Biowaste to Energy Examples from Germany

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1 Energy Biowaste to Energy Examples from Germany Christine Wörlen, Ph.D. Arepo Consult, Berlin

2 Outline Role of bioenergy and organic waste in German energy mix Development of bioenergy supply in Germany since 2004 Electricity, heat and mobility Why focus on waste? Biogas from waste application examples Municipal biosolids Sewage Agricultural residues

3 Bioenergy as share of primary energy in % in Germany * Source: Bundesverband Bioenergie e.v. 2011, Data for 2020 and 2030 are estimations for a possible development

4 Bioenergy three forms and three uses. solid gaseous liquid electricity heat mobility / transportation

5 Bioenergy and organic waste in German energy mix Share of renewable energy sources in total final energy consumption in Germany 2011 / Hydropower Wind energy Biomass Photovoltaics Solar thermal energy Biogenic fuels Geothermal energy Share in [%] (17.1 %) 2011 (20.0 %) 2010 (10.2 %) 2011 (10.4 %) 2010 (5.8 %) 2011 (5.6 %) Electricity * Heat * Biogenic fuels * Biomass: solid and liquid biomass, biogas, sewage and landfill gas, biogenic share of waste; electricity from geothermal energy not presented due to negligible quantities produced; deviations in the totals are due to rounding; source: BMU-KI III 1 according to Working Group on Renewable Energy-Statistics (AGEE-Stat); image: BMU / Dieter Böhme; as at: March 2012; all figures provisional

6 Electricity supply (total final energy supply) Structure of biomass-based electricity supply in Germany 2011 Total: 36.9 TWh Biogenic solid fuels: 30.6 % Biogenic liquid fuels *: 3.8 % Biogenic share of waste: 13.5 % Landfill gas: 1.7 % Sewage gas: 3.0 % Biogas: 47.4 % *) Vegetable oil included; source: BMU-KI III 1 according to Working Group on Renewable Energy-Statistics (AGEE-Stat); 1 TWh = 1 Bill. kwh; deviations in the totals are due to rounding; as at: March 2012; all figures provisional

7 Heat supply (total final energy supply) Structure of biomass-based heat supply in Germany 2011 Total: TWh Biogenic solid fuels (households): 49.0 % Biogenic solid fuels (industry): 19.1 % Biogenic share of waste: 6.2 % Landfill gas: 0.2 % Sewage gas: 0.9 % Biogas: 13.0 % Biogenic liquid fuels *: 6.1 % Biogenic solid fuels (cogeneration power installations and heating installations): 5.4 % *) Vegetable oil included; source: BMU-KI III 1 according to Working Group on Renewable Energy-Statistics (AGEE-Stat); 1 TWh = 1 Bill. kwh; deviations in the totals are due to rounding; as at: March 2012; all figures provisional

8 Biofuels (total final energy supply) Structure of renewables-based motor fuel supply in Germany 2011 Total (RES): 34.3 TWh Biodiesel: 72.7 % Bioethanol: 26.7 % Vegetable oil: 0.6 % RES: Renewable Energy Sources; source: BMU-KI III 1 according to Working Group on Renewable Energy-Statistics (AGEE-Stat); 1 TWh = 1 Bill. kwh; deviations in the totals are due to rounding; as at: March 2012; all figures provisional

9 Technologies in use Image: Block thermal power plant in Berlin (Blockheizkraftwerk, Source: Internet 2012)

10 Technologies in use Image: Bioethanol plant in Zeitz (Bioraffinerie, Source: Internet 2012)

11 Biomass for electricity production in Germany Second biggest contribution from renewables to electricity mix (smaller contribution than wind, larger than hydro) Of biosolids, around 30% are used in CHP, the remainder in power generation. Co-combustion with fossil fuels is common. Biogas, gas from fermentation of sewage sludge, municipal solid waste are other important sources.

12 Energy Focus on waste

13 Bioenergy market in Germany at a glance > biomass heating plants with over 500kWth installed pellet - based heatings 60 pellet producers at over 70 sites Around 600 pellet merchants 264 biomass heating plants biogas plants (total installed capacity: MW) 45 Biodiesel plants 274 producing oil mills (from about 600) 7 Bioethanol plants > 12 Mrd. Euro buisness volume > jobs 67,3 Mio. t avoided CO 2 emissions 64,9 Mio t avoided emissions of other greenhouse gases Image: Biogas plant in Kröpelin (Source: Internet 2012)

14 Why focus on waste? Food vs. fuel debate Other demands for space (human habitation, biodiversity and ecological conservation) New stream of income for farmers, foresters, and agricultural industries

15 Current utilization levels of biomass in Germany.

16 Energy Biogas from waste application examples

17 Biogas from waste application examples Agricultural residues Municipal biosolids (fermentation, landfill) Sewage

18 Biogas from landfills (solid organic household waste) Image: Biogas power plant in Flörsheim Wicker, functioning with municipal biosolids (Source: Internet 2012)

19 Biogas from sewage water plants Image: sewage water plant Dresden -Kaditz, Faultürme & BHKW (Source: Internet)

20 Biogas from Agricultural residues Image: Biogas plant in Schmachtenhagen (Source: Internet 2012)

21 Energy Summary

22 Summary Bio wastes are a wonderful resource Little environmental impact New economic opportunity (if waste is not used otherwise so far) Technologies are scalable and can provide many forms of energy Talk to us

23 Thank you very much for your attention. Christine Woerlen, Ph.D. Arepo Consult

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