Smart Energy Systems Energy Efficient Buildings and the Design of future Sustainable Energy Systems

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1 Smart Energy Systems Energy Efficient Buildings and the Design of future Sustainable Energy Systems Henrik Lund Professor in Energy Planning Aalborg University

2 Renewable Energy Systems A Smart Energy Systems Approach to the Choice and Modeling of 100% Renewable Solutions 1. Edition in Edition in 2014 New Chapter on Smart Energy Systems and Infrastructures

3 The long-term Objective of Danish Energy Policy Expressed by former Prime Minister Anders Fogh Rasmussen in his opening speech to the Parliament in 2006 and in several political agreements since then: To convert to 100% Renewable Energy Prime minister 16 November 2008: We will free Denmark totally from fossil fuels like oil, coal and gas Prime minister 16 November 2008: position Denmark in the heart of green growth

4 100% Renewable Energy 2050 but how???!!

5 Smart Energy Systems

6 Smart Energy Systems The key to cost-efficient 100% Renewable Energy A sole focus on renewable electricity (smart grid) production leads to electricity storage and flexible demand solutions! Looking at renewable electricity as a part smart energy systems including heating, industry, gas and transportation opens for cheaper and better solutions Power-to-Heat Power-to-Gas Power-to-Transport

7 Pump Hydro Storage 100 /kwh (Source: Goldisthal Pumped Storage Station, Germany, Energy Storage Thermal Storage 1-4 /kwh (Source: Danish Technology Catalogue, 2012) Energy storage: Price and Efficiency Price Efficiency Price ( /MWh) Efficiency (%) 10 1 Electricity Thermal Gas Liquied Fuel 20 0 Oil Tank 0.02 /kwh (Source: Dahl KH, Oil tanking Copenhagen A/S, 2013: Oil Storage Tank. 2013) Natural Gas Underground Storage 0.05 /kwh (Source: Current State Of and Issues Concerning Underground Natural Gas Storage. Federal Energy Regulatory Commission, 2004)

8 0.16 m3 Thermal Storage /MWh (Private house: 160 liter for DKK) Price ( /MWh) Thermal Storage Thermal storage: Price and Size 6200 m3 Thermal Storage 2500 /MWh (Skagen: 6200 m3 for 5.4 mio. DKK) liter 4 m m m3 4 m3 Thermal Storage 40,000 /MWh (Private outdoor: 4000 m3 for 50,000 DKK) 200,000 m3 Thermal Storage 500 /MWh (Vojens: 200,000 m3 for 30 mio. DKK)

9 Pump Hydro Storage 100 /kwh (Source: Goldisthal Pumped Storage Station, Germany, Electricity Storage Compressed Air Energy Storage 125 /kwh (Source: ticle/pii/s ) Price ( /MWh) Electricity Storage: Price and Size Tesla PowerWall Fully Installed Sodium-Sulphur Battery CAES Pumped Hydro 3.3 kw 50 MW 350 MW 1000 MW Tesla PowerWall 800 /kwh (Source: Dahl KH, Oil tanking Copenhagen A/S, 2013: Oil Storage Tank. 2013) Sodium-Sulphur Battery 600 /kwh (Source: Table 4: oshay1/docs/epri.pdf)

10 100% Renewable Energy 2050 Power-to-Heat

11 Four different technologies Electric heating Traditional System 300 units of fuel Power Station 80 Elec. 40 units of electrcity Electric heating 80 units of heat 200 units of fuel 100 units of fuel 100 units of fuel Power Station Boiler 40 units of electricity 80 units of heat CHP System Integrated System with renewable energy 135 units of fuel CHP plant 40 units of electricity 80 units of heat Wind turbine 85 units of fuel 20 elec. CHP unit 10 elec. 40 units of electricity 45 heat Heat Pump 80 units of heat

12 Domestic heating

13 2. Individual Heating Options Heating Unit Sustainable Resources Efficient Cost Cost Sensitivity Electric Heating Heat Pumps Oil Boilers Biomass Boilers

14 Heat Roadmap Europe

15 GIS based information Urban areas (Heating Demands) Power and Heat Generation Waste Management Industrial waste heat potential Geothermal heat Solar Thermal

16 Energi System Analyse Model Import/ Hydro Hydro Electricity Export Hydro water fixed and storage power plant storage variable system RES electricity Fuel RES heat PP CHP Boiler H2 storage Electrolyser Heat pump and electric boiler Cars Industry Cooling device Heat storage Electricity demand Cooling demand Heat demand Transport demand Process heat demand

17 Future: EU Energy Roadmap 2050 Completed for the European Commission in 2011, by the National Technical University in Athens Presents 6 energy scenarios for the EU27: Reference: Business-as-usual CPI: Updated business-as-usual EE CCS Nuclear High RE

18 District Heating Benefits in 2 steps Step 1: (Energy Efficiency) - Increasing DH to 30% then 50% - Increasing CHP - Using Oil/Natural gas in CC-CHP Step 2: (Utilise waste and RE sources) - Industrial waste heat - Waste incineration - Geothermal heat - Large-scale Solar Thermal

19 HRE1 Conclusion: 50% DH and CHP Decrease primary energy supply and especially LESS fossil FUEL fuels and CO2 emissions Decrease annual costs of energy in Europe LESS by approximately MONEY 14 Billion in 2050 Create additional 220,000 jobs MORE EU JOBS over the period Further integration of RES MORE RE

20 Future: EU Energy Roadmap 2050 Completed for the European Commission in 2011, by the National HRE2: Is Technical district heating University a good in Athens idea if we implement a lot of energy efficiency in the Presents 6 energy scenarios buildings? for the EU27: Reference: Business-as-usual CPI: Updated business-as-usual Energy Efficiency (EU-EE) Carbon Capture & Storage Nuclear High Renewable Energy

21

22 HRE-EE Space Heating = -47%

23 Conclusions (2) If we implement a lot of energy efficiency measures, then district heating will: Meet the same goals, ie: Utilise the same amount of fossil fuels Enable the same CO2 emission reductions Cost approximately 10% less

24 STRATEGO WP2 Enhanced National Heating and Cooling Strategies Presenter Name (i.e. David Connolly) Title (i.e. Associate Professor in Energy Planning) Presenter Organisation (i.e. Aalborg University) Presenter (i.e. Host Organisation (i.e. DG Energy) Host Location (i.e. Brussels, Belgium) Date (i.e. 12 th May 2015)

25 Specific Map & Summary Report Available for Each Country Czech Republic Croatia 25 Italy Romania United Kingdom

26

27 100% Renewable Energy 2050 Power-to-Transportation

28 CEESA Project 2011/2012 Transport: Electric vehicles is best from an energy efficient point of view. But gas and/or liquid fuels is needed to transform to 100%. Biomass:.. is a limited resource and can not satisfy all the transportation needs. Consequence Electricity from Wind (and similar resources) needs to be converted to gas and liquied fuels in the long-term perspective

29 Resource Conversion Process Transport Fuel Transport Demand Resource Conversion Process Transport Fuel Transport Demand Electricity (111 PJ) Electricity (111 PJ) Resource Conversion Process Transport Fuel Transport Demand Biomass [Glucose] Biomass (60 PJ) [Cellulose] (65 PJ) Electricity (83.5 PJ) H 2 O (2.6 Mt) Electric Grid 1 6 PJ 3 Electric Grid 1 Electricity 1.9 Mt (178 PJ) Electricity Electricity (100 PJ) CO (100 PJ) 2 OR OR 294 Gpkm 313 Gpkm Resource Conversion Process Transport Fuel Transport Demand Power Plant Electricity (83 PJ) H 2 O (2.3 Mt) 0.6 PJ Freight is not applicable Marginal Heat 3 (7.6 PJ) 323 Gtkm Resource Anaerobic Conversion Chemical Process Transport Fuel 61 Gpkm Transport Demand OR Digester Hydrogenation Synthesis 59 PJ Steam Electricity Chemical 61 Gpkm Hydrogenation OR Gasifier Biogas Synthesis Methane (50 GJ) (100 PJ 2 ) 83 PJ Syngas 36 Gtkm Power Plant Heat Methane Biomass 1 (100 PJ 2 ) Electrolyser Resource 1 Conversion Process Transport Fuel Transport Demand (77 PJ) H 2 36 Gtkm (60.5 PJ) Carbon H 2 Sequestration (72.2 & PJ) Chemical Electricity Electrolyser 2 1 Recycling 3 Hydrogenation OR 52 Gpkm Synthesis (7.3 PJ) H Mt (60.5 PJ) Biomass CO 2 Methanol/DME Power Plant ( Mt PJ) (7 Mt) Marginal Heat 1 CO (62.6 PJ 2 2 ) 31 Gtkm (50.2 PJ) (4.4 Mt) or 4.5Mt Co-electrolysis 4 Chemical OR 83 Gpkm Synthesis Straw (401.7 PJ) H 2 O (5.7 Mt) PJ Electricity (307 PJ) 3.4 PJ 3 Electrolyser 6 Syngas (139 PJ) Fermenter Low & High Temperature Gasification 7 Methanol/DME (100 PJ 5 ) Lignin (197.7 PJ) C5 Sugars (92.8 PJ) 50 Gtkm Ethanol (100 PJ) OR 67 Gpkm 39 Gtkm 4 H 2 O (15.5 Mt) 11 5 Mt 1 Mt 3.5 Mt H 2 (149.4 PJ) Hydrogenation Chemical Synthesis Methanol/DME (337.5 PJ 2 ) OR 279 Gpkm 169 Gtkm

30 Smart Energy Systems The key to cost-efficient 100% Renewable Energy A sole focus on renewable electricity (smart grid) production leads to electricity storage and flexible demand solutions! Looking at renewable electricity as a part smart energy systems including heating, industry, gas and transportation opens for cheaper and better solutions Power-to-Heat Power-to-Gas Power-to-Transport

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