Q UEEN S I NSTITUTE FOR E NERGY & E NVIRONMENTAL P OLICY

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1 Q UEEN S I NSTITUTE FOR E NERGY & E NVIRONMENTAL P OLICY

2 Challenges with Ontario s Green Energy Act Presentation to UBC s Clean Energy Research Centre Warren Mabee Queen s Institute for Energy & Environmental Policy December 2, 2009

3 Today s talk Ontario s Green Energy Act Bioenergy options Renewable energy portfolios Regional approach Sweden Germany Ontario Summary

4 Ontario s Green Energy Act Introduced in 2008 Passed May 14, 2009 In part a response to the phase-out of coal (by 2014) which reduces GHG emissions by 30 MT per year Tools include renewable energy and conservation

5 Replaces the RESOP Renewable Energy Standard Offer Program from the Energy Conservation Leadership Act (2006) Goal was 2,700 MW of Renewable energy by reached about 1,411 MW in 2008 Many projects held up in approvals Resource PV Solar On Shore Wind Off Farm Biogas Hydro RESOP Tariff $0.42/KWh No Inflation Adjustment Non differentiated $0.11/KWh Non differentiated Inflation Adjustment 20% $0.11/KWh Non differentiated $0.11/KWh Non differentiated Inflation Adjustment 20%

6 Goals of the Green Energy Act Create 50,000 jobs in 3 years Help reduce emissions Support beyond the market driven electricity sector Facilitating renewable energy development Creating a culture of conservation Developing smart grid Create a conservation culture Develop a Smart Grid - advanced information exchange systems and equipment enabling the increased use of renewable resources, demand response and conservation Enable First Nations and community participation in electricity sector

7 Tools within the Act I Renewable Energy Approval One approval process under the Environmental Protection Act to replace multiple approvals under various legislation Exemption from municipal controls and approvals (e.g., zoning, site plan control, etc.) for renewable generation Government can set rules and standards for planning and siting Public consultation process ongoing Creation of Renewable Energy Facilitation Office Appointment of Renewable Energy Facilitator to support renewable energy development Acts as an information and resource hub

8 Tools within the Act II Right to connect for renewable energy projects Transmitters and distributors must provide priority connection access to renewable energy facilities that meet regulatory requirements Regulations may require timelines for connection assessments Transmitters and distributors required by license to prepare plans on expansion of their systems to accommodate renewable generation and smart grid Rules to deal with problem of connection queue squatting Municipalities may do their own generation ( 10MW) Designed to encourage new players in generation development May also support co-operative approaches Development of a feed-in tariff (FIT) program direct successor to the RESOP

9 Technology Ontario Size ranges Ontario Proposed /kwh Biomass* Any size 12.2 Biogas* 5 MW 14.7 > 5 MW 10.4 Hydro* Large Hydro* Community-based 50 MW MW 13.4 Landfill gas* 5MW 11.1 > 5 MW 10.3 Solar PV Rooftop 10 kw kw kw 63.5 > 500 kw 53.9 Solar PV Ground 10 MW 44.3 Wind Onshore Any size 13.5 Wind Offshore Any size 19.0 Wind Community Based 10 MW 14.4 Geothermal

10 Technology Ontario Size ranges Ontario Proposed /kwh Biomass* Any size 12.2 Biogas* 5 MW 14.7 > 5 MW 10.4 Hydro* Large Hydro* Community-based 50 MW MW 13.4 Landfill gas* 5MW 11.1 > 5 MW 10.3 Solar PV Rooftop 10 kw kw kw 63.5 > 500 kw 53.9 Solar PV Ground 10 MW 44.3 Wind Onshore Any size 13.5 Wind Offshore Any size 19.0 Wind Community Based 10 MW 14.4 Geothermal

11 Technology Ontario Size ranges Ontario Proposed /kwh Germany Size ranges Germany Proposed /kwh Biomass* Any size kw kw MW Biogas* 5 MW MW > 5 MW 10.4 Hydro* Large 20 MW MW MW MW 5.8 Hydro* 2 MW kw Community-based 5 MW 10.4 Landfill gas* 5MW MW > 5 MW 10.3 Solar PV Rooftop 10 kw kw kw kw kw 63.5 > 100 kw 84.7 > 500 kw 53.9 Solar PV Ground 10 MW 44.3 Any size 71.7 Wind Onshore Any size 13.5 Any size 13.7 (8.6) Wind Offshore Any size 19.0 Any size 14.3 (9.7) Wind Community Based 10 MW 14.4 Geothermal 5 MW, 10 MW, 20 MW, > 20 MW 23.5, 22.0, 14.0, 11.2

12 Technology Ontario Size ranges Ontario Proposed /kwh Germany Size ranges Germany Proposed /kwh Biomass* Any size kw kw MW Biogas* 5 MW MW > 5 MW 10.4 Hydro* Large 20 MW MW MW MW 5.8 Hydro* 2 MW kw Community-based 5 MW 10.4 Landfill gas* 5MW MW > 5 MW 10.3 Solar PV Rooftop 10 kw kw kw kw kw 63.5 > 100 kw 84.7 > 500 kw 53.9 Solar PV Ground 10 MW 44.3 Any size 71.7 Wind Onshore Any size 13.5 Any size 13.7 (8.6) Wind Offshore Any size 19.0 Any size 14.3 (9.7) Wind Community Based 10 MW 14.4 Geothermal 5 MW, 10 MW, 20 MW, > 20 MW 23.5, 22.0, 14.0, 11.2

13 Today s talk Ontario s Green Energy Act Bioenergy options

14 Power generation units Combust wood chips or pellets in a power boiler Can use mill wastes or hogfuel eg: Williams Lake Power Facility, BC (65 MW)

15 Ontario wood pellet potentials Pellet requirements(million ODT/a) Pellet production potential: 1.25 million ODT (need 9.5 million ODT to replace coal totally in Ontario) % 20% 30% 100% Pellets available Nanticoke Atikokan 10% cofire rate: ~ 0.92 million and 0.03 million ODT pellets to Nanticoke, Atikokan (respectively) 100% substitution possible at Atikokan All pellets used = 13% cofiring rate (both Nanticoke & Atikokan)

16 Emissions electricity systems g CO 2 -e/kwh Source: MacLean et al % reduction % reduction 60% reduction Reference and Nanticoke wood pellet pathways

17 Some statistics Metric (annual basis) All Pellets Used (13% co-firing) Pellet production (million ODT) 1.25 Renewable electricity (TWh) 2.5 Conversion efficiency 40% % of Province s electricity generation 1.6% Coal displacement (million tonnes) 0.9 Reduction in GHG emissions (million tonnes CO 2 eq.) % Reduction in GHGs resulting from Province s electricity generation 2.1 7

18 Comparing efficiencies 100% 90% Conversion efficiency (n e ) Residential bioenergy Industrial bioenergy Liquid biofuels f/wood 80% 70% 60% 50% 40% 30% 20% 10% 0% Open fire Wood stove Charcoal Pellet stove CHP Power boiler Gasifier CHP + heat recovery Ethanol (syngas) Ethanol (straw) Ethanol (wood) Fischer-Tropschs

19 Today s talk Ontario s Green Energy Act Bioenergy options Renewable energy portfolios

20 Renewable energy portfolio How do we determine what mix is appropriate? Trade-offs Jobs, $, carbon, GJ/MW Sector demands will change Home/industrial heating Personal/mass transportation Electricity generation

21 Conventional pathways Home/industrial heating Personal/mass transportation Electricity generation Some technologies are well suited to electricity generation

22 Conventional pathways Home/industrial heating Personal/mass transportation Electricity generation others to heat production. Some do both!

23 Transformative technologies Biomass-to-energy as an example Technology can enable a number of portfolios Biorefining Home/industrial heating Personal/mass transportation Electricity generation

24 Transformative technologies Biorefining Fuel Cells Home/industrial heating Personal/mass transportation Electricity generation

25 Transformative technologies Biorefining Fuel Cells Hybrid vehicles Home/industrial heating Personal/mass transportation Electricity generation

26 Changing demand Energy systems we build today must respond to the requirements of tomorrow Biorefining Fuel Cells Hybrid vehicles Home/industrial heating Personal/mass transportation Electricity generation Conservation & changing lifestyles

27 Transformative technologies????? What other transformative technologies are out there? Home/industrial heating Personal/mass transportation Electricity generation Conservation & changing lifestyles

28 Transformative technologies Ontario s Energy Supply Legacy Power Home/industrial heating Personal/mass transportation Electricity generation Conservation & changing lifestyles

29 Today s talk Ontario s Green Energy Act Bioenergy options Renewable energy portfolios Regional approach Sweden

30 Sweden 30% 25% 20% 15% 10% % of Total Primary Energy Supply Major bioenergy uses include Combined heat and power District heating Biogas production for fuel Biogas train (Linkoping to Vastervik) Biogas, biodiesel buses Bioethanol cars, buses 5% 0%

31 Sweden Bioalcohol Foundation (BAFF) Mid-Sweden University ETEK Etanolteknik (Pilot Facility) SEKAB Karlstad University Borås College of Engineering Örnsköldsvik BioFuel Region Chalmers University Karlstad Stockholm STFI IVL (Life Cycle Analysis) Norrköping Gothenburg Lund University National Facility for Process Development Borås Agroetanol Lund

32 Today s talk Ontario s Green Energy Act Bioenergy options Renewable energy portfolios Regional approach Sweden Germany

33 Germany Implemented the KombiKraftwerk (Combined Power Plant) project in 2007 Showed that 36 decentralized wind, hydro, solar, and biogas energy plants could supply electricity around the clock, regardless of weather conditions or demand Scaled to meet 1/10,000 th of the electricity demand in Germany Provide annual electricity requirements of a small town with 12,000 households Three companies Enercon GmbH, Schmack Biogas AG, SolarWorld AG

34 Germany Source:

35 Today s talk Ontario s Green Energy Act Bioenergy options Renewable energy portfolios Regional approach Sweden Germany Ontario

36 Regional approach to energy production

37 Grid Ottawa Kingston 500 kv line 230 kv line 115 kv line One of six Ontario US power links Five of six Ontario Quebec links

38 Power Generation Ottawa Hydro Small hydro Fossil Wind Kingston 2.1 GW Fossil (1) 2.3 GW Hydro (9) 52 MW Small hydro (11) 198 MW Wind (1)

39 Regional approach benefits Help overcome primary challenges: What barriers do new renewable energy projects face? What technologies provide the mix of social, economic and environmental benefits to meet local, regional, and other policy goals? Promote new technologies: Identify the best technologies for demonstration within the region i.e. biorefining, algae production, next-gen solar, etc. Provide a case study for comparative analyses: What incentives or mandates can best catalyze renewable energy? How do different renewable energy technologies compare, in terms of benefits delivered vs cost to implement? Explore other issues: What role does conservation have? What is the impact of globalization vs. nationalization?

40 Synergistic policies

41 Synergistic policies

42 Synergistic policies

43 Eastern Ontario as a green power source Power requirement/generation Peak Ontario demand 18,047 MW (September 18, 2009) Per capita demand 1.40 kw Eastern Ontario Renewables Per capita supply 2,579 MW (with wind farm online) 1.51 kw (approx.) We are very close to being energy independent (in terms of electricity demand) about 4 out of 7 days a week New development, peak shaving technologies could tip us towards being a net energy producer

44 Summary Regional approach works to promote new energy technologies Can be focused on a single source (Sweden) Can be used to examine portfolio approaches (Germany) Needs to be considered within the Ontario context Conventional technology pathways dictated energy decisions Transformative technologies can provide us with diverse energy options but we must have a good sense of what we need! The Renewable Energy Portfolio Project, based on a case study of Eastern Ontario, will generate policy and technology which can be applied to other Ontario regions and indeed across Canada

45 Acknowledgments Students/PDFs from Queen s, Toronto, and UBC (Heather MacLean, Jack Saddler) Funding & research support from NSERC NRCan IEA Bioenergy Ontario Power Generation Ontario Ministry of Natural Resources FPInnovations FERIC, Paprican Ontario Ministry of Energy and Infrastructure Ontario Ministry of the Environment 45

46 Thank you! Q UEEN S I NSTITUTE FOR E NERGY & E NVIRONMENTAL P OLICY

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