The German Energy Transition

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "The German Energy Transition"

Transcription

1 Press Fact Sheet The German Energy Transition March 2016 Contents COP21 and its implications for the German energy transition... 1 Energy Efficiency The twin pillar of the energy transition... 2 Renewable energies the rise to market leadership... 6 Transforming the energy system Future of renewable energy support schemes Acceptance in Germany and worldwide Contact & further information: Berlin Energy Transition Dialogue press office c/o Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft e.v. Französische Straße Berlin, Germany Phone: During the conference on March 17 / 18 we can be reached at

2 COP21 and its implications for the German energy transition The United Nations Climate Change Conference in Paris has proven that a worldwide binding climate agreement is possible. For the first time in history, all countries agreed to a climate accord in which they commit themselves to limiting global warming to below 2 degree Celsius and less. The Paris Agreement links the upper limit with a specific action target: global greenhouse gas neutrality by the second half of the century. What are its implications for the German energy transition, the Energiewende? Paris has given a new impetus for Germany s climate protection policies. The signal is clear: in order to become greenhouse gas neutral, renewable energies have to be expanded swiftly. This is a huge opportunity for the modernization of Germany s economy. The transformation of the energy system plays a vital role as a driver of progress, innovation and jobs. However, there are several challenges which need to be met: The Energiewende has only just begun. Growing shares of renewable energy must be integrated in the electricity market and renewable energies shares in the heating sector and transport are still low. Establishing nationally determined contributions were also an element in the Paris Agreement. Germany s contributions to tackle climate change are manifold, but especially with regard to the energy transition they are significant: By the year 2020, Germany s greenhouse gas emissions shall be reduced by 40% compared to 1990, until 2050 by 80 to 95%. Energy Efficiency The twin pillar of the energy transition High ambitions, high rewards To achieve these targets, the energy sector must switch from fossil fuels to renewable energies and energy consumption needs to be reduced simultanously. Energy efficiency is the twin pillar of the energy transition, the federal government declares in its National Action Plan on Energy Efficiency (NAPE). The government s Climate Action Programme, designed to get Germany back on track to reach its 2020 climate goals, claims that increasing energy efficiency can cut emissions by 25 to 30 million tonnes CO 2 per year. Efficiency reduces costs and the environmental 2

3 impacts caused by the energy system. Therefore Germany set itself ambitious targets. Energy consumption is to be cut by 20% until 2020 compared to 2008, and by half until Energy efficiency is also seen as a lucrative business model. The German manufacturing industry is a world champion on the international market of innovations for energy-saving measures and green products. In 2013 environmental products like insulation material or smart meters worth 82 billion euros were produced and exports reached 50.3 billion euros in This equals 6% of overall industrial production and German technologies account for 14.8% of worldwide trade with environmental goods. The German Industry Initiative for Energy Efficiency (DENEFF) estimates companies specializing in efficiency employed around 850,000 people in Investment in residential buildings reached 39 billion euros and 15 billion euros in non-residential buildings, according to the German Institute for Economic Research (DIW). With interest rates being low, energy efficiency investments can yield a higher rate of return than current long-term investments on capital markets. Still a hard nut to crack Primary energy consumption in Germany reached PJ in This equaled an on-year increase of 1.3%, according to the Working Group on Energy Balances (AGEB). Taking weather effects into account, however, energy consumption would have dropped by 1.5 to 2%. Significant achievements have been reached in curbing power (-4.6%) and heating demand (-10%) from 2008 to In transport energy demand has been rising slightly since One reason is that progress in efficiency has been outweighed by a trend to larger cars and an increase in the travelled distances. 3

4 A broad mix of policy instruments Germany s energy efficiency policy relies on the full range of policy instruments: incentives by public funding and loans, regulatory measures as well as information and consulting. Reliable information and independent consulting shall lead businesses and private households to smart investment decisions in energy efficiency measures. Financial incentives like low-interest loans or investment grants enable target groups to carry out those measures. Price signals can also set incentives for energy-efficient behaviour. External effects, such as environmental impacts of energy consumption, are partly internalized into energy prices through an energy use tax. Another major approach is to set efficiency performance standards for new products or investments. The Energy Saving Ordinance (EnEV) sets minimum requirements for efficient energy use in new buildings and for large-scale renovations of existing buildings. EU-wide provisions on energy labelling of products ensure transparency and set incentives for more efficient products. Requirements to ecodesign set 4

5 binding minimum requirements for the environmentally friendly design of energyrelated products. Quantitative targets of the Energiewende: greenhouse gas emissions Energy efficiency primary energy consumption (compared to 2008) Electricity consumption (compared to 2008) Energy demand in buildings (compared to 2008) Heat demand in buildings (compared to 2008) Energy consumption in transport Renewable energies Share in final energy consumption Share in electricity consumption -27% -40% -55% -70% -80% to -95% % -50% -4.6% -10% -25% -14.8% -80% -12.4% -20% +1.7% -10% -40% 13.5% 18% 30% 45% 60% 27.4% (2015: 32.6 %) 35% 40%-45% (2025) 55%-60% (2035) 80% Share in heating 12% 14% Share in transport 5.6% Increase number of million 6 million electric cars Source: BMWi, BDEW, Federal Motor Transport Authority (KBA) 5

6 Renewable energies the rise to market leadership Renewables become dominant power source Growth of renewables has been most dynamic in the power sector. In 2015, renewables surpassed coal, nuclear and natural gas as Germany s most important energy source on the power market. The share in gross power supply reached 32.6%, compared to 27.4% in On 23 August, the share of renewables set a record high of 83.2% of power demand between 1pm and 2 pm. Power production from renewables rose by 33.4 TWh from 2014 to 2015 due to a sunny and windy year. Wind power production alone increased by 30.6 TWh (+50%). Photovoltaics (PV) contributed 2.3 TWh more than in Biomass, water and geothermal power production stayed roughly the same. 6

7 The use of renewable energies avoided million tonnes of CO 2 -equivalents in 2015, compared to 143 million tonnes in million tonnes are attributed to the power sector, 40.6 to the heat sector. 4.9 million tonnes have been avoided through renewables in the transport sector. The successful rise of renewables has not yet reached heat and transport. These two crucial sectors for climate protection are still lagging behind. Climate friendly options only contributed 13.2% to heat demand and 5.3% to energy use in the transport sector in In renewable-based heat and cold consumption there has been a slow increase, the numbers in transport have stagnated in recent years. The government therefore raised investment grants for renewable heating systems in In the transport sector, a biofuel quota applies and the government pushes electric mobility to put one million electric cars on the road by Renewable energies contribution to primary energy rose from 11.5% in 2014 to 12.5% in

8 Economic benefits RENEWABLES AN INVESTMENT HUB The successful rise in power production goes hand in hand with investments in renewable capacities. Installed capacity of wind, solar, biomass, water and geothermal power more than tripled over the last ten years, from 28 GW in 2005 to 97.4 GW in The share of all installed capacity in the power market rose from 20% to 48%. Investment in new installations of renewable energy plants increased to 18.8 billion Euro in 2014: Wind energy Solar energy (PV and solar thermal) Biomass Hydro Geothermal and environmental heat Total Source: BMU/BMWi Globally, investment in renewable energies reached record levels in According to Bloomberg New Energy Finance (BNEF) investment increased to $329bn, an onyear increase of 4%. In Europe, investment decreased by 18% to $58.5bn. On the other hand the two other leading markets for renewables, China and the US, saw investment rises to $110.5bn (+17%) and $56bn (+8%) respectively. The global market for wind and solar energy grew by 30%. 64 GW of wind and 57 GW of solar capacity were added in Solar and wind combined made up half of all capacity added in all generation technologies in RENEWABLES A DRIVER OF INNOVATION German companies are among global market leaders in many fields and a source of inventions and innovation. The massive cost reduction in solar and wind power is one 8

9 indicator of innovative capacity in the renewable energy sector. The provisions of the German Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) have enabled German companies to continuously improve processes and products. Economies of scale also play a major role in cost reductions. An obvious indicator of innovation in wind power is the impressive increase in plant size and generator power. In the year 2000, the average generator power was about 1 MW. In 2015 it reached 2.7 MW. Improvements in technology lead to higher power output. Electricity generation costs have reached grid parity in many areas around the world. Wind power in Germany already has lower costs than new hard coal or natural gas power plants at very good onshore locations. In Germany, a kilowatt hour from onshore wind power cost 4.5 to 11 cents in 2013, depending on sites. The highest cost reductions have been achieved in PV. From 2006 to 2015 average system prices fell by more than 70 percent. PROVIDING MORE ENERGY SECURITY Currently, Germany imports more than 70% of its primary energy consumption. Security of supply can only be guaranteed with renewables which are the only domestic energy source sustainably available for future generations. In large parts energy sources are imported from politically unstable regions with mining conditions that carry heavy consequences for humans and nature. 9

10 EMPLOYMENT AND NEW PERSPECTIVES FOR STRUGGLING REGIONS Suppliers of chemicals, glass, steel, copper and electronics highly benefit from growing demand for renewable technologies made in Germany. Wind power producers are now among the most important customers of the steel industry. The Energiewende creates jobs in manufacturing, the services industries, installation and operation of the plants in many parts of the country, especially in remote areas which have lacked perspectives for many decades were employed in the renewable industry in CITIZENS ENERGY The expansion of renewable energy is accompanied by a shift in the ownership structure of electricity production. Almost half of all renewable power capacity so far installed in Germany is in the hands of private individuals, according to a study by trend: research released in This is evidence that citizens can actively take part in the growth of renewable energies. 10

11 Those ownership structures point to the decentralized character of the Energiewende. Studies have shown that the increase in renewable energy production can generate double digit billion Euro benefits in terms of value added on the local level. RENEWABLES - AN EXPORT ENGINE Renewable energies have been a reliable export engine not only for the German manufacturing industry, but also for other sectors such as services. In the renewable energy sector, export turnover in the areas of components production and energy plant production amounted to some 8.6 billion euro in 2014, according to an estimate from the German Aerospace Center (DLR). For all the major branches of renewable energies, the export business has been a key pillar of success. Export ratios of major renewable energy sectors according to industry estimates: The German wind energy industry boasts an export ratio of some 66%, according to the German Wind Energy Association (BWE). The export ratio of the German solar industry was around 70% in 2015, according to the German Solar Association (BSW). In the German biogas industry, the export ratio will reach some 66% in 2016 according to a forecast by the German Biogas Association (FvB) from September

12 Some 120,000 heat pumps were manufactured in Germany in 2015, out of which 80,000 were destined for export markets. Biodiesel producers in Germany reached an export ratio of more than 50% in (all figures are based on industry estimates or forecasts) Transforming the energy system Power production from wind and solar energy form the core of the future energy system because of their low generation costs. In the course of a year wind and solar roughly complement each other. However, fluctuating power production is the key challenge for transforming the energy system. All other players and elements will have to adjust accordingly and offer flexibility to the system to guarantee reliable supply. Other renewable energy technologies such as biomass, hydro and geothermal energy can ideally complement supplies from fluctuating sources. Furthermore gas plants will play a crucial role as a supplement which will be fired with renewable gas like bio-methane or synthetic natural gas in the future. Expanding wind and solar power production will lead to growing supplies of excess power. Therefore more short term storage technologies like pump storage and batteries will be needed as well as long term solutions like power-to-gas. Cogeneration plants currently still work heat led. In face of the system transformation they have to work more flexibly and base their power production on the needs of the Energiewende. Some power consumers already adjust their power consumption to supply (demand-sidemanagement). In the future, all consumers from private households to industrial large-scale consumers will play a role in the power market by responding to supply. The coupling of all three sectors, power, heat and transport, is another crucial flexibility option. Marginal cost of wind and solar is essentially zero. Therefore excess power from these sources should not be wasted by curtailing. It can be used in heating technologies like heat pumps and district heating networks. In the transport sector, excess power can be used directly in electric cars or indirectly by converting it into methane, hydrogen or liquid fuels. Batteries in cars can also stabilize the grid by feeding power back into the grid when solar and wind power production is low. On 20 March 2015 a partial solar eclipse and storm Niklas at the end of the same month put the flexibility of Germany s power system to an unprecedented test, which it passed with flying colours. Power production from renewable energies fluctuated heavily, but the interaction of flexibility options worked smoothly. During 12

13 the solar eclipse solar power production fell by 7.5 GW and ramped up by 11.3 GW within just one hour. Future of renewable energy support schemes Over the first two decades, the German energy transition focused on growth and market access. Producing additional kilowatt-hours was the driver for achieving leverage. The German Renewable Energy Sources Act and its guaranteed feed-intariffs was the key for rapid growth of renewable power production by guaranteeing reliable investment conditions. This highly successful instrument has been exported into many other countries and regions across the globe. The power system changed dramatically from centralized power production in only a few fossil and nuclear plants to a more decentralized approach. Part and parcel of this decentralized approach are 1.5 million solar power installations, wind turbiness and around biogas as well as hydro power plants. While conventional power systems respond to demand, the new system is based on fluctuating wind and solar energy. Therefore many challenges lie ahead to transform the entire system. These challenges range from grid infrastructure and digitization to market design. Germany is now shaping the next era of the Energiewende. The German government currently changes the legislative landscape of the renewable energy market. Feed-in-tariffs are substituted by auctions to gain more political influence on the speed of renewables expansion and subject them to market forces. Exemptions apply to small installations. Acceptance in Germany and worldwide The transition to renewable energy enjoys continued strong support among the German population. This is also the case when compared to other major economies of the Western World. Regardless of their expansion status, renewables have a high degree of acceptance with approval ratings well above 80 percent in most cases. Targets for expanding the use of renewable energy are strongly supported, too. This applies to European Union member states, Japan and, depending on the costs, also to the United States, Canada and Australia. 13

14 On average, 90 percent of the population in the EU perceived an increase of renewables to be important, of which 49 percent voted for "very important" and 41 percent for "fairly important", as the Eurobarometer survey on behalf of the European Commission shows. The highest degree of acceptance was shown in Germany: here, 93 percent are in favour of further expansion of renewable energies. In the UK and France, nearly 90 percent of respondents perceived renewable energy targets for national governments to be important or very important. In countries at the lower end, like Poland, still a third of the population thought that the renewable energy targets of their government are very important, 55 percent opted for quite important. 14

15 However, this overall socio-political acceptance needs to be translated into an increasing market-related acceptance which manifests itself in higher sales and a more intensive market penetration. After 2020, there are currently no binding EU targets for the further expansion of renewable energies in individual EU member states. The goal set to date is a share of at least 27 percent of final energy consumption from renewable sources by 2030 in the European Union as a whole. A different approach is pursued in North America, where concrete expansion goals for renewable energy have been set by state and provincial governments. These goals also meet with very high approval. Overall the analyzed polls show that people do not have any reserve when confronted with the dynamic development of renewable energies. At the G7 Summit in June 2015 in Elmau and at the UN Climate Conference, the international community committed itself to decarbonization and to limiting global warming. 15

16 This fact sheet has been prepared by: Renewable Energies Agency (Agentur für Erneuerbare Energien) Invalidenstr. 91, Berlin, Germany Phone: Web: For BETD2016 related inquiries, please contact: Berlin Energy Transition Dialogue press office c/o Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft e.v. Französische Straße Berlin, Germany Phone: During the conference on March 17 / 18 we can be reached at

Germany's energy transition: Status quo and Challenges.

Germany's energy transition: Status quo and Challenges. Ulrich Benterbusch Germany's energy transition: Status quo and Challenges. 2 nd Session Group of Experts on Renewable Energy, UNECE, Geneva 1 Agenda. Energy transition: Status quo and official goals. German

More information

Germany Energy efficiency report

Germany Energy efficiency report Germany Energy efficiency report Objectives: 231 TWh of end-user energy savings by 216 Overview 29 2-29 (% / year) Primary intensity (EU=1) 1 99 + -1.3% - CO 2 intensity (EU=1) 16 - -1.6% - CO 2 emissions

More information

Fact Sheet on China s energy sector and Danish solutions

Fact Sheet on China s energy sector and Danish solutions Fact Sheet on China s energy sector and Danish solutions 1. EXPANSION WITH RENEWABLE ENERGY: China focuses on a massive expansion with non fossil energy that is renewable energy and nuclear energy. The

More information

The ENERGIEWENDE The Transformation of the German Energy System

The ENERGIEWENDE The Transformation of the German Energy System The ENERGIEWENDE The Transformation of the German Energy System 15th Czech Energy Congress 14.-15. April 2015 Peter Fischer Deputy Director-General for Globalisation, Energy and Climate Policy Federal

More information

Renewable Energy in the UK. Dr John Roberts CBE FREng

Renewable Energy in the UK. Dr John Roberts CBE FREng Renewable Energy in the UK Dr John Roberts CBE FREng Renewable Energy in the UK Legislation and Targets: Technology: International Frameworks EU Context National Context Overview and outlook for key renewable

More information

ACCELERATING GREEN ENERGY TOWARDS 2020. The Danish Energy Agreement of March 2012

ACCELERATING GREEN ENERGY TOWARDS 2020. The Danish Energy Agreement of March 2012 ACCELERATING GREEN ENERGY TOWARDS The Danish Energy Agreement of March 2012 The most ambitious energy plan of the world In March 2012 a historic new Energy Agreement was reached in Denmark. The Agreement

More information

The energy transition in the power sector: State of affairs 2015

The energy transition in the power sector: State of affairs 2015 The energy transition in the power sector: State of affairs 2015 Review of major developments in Germany Patrick Graichen, Mara Marthe Kleiner, Christoph Podewils BERLIN, 7 JANUARY 2016 Key Findings 1

More information

2. The German energy transition is driven by citizens and communities.

2. The German energy transition is driven by citizens and communities. 8 Key Finfings Energy Transition The German Energiewende By Craig Morris, Martin Pehnt An initiative of the Heinrich Böll Foundation Released on 28 November 2012 Revised July 2015 www. 8 Key Findings German

More information

Germany's renewable energy sector in the context of energy transition.

Germany's renewable energy sector in the context of energy transition. Oliver Frank Germany's renewable energy sector in the context of energy transition. May 11 th, Hong Kong 1 Agenda. About dena Energy transition / main trends in the German energy sector Renewable Energies

More information

The Energy Transition in Germany Past, Present and Future

The Energy Transition in Germany Past, Present and Future The Energy Transition in Germany Past, Present and Future smart energy Paraná, Conferência International 2014 9 May 2014 Dr. Carsten Tschamber A Brief History of the Energiewende 1973 - oil crisis, Federal

More information

Success story: Feed-In Tariffs Support renewable energy in Germany

Success story: Feed-In Tariffs Support renewable energy in Germany Success story: Feed-In Tariffs Support renewable energy in Germany This document will show how this success story has been brought about and is made up of the following sections: 1. What is a Feed-In Tariff?

More information

The World's Energy Outlook Post COP21. Kamel Ben Naceur International Energy Agency, Paris Brussels, April 19 th, 2016

The World's Energy Outlook Post COP21. Kamel Ben Naceur International Energy Agency, Paris Brussels, April 19 th, 2016 The World's Energy Outlook Post COP21 Kamel Ben Naceur International Energy Agency, Paris Brussels, April 19 th, 2016 The start of a new energy era? 2015 has seen lower prices for all fossil fuels Oil

More information

London, 10 November 2015

London, 10 November 2015 London, 10 November 2015 The start of a new energy era? 2015 has seen lower prices for all fossil fuels Oil & gas could face second year of falling upstream investment in 2016 Coal prices remain at rock-bottom

More information

Heating technology mix in a future German energy system dominated by renewables

Heating technology mix in a future German energy system dominated by renewables Heating technology mix in a future German energy system dominated by renewables Prof. Dr. Hans-Martin Henning Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE 4 th Congress of Polish Organization of Heat

More information

Development of renewable energy sources in Germany 2014

Development of renewable energy sources in Germany 2014 Development of renewable energy sources in Germany 2014 Charts and figures based on statistical data from the Working Group on Renewable Energy-Statistics (AGEE-Stat), as at February 2015 Contents 1. Development

More information

GERMANY AS A SOLAR ROLE MODEL FOR THE WORLD?

GERMANY AS A SOLAR ROLE MODEL FOR THE WORLD? GERMANY AS A SOLAR ROLE MODEL FOR THE WORLD? Eicke R. Weber, Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE and Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany Paths towards a New Energy Market Design

More information

RENEWABLE ENERGY IN AUSTRALIA

RENEWABLE ENERGY IN AUSTRALIA RENEWABLE ENERGY IN AUSTRALIA Increasing electricity generation from renewable energy sources is one of the main strategies to reduce greenhouse emissions from the power sector. Australia has historically

More information

Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework

Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework Summary of the Impact assessment for a 2030 climate and energy policy framework Contents Overview a. Drivers of electricity prices b. Jobs and growth c. Trade d. Energy dependence A. Impact assessment

More information

District Heating in Denmark

District Heating in Denmark District Heating in Denmark - 2 questions and 5 answers on how to promote cost-effective DH nationwide Ole Odgaard Senior Advisor Delegation from France - 13 September 2016 Facts on Danish District Heating

More information

Energy White Paper at a glance

Energy White Paper at a glance and Science Energy White Paper at a glance WWW. i Energy White Paper at a glance The Australian Government made an election commitment to deliver an Energy White Paper to give industry and consumers certainty

More information

Energiewende made in Germany - Economic Value and Energy Security -

Energiewende made in Germany - Economic Value and Energy Security - Tokyo, 26th May 2015 Energiewende made in Germany - Economic Value and Energy Security - Dr. Hermann Falk German Renewable Energy Federation (BEE) Who are we? We are the voice of the renewable energy industry

More information

Please note that all IEA data are subject to the following Terms and Conditions found on the IEA website:

Please note that all IEA data are subject to the following Terms and Conditions found on the IEA website: Excerpt from: 2 - EXCERPT FROM ELECTRICITY INFORMATION (2015 edition) The following analysis is an excerpt from the publication Electricity Information (2015 edition). Please note that we strongly advise

More information

Issue. September 2012

Issue. September 2012 September 2012 Issue In a future world of 8.5 billion people in 2035, the Energy Information Administration s (EIA) projected 50% increase in energy consumption will require true all of the above energy

More information

A sustainable energy and climate policy for the environment, competitiveness and long-term stability

A sustainable energy and climate policy for the environment, competitiveness and long-term stability 2009-02-05 A sustainable energy and climate policy for the environment, competitiveness and long-term stability The party leaders of Alliance for Sweden entered into an agreement today on a long-term,

More information

GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET OUTLOOK 2013

GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET OUTLOOK 2013 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET OUTLOOK 213 FACT PACK GUY TURNER HEAD OF ECONOMICS AND COMMODITIES APRIL 26, 213 GLOBAL RENEWABLE ENERGY MARKET OUTLOOK, 26 APRIL 213 1 INTRODUCTION This year s Global Renewable

More information

Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014

Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014 Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014 Summary Michiel Hekkenberg (ECN) Martijn Verdonk (PBL) (project coordinators) February 2015 ECN-E --15-005 Netherlands National Energy Outlook 2014 Summary 2 The

More information

Indonesia Energy efficiency report

Indonesia Energy efficiency report Indonesia Energy efficiency report Objectives: Growth in energy consumption slower than GDP growth by 25 Industrial energy intensity reduction target of about 1% per year until 25 Overview 9-9 (% / year)

More information

Low temperatures provide a poor increase in energy consumption. Decreasing economy lessens energy demand / Renewables continue to grow

Low temperatures provide a poor increase in energy consumption. Decreasing economy lessens energy demand / Renewables continue to grow Low temperatures provide a poor increase in energy consumption Decreasing economy lessens energy demand / Renewables continue to grow Berlin/Cologne (19 December 2012) - Energy consumption in Germany in

More information

India Energy efficiency report

India Energy efficiency report India Energy efficiency report Objectives: 5% of savings in energy consumption by 215 Overview 29 2-29 (% / year) Primary intensity (EU=1) 1 164 -- -2.9% ++ CO 2 intensity (EU=1) 181 -- -1.2% -- CO 2 emissions

More information

New business segments for the energy saving industry Energy efficiency and decentralised energy systems in the building & housing sector

New business segments for the energy saving industry Energy efficiency and decentralised energy systems in the building & housing sector New business segments for the energy saving industry Energy efficiency and decentralised energy systems in the building & housing sector Workshop on ESCOs Energy Service Companies March 28-29, 2012, Ramat

More information

Energy Strategy 2050: concept, status and next steps

Energy Strategy 2050: concept, status and next steps Energy Strategy 2050: concept, status and next steps Dr. Walter Steinmann, Director Energy Strategy 2050: objectives Supply security Technical security Environmental compatibility Economic viability 2

More information

EU Heating and Cooling Strategy Consultation Forum Issue Papers. EURELECTRIC comments

EU Heating and Cooling Strategy Consultation Forum Issue Papers. EURELECTRIC comments EU Heating and Cooling Strategy Consultation Forum Issue Papers EURELECTRIC comments September 2015 EURELECTRIC is the voice of the electricity industry in Europe. We speak for more than 3,500 companies

More information

International Solar Energy Arena January 23rd, 2009, Istanbul STEAM (Strategic Technical Economic Research Center)

International Solar Energy Arena January 23rd, 2009, Istanbul STEAM (Strategic Technical Economic Research Center) International Solar Energy Arena January 23rd, 2009, Istanbul STEAM (Strategic Technical Economic Research Center) Good morning. Sayin Bakanım. Members of Parliament. Ladies and Gentlemen. Slide 1: Opening

More information

DANISH DISTRICT ENERGY PLANNING EXPERIENCE

DANISH DISTRICT ENERGY PLANNING EXPERIENCE MOWAT ENERGY, A RESEARCH HUB AT THE MOWAT CENTRE, AT THE REQUEST OF THE ONTARIO MINISTRY OF ENERGY FUTURE INNOVATION IN ENERGY PLANNING: A SPECIAL SESSION TO ADVISE ON ONTARIO S LONG-TERM ENERGY FUTURE

More information

Energy Efficiency trends and policies

Energy Efficiency trends and policies Energy Efficiency trends and policies in Denmark Copenhagen, January 2016 Date: January 2016 Energy Efficiency Trends and Policies in Denmark 1 Contact person: Jane Rusbjerg; JRU@ens.dk Signe Marie Enghave;

More information

Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) Key features, development and perspectives

Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) Key features, development and perspectives Renewable Energy Sources Act (EEG) Key features, development and perspectives Nicolas Oetzel Federal Ministry for the Environment, Nature Conservation and Nuclear Safety Division KI III 1, General and

More information

PHOTOVOLTAICS IN THE GERMAN POWER SYSTEM

PHOTOVOLTAICS IN THE GERMAN POWER SYSTEM PHOTOVOLTAICS IN THE GERMAN POWER SYSTEM Past, Now and in the Future Dr. Simon P. Philipps Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems, ISE / Fraunhofer Energy Alliance Wind & Solar Seminar, Vaasa Energy

More information

Nuclear power is part of the solution for fighting climate change

Nuclear power is part of the solution for fighting climate change Nuclear power is part of the solution for fighting climate change "Nuclear for Climate" is an initiative undertaken by the members of the French Nuclear Energy Society (SFEN), the American Nuclear Society

More information

Preparatory Paper on Focal Areas to Support a Sustainable Energy System in the Electricity Sector

Preparatory Paper on Focal Areas to Support a Sustainable Energy System in the Electricity Sector Preparatory Paper on Focal Areas to Support a Sustainable Energy System in the Electricity Sector C. Agert, Th. Vogt EWE Research Centre NEXT ENERGY, Oldenburg, Germany corresponding author: Carsten.Agert@next-energy.de

More information

Invitation. The Danish Energy Association invites you to join in the debate on a new energy efficiency policy. Monday, 26 May 2008.

Invitation. The Danish Energy Association invites you to join in the debate on a new energy efficiency policy. Monday, 26 May 2008. Invitation Energy Excellence how to achieve new, efficient energy consumption The Danish Energy Association invites you to join in the debate on a new energy efficiency policy Monday, 26 May 2008 Comwell

More information

SPANISH EXPERIENCE IN RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY. Anton Garcia Diaz Economic Bureau of the Prime Minister

SPANISH EXPERIENCE IN RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY. Anton Garcia Diaz Economic Bureau of the Prime Minister SPANISH EXPERIENCE IN RENEWABLE ENERGY AND ENERGY EFFICIENCY Anton Garcia Diaz Economic Bureau of the Prime Minister «Symposium on Strengthening Sino-Spain cooperation in multiple Fields» New Energy Cooperation

More information

FULL SOLAR SUPPLY OF INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES - THE EXAMPLE JAPAN

FULL SOLAR SUPPLY OF INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES - THE EXAMPLE JAPAN FULL SOLAR SUPPLY OF INDUSTRIALIZED COUNTRIES - THE EXAMPLE JAPAN Dr. Harry Lehmann 1 It has long been known that to protect people and the environment from both nuclear risks and dangerous levels of climate

More information

BIOENERGY IN GERMANY: STATUS QUO AND OUTLOOK

BIOENERGY IN GERMANY: STATUS QUO AND OUTLOOK fnr.de BIOENERGY IN GERMANY: STATUS QUO AND OUTLOOK Berlin 24 Oct 2014 Vincent Pelikan Outline Bioenergy in Germany The Agency for Renewable Resources (FNR) A Success Story Status quo o Bioenergy as a

More information

FACTS The most important data on renewable energy in Germany. Clear and concise.

FACTS The most important data on renewable energy in Germany. Clear and concise. FACTS The most important data on renewable energy in Germany. Clear and concise. as of 04/2015 Renewable energy sector overview Sector 2014 scenario 2020 Investment in energy plants 18.8 bn 235 bn 1 Share

More information

EU Energy Policy and the Energy Situation in Germany

EU Energy Policy and the Energy Situation in Germany IIPS Japan Policy Commentary EU Energy Policy and the Energy Situation in Germany By Mikihiko Shimizu Senior Research Fellow at IIPS Introduction Japan s energy policy is undergoing fundamental review

More information

Promoting Energy Efficiency in housing. KfW s experience and best practice

Promoting Energy Efficiency in housing. KfW s experience and best practice Promoting Energy Efficiency in housing KfW s experience and best practice KfW Bankengruppe Financing with a public mission Promotional bank of the Federal Republic of Germany Founded in 1948 as Kreditanstalt

More information

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia May 11, 2016

Riyadh, Saudi Arabia May 11, 2016 Riyadh, Saudi Arabia May 11, 2016 Isabel Soares Head of Institutional Affairs Department 1 Directorate General for Energy and Geology of Portugal AGENDA PORTUGAL OVERVIEW : ENERGY SUPPLY AND DEMAND RENEWABLE

More information

Biogas production in Germany: Status quo and future trends M.Sc. Georg Friedl, German Biogas Association www.renewables-made-in-germany.

Biogas production in Germany: Status quo and future trends M.Sc. Georg Friedl, German Biogas Association www.renewables-made-in-germany. Biogas production in Germany: Status quo and future trends M.Sc. Georg Friedl, German Biogas Association www.renewables-made-in-germany.com Overview German Biogas Association Biogas production in Germany:

More information

Energy Efficiency and Smart Cities in Germany Status & Perspectives

Energy Efficiency and Smart Cities in Germany Status & Perspectives Energy Efficiency and Smart Cities in Germany Status & Perspectives August 27th, 2013, Chicago/USA Dr. Hartmut Grewe, energiewaechter GmbH, by order of Energy Efficiency Export Initiative sponsored by

More information

Comparison of Recent Trends in Sustainable Energy Development in Japan, U.K., Germany and France

Comparison of Recent Trends in Sustainable Energy Development in Japan, U.K., Germany and France Comparison of Recent Trends in Sustainable Energy Development in Japan, U.K., Germany and France Japan - U.S. Workshop on Sustainable Energy Future June 26, 2012 Naoya Kaneko, Fellow Center for Research

More information

Biogas - Trends in Germany Biogas as a key in future energy systems

Biogas - Trends in Germany Biogas as a key in future energy systems Biogas - Trends in Germany Biogas as a key in future energy systems Clemens Findeisen Consultant Development Cooperation German Biogas Association 14 th of October 2013, Berlin Outline German Biogas Association

More information

Renewable energy business and policy in Europe, in brief

Renewable energy business and policy in Europe, in brief UNIVERSITY OF TWENTE Renewable energy business and policy in Europe, in brief Presentation for the Energy Conference, Ener2i project, Yerevan, 2 October, 2015 Yoram Krozer, University Twente - CSTM and

More information

Environmental report for Danish electricity and CHP

Environmental report for Danish electricity and CHP Environmental report for Danish electricity and CHP summary of the status year 2012 Energinet.dk is the transmission system operator for electricity and gas in Denmark. In accordance with the Danish Electricity

More information

New challenges faced by the world s energy development and the energy strategy of China

New challenges faced by the world s energy development and the energy strategy of China New challenges faced by the world s energy development and the energy strategy of China Feng Fei Development Research Center of the State Council I. New challenges faced by the world s energy development:

More information

The Energy Situation in Mexico

The Energy Situation in Mexico The Energy Situation in Mexico Mexico's total energy consumption in 2014 consisted mostly of : petroleum (45%), natural gas (40%). Natural gas is increasingly replacing oil in electric power generation.

More information

Energy Options in a Carbon Constrained World. Martin Sevior, School of Physics, University of Melbourne http://nuclearinfo.net

Energy Options in a Carbon Constrained World. Martin Sevior, School of Physics, University of Melbourne http://nuclearinfo.net Energy Options in a Carbon Constrained World. Martin Sevior, School of Physics, University of Melbourne Energy underpins our Civilization Imagine one week without Electricity Imagine one week without Motorized

More information

The Energiewende in the Power Sector: State of Affairs 2014

The Energiewende in the Power Sector: State of Affairs 2014 The Energiewende in the Power Sector: State of Affairs 2014 A Review of the Significant Developments and an Outlook for 2015 BERLIN, 07 JANUARY 2015 The most important developments in 2014 at a glance:

More information

Cogeneration in Europe

Cogeneration in Europe Cogeneration in Europe A brief analysis of the latest Eurostat data (reference year: 213) Brussels, 2 October 215 The European Commission published on 29 June 215 the EU-28 CHP statistics for the year

More information

Heat Recovery. Sector opportunities for sustainable growth in Scotland

Heat Recovery. Sector opportunities for sustainable growth in Scotland Heat Recovery Sector opportunities for sustainable growth in Scotland Heat recovery sector opportunities for sustainable growth in Scotland This report highlights the main economic opportunities for Scotland

More information

Climate change: Everyone s business

Climate change: Everyone s business Climate change: Everyone s business A summary report from the CBI Climate Change Task Force November 2007 Copyright CBI 2007 The content may not be copied, distributed, reported or dealt with in whole

More information

Wind and solar reducing consumer bills An investigation into the Merit Order Effect

Wind and solar reducing consumer bills An investigation into the Merit Order Effect Switch for Good Wind and solar reducing consumer bills An investigation into the Merit Order Effect Executive summary Concerns over the cost of renewable subsidy schemes have led to significant policy

More information

Regulation by the Feed-in Tariff: Experiences from Germany

Regulation by the Feed-in Tariff: Experiences from Germany Solar Power International 08 Panel Technology & Regulation: How to do it Right 16th October 2008, San Diego, California, USA Regulation by the Feed-in Tariff: Experiences from Germany Gerhard Stryi-Hipp

More information

Critical Policy Options to Protect Industry Competitiveness

Critical Policy Options to Protect Industry Competitiveness Critical Policy Options to Protect Industry Competitiveness Graham Weale Chief Economist, RWE AG IEA Energy Business Council Meeting, Paris 4 th June 2013 RWE Group a leading European energy utility >

More information

Multiple sources of energy will be available, giving the consumer choices. A Higher Percentage of Energy will come from renewable energy sources

Multiple sources of energy will be available, giving the consumer choices. A Higher Percentage of Energy will come from renewable energy sources Editor s comments: Numbers in parentheses indicate the number of duplicate or extremely similar comments made. The headings are editor s best attempt to draft vision statements reflecting the participants

More information

State of the art of solid biomass technologies in Germany

State of the art of solid biomass technologies in Germany Energy State of the art of solid biomass technologies in Germany Jens Giersdorf Deutsches Biomasseforschungszentrum gemeinnützige GmbH (DBFZ) November 27, 2012, São Paulo, Brazil www.german-renewable-energy.com

More information

Renewable energy sources penetration in most of BSEC countries

Renewable energy sources penetration in most of BSEC countries Renewable energy sources penetration in most of BSEC countries Prof. Dimitrios MAVRAKIS Director Energy Policy and Development Centre (KEPA) National and Kapodistrian University of Athens Energy Policy

More information

Please address your inquiries to balances@iea.org.

Please address your inquiries to balances@iea.org. Excerpt from: ii - EXCERPT FROM ENERGY BALANCES OF OECD COUNTRIES (215 edition) The following analysis is an excerpt from the publication Energy Balances of OECD Countries (215 edition). Please note that

More information

Photovoltaics and Solar Thermal Energy in Germany: Market Development, Applications, Industry and Technology

Photovoltaics and Solar Thermal Energy in Germany: Market Development, Applications, Industry and Technology Photovoltaics and Solar Thermal Energy in Germany: Market Development, Applications, Industry and Technology Gerhard Stryi-Hipp Managing Director BSW - Bundesverband Solarwirtschaft e.v. German Solar Industry

More information

2015 Exhibits Slight Increase in Energy Consumption. Status Report on Energy Consumption in 2015 / Natural Gas and Renewables Grow

2015 Exhibits Slight Increase in Energy Consumption. Status Report on Energy Consumption in 2015 / Natural Gas and Renewables Grow 2015 Exhibits Slight Increase in Energy Consumption Status Report on Energy Consumption in 2015 / Natural Gas and Renewables Grow Berlin/Köln (April 22, 2016) - Energy consumption in Germany peaked at

More information

Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy

Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy Policy statement Energy efficiency: a world business perspective Prepared by the Commission on Environment & Energy Key messages Energy efficiency is a fundamental element in progress towards a sustainable

More information

Greenhouse gas abatement potential in Israel

Greenhouse gas abatement potential in Israel Greenhouse gas abatement potential in Israel Israel s GHG abatement cost curve Translated executive summary, November 2009 1 Executive Summary Background At the December 2009 UNFCCC Conference in Copenhagen,

More information

Annual Electricity and Heat Questionnaire

Annual Electricity and Heat Questionnaire Annual Electricity and Heat Questionnaire IEA Statistics Course Pierre Boileau International Energy Agency OVERVIEW Global trends in electricity production 1973-2009 IEA Annual Electricity and Heat Questionnaire

More information

New and Renewable Energy Policy in Republic of Korea

New and Renewable Energy Policy in Republic of Korea New and Renewable Energy Policy in Republic of Korea April 26th, 2010 Sanghoon Lee Research Fellow Climate Change Research Center Sejong University, Korea UTLINE Ⅰ. Energy Situation and NRE Status in Korea

More information

OUTLOOK FOR NATURAL GAS IN EUROPE

OUTLOOK FOR NATURAL GAS IN EUROPE 6th German-Norwegian Energy Conference OUTLOOK FOR NATURAL GAS IN EUROPE Dr. Berit Tennbakk, Partner, RETROSPECT FALLING AND CONVERGING GAS PRICES HISTORICAL DEVELOPMENT MAIN DRIVERS Financial crisis Fukushima

More information

Role of Natural Gas in a Sustainable Energy Future

Role of Natural Gas in a Sustainable Energy Future Role of Natural Gas in a Sustainable Energy Future Alexander Medvedev, Deputy Chairman of Gazprom Management Committee, Director General of Gazprom Export 2 nd Ministerial Gas Forum Doha, 30 November 2010

More information

Renewable energy opportunities in the transformation of the energy system

Renewable energy opportunities in the transformation of the energy system Renewable energy opportunities in the transformation of the energy system Dipl.Ing. Josef Plank, R 20 Vienna 2014 10 09 President of Renewable Energy Austria (EEÖ) Managing Director of RENERGIE GmbH Energy

More information

Ernst Rauch Munich Re 29 June 2010

Ernst Rauch Munich Re 29 June 2010 WORKSHOP A: REDUCING RISKS OF GREEN INVESTMENT IN DEVELOPING COUNTRIES Riskmanagement for Green Investments BMU-KfW Conference 29 June 2010, Berlin Ernst Rauch Head Corporate Climate Centre, Munich Re

More information

Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Germany 2014

Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Germany 2014 Development of Renewable Energy Sources in Germany 2014 Charts and figures based on statistical data from the Working Group on Renewable Energy-Statistics (AGEE-Stat), as at December 2015 Contents 1. Development

More information

To enlarge the scale of renewable energy applications, to promote the integration of renewable energy and

To enlarge the scale of renewable energy applications, to promote the integration of renewable energy and 12 th Five-Year Plan for Renewable Energy Development General objectives To enlarge the scale of renewable energy applications, to promote the integration of renewable energy and conventional energy systems,

More information

SHELL HAUSWÄRME-STUDIE. Nachhaltige Wärmeerzeugung für Wohngebäude Fakten, Trends und Perspektiven

SHELL HAUSWÄRME-STUDIE. Nachhaltige Wärmeerzeugung für Wohngebäude Fakten, Trends und Perspektiven 1 Summary Shell Home Heating Study Shell has for decades now been using scenario techniques for research into the future. As a global energy company, Shell regularly publishes global longterm energy scenarios

More information

Sweden s energy policy should build on the same three pillars as energy cooperation in the EU. The policy therefore aims to combine:

Sweden s energy policy should build on the same three pillars as energy cooperation in the EU. The policy therefore aims to combine: Framework agreement between the Swedish Social Democratic Party, the Moderate Party, the Swedish Green Party, the Centre Party and the Christian Democrats Pillars Sweden s energy policy should build on

More information

SMARTGRID Roadmap 1.

SMARTGRID Roadmap 1. SMARTGRID Roadmap 1. Introduction to the Smart Grid Roadmap to 25 Ireland faces the same long term energy challenges as the rest of the world: a need to move towards competitively priced, environmentally

More information

The Energy Strategy 2050: objectives and measures Dr. Anne-Kathrin Faust and Dr. Aurelio Fetz, Market Regulation, Swiss Federal Office of Energy

The Energy Strategy 2050: objectives and measures Dr. Anne-Kathrin Faust and Dr. Aurelio Fetz, Market Regulation, Swiss Federal Office of Energy The Energy Strategy 2050: objectives and measures Dr. Anne-Kathrin Faust and Dr. Aurelio Fetz, Market Regulation, Swiss Federal Office of Energy Workshop Smart Grids and Dynamic Pricing, Opportunities

More information

EU Heating and Cooling Strategy

EU Heating and Cooling Strategy EU Heating and Cooling Strategy March 2016 Unit Energy Efficiency DG ENER European Commission EU Strategy for Heating and Cooling One of the actions under the Energy Union Strategic Framework and Roadmap

More information

Smart Cities and Sustainable Technology

Smart Cities and Sustainable Technology Smart Cities and Sustainable Technology Liam Mulligan Head of Mobility and Sustainability Siemens Ltd. Cities are the growth engines for their national economies Megatrends imply significant challenges

More information

An Outlook for Natural Gas. Laszlo Varro Head of Gas, Coal and Power

An Outlook for Natural Gas. Laszlo Varro Head of Gas, Coal and Power An Outlook for Natural Gas Laszlo Varro Head of Gas, Coal and Power The march of gas is not new The ratio of global gas and oil production 0.7 0.6 0.5 Non conventional gas Qatar 0.4 0.3 0.2 Liberalization

More information

FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ISE

FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ISE FRAUNHOFER INSTITUTE FOR SOLAR ENERGY SYSTEMS ISE Power generation from renewable energy in Germany assessment of first half of 2015 Prof. Dr. Bruno Burger Fraunhofer Institute for Solar Energy Systems

More information

One year after Fukushima Germany s path to a new energy policy

One year after Fukushima Germany s path to a new energy policy Germany s path to a new energy policy Contents 1. Quotation from Michael Süß, CEO of the Energy Sector and member of the Managing Board of Siemens AG 2. One year after Fukushima A snapshot of the power

More information

RE-POWERING MARKETS Market design and regulation during the transition to low-carbon power systems

RE-POWERING MARKETS Market design and regulation during the transition to low-carbon power systems RE-POWERING MARKETS Market design and regulation during the transition to low-carbon power systems EC-IEA Roundtatble on electricity market design and regulation Brussels, 18 February 2016 Power markets

More information

The Agreement on Energy for Sustainable Growth:

The Agreement on Energy for Sustainable Growth: The Agreement on Energy for Sustainable Growth: a policy in practice CO 2 ABOUT THE AGREEMENT On 6 September 2013, the Netherlands took a bold step towards a sustainable future. After an eight-month negotiation

More information

THE DIVEST-INVEST MOVEMENT STOPPING CLIMATE CHANGE BY MOVING THE TRILLIONS TBLI EUROPE NOVEMBER 2015

THE DIVEST-INVEST MOVEMENT STOPPING CLIMATE CHANGE BY MOVING THE TRILLIONS TBLI EUROPE NOVEMBER 2015 THE DIVEST-INVEST MOVEMENT STOPPING CLIMATE CHANGE BY MOVING THE TRILLIONS TBLI EUROPE NOVEMBER 2015 1 Global environment deteriorates further with growth global energy consumption, CO 2 emissions and

More information

SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): ENERGY. 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities

SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): ENERGY. 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities Country Operations Business Plan: Philippines, 2013 2015 SECTOR ASSESSMENT (SUMMARY): ENERGY 1. Sector Performance, Problems, and Opportunities 1. Challenges. Economic growth has been impeded in the Philippines

More information

Keisuke Sadamori Director, Energy Markets and Security International Energy Agency Kuala Lumpur, 8 October

Keisuke Sadamori Director, Energy Markets and Security International Energy Agency Kuala Lumpur, 8 October Keisuke Sadamori Director, Energy Markets and Security International Energy Agency Kuala Lumpur, 8 October The context Southeast Asia is a key pillar of Asia s growth A mix of countries with disparate

More information

Electricity Market Reform

Electricity Market Reform 2016 Electricity Market Reform Background The Electricity Market Reform (EMR) was issued by the UK government as a potential solution to the nation s core energy problems which include; keeping energy

More information

Student Worksheets. Stage 4 Geography FW4G1. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW4G1

Student Worksheets. Stage 4 Geography FW4G1. Name: FutureWorld 2015 FW4G1 Student Worksheets Stage 4 Geography FW4G1 Name: Introduction Renewable Versus Non-renewable Energy The Sun is a Primary Source of Energy Almost all the energy needed to keep life on Earth going comes

More information

POLICY ACTIONS INVESTING IN INNOVATION

POLICY ACTIONS INVESTING IN INNOVATION The BC Energy Plan ALTERNATIVE ENERGY Government will work with other agencies to maximize opportunities to develop, deploy and export British Columbia clean and alternative energy technologies. POLICY

More information

THE AMENDED RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES ACT 2014 (EEG 2014)

THE AMENDED RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES ACT 2014 (EEG 2014) THE AMENDED RENEWABLE ENERGY SOURCES ACT 2014 (EEG 2014) 18.08.2014 Energy Regulatory & Governmental Affairs The Amended Renewable Energy Sources Act 2014 (EEG 2014) With the most recent amendment of the

More information

Smart Cities. Smart partners in tomorrow s cities

Smart Cities. Smart partners in tomorrow s cities DNV KEMA serving the energy industry Smart Cities Smart partners in tomorrow s cities Experience, knowledge and advanced methods & tools for smart city planning and implementation 02 I DNV KEMA SERVING

More information

1. Electricity production in the world: general forecasts

1. Electricity production in the world: general forecasts Fifteenth inventory 2013 edition Worldwide electricity production from renewable energy sources Stats and figures series This inventory was carried out by Observ ER and Fondation Énergies pour le Monde

More information

Renewable Choice Energy

Renewable Choice Energy Catawba College Table of Contents About Renewable Choice The Problem: Electricity Production Today The Solutions: Renewable Energy Sources Renewable Energy Credits (RECs) Who can participate in Renewable

More information