakeholder in a flexible electricity market

15 Key: Precise prediction of wind and solar power local, regional NWP (0 78 h) Cosmo-EU Satellite Radiation Temperature Installed PV-Capacity Preprocessing PV-forecast - EEG Database - PV Database (BNetzA) Classification by age, power Statistical information of : -inclination, orientation, - WRund efficiency factor - losses Physical Simulation of all PV plants MOS ANN

16 Conclusion The transformation of the energy supply system requires a co-ordinated interaction of the sectors electricity, heat and mobility The coupling of the sectors increases the flexibility of the system and decreases the cost for fossil primary energy The coupling of electricity and heat requires a massive implementation of heat pumps, power-to-heat applications, CHP and a large effort for isolation of buildings The interaction is supported by smart solutions in system technology for demand side management and grid management The feed-in of wind and solar energy into the supply system will be increased by precise prediction systems on local and regional level and adapted to energy management systems

17 Fraunhofer Institut for Wind Energy and Energy System Technology Research Spectrum: Wind Energy from Materials to Grid Integration Energy System Technology for all Renewables Fraunhofer IWES Kassel Direktor: Prof. Dr. Clemens Hoffmann Fraunhofer IWES Nordwest Direktor: Prof. Dr. Andreas Reuter Anual Budget: ca. 32 Mio. Euro Staff: ca

18 Systemic approach for innovative urban development With 10 Fraunhofer-Institutes and value-partners Business models player System Competence Process Competence processes Information & ICT Fraunhofer FOKUS Security and protection Fraunhofer IFF Resource cycles Fraunhofer UMSICHT, Fraunhofer ISC Economic development & business innovation Fraunhofer IAO, ETG, LSE Cities interfaces Governance & planning Fraunhofer IAO Energy and Resources Fraunhofer IWES Mobility & traffic Fraunhofer IAO technologies Water infrastructure Fraunhofer IGB, Fraunhofer ISI Production & Logistics Fraunhofer IML, Fraunhofer IPA Buildings Fraunhofer IBP

19 At the Threshold to the Age of Electricity Transport and Storage P Early Phase Late Phase Renewable Sources Fossil Sources P Fossil Fuels P t Surplusenergy- Use A Renewables Locally this Situation can occur today Renewables Balancing Fossil Fuels Early Phase: Low Level of RES Surplus and Deficits Characterize Energy Supply t Late Phase: High Level of RES t

20 Concluding remarks Energy efficiency is our biggest energy source Think renewable energies and energy efficiency always together Integration of all subsystems is our future task!

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