Global Cooperation on Climate Technology TNA: Improvement of collaborative research and development of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs)

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1 Global Cooperation on Climate Technology TNA: Improvement of collaborative research and development of environmentally sound technologies (ESTs) Eicke R. Weber, Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE and Albert-Ludwigs University, Freiburg, Germany 7th Meeting Technology Executive Committee Bonn, September 5, 2013

2 Fraunhofer Energy Alliance Fraunhofer:Technology-oriented research in close cooperation with industry, ca. 1/3 basic financing, 1/3 projects with industry, 1/3 public projects 18 Member Institutes Office: Freiburg, Fraunhofer ISE Spokesperson: Prof. Eicke R. Weber, ISE Deputy Spokesperson: Dr. Peter Bretschneider, IOSB-AST Managing Secretary: Dr. Thomas Schlegl 2

3 Images Fraunhofer; MEV; FRAUNHOFER ENERGY ALLIANCE Conducts research in the following areas: Wind energy Solar energy Bioenergy Energy-efficient living Intelligent energy distribution Efficient energy storage 3 Efficient use of energy Energy technology and system assessment

4 Fraunhofer worldwide San José Vancouver Londo East n Boston Lansing Cambridg Plymouth Storrs Maryland Newark e Glasgow Southampton Brussels Paris Bolzano Porto Gothenburg Wrocław Vienna Budapest Graz Thessaloniki Jerusalem Cairo Dubai Beijing Seoul Sendai Tokyo Bangalore Ampang Singapore Salvador Campinas São Paulo Jakarta Santiago de Chile Stellenbosch Sydney 4

5 Fraunhofer-Institute for Solar Energy Systems ISE Largest European Solar Energy Research Institute About 1300 members of staff (incl. students) Areas of business: Photovoltaics (Si, CPV, OPV) Solar Thermal (ST, CST) Renewable Power Generation Energy-Efficient Buildings & ISE Freiburg Technical Building Components CSP Halle (with IWM) Applied Optics and Functional THM Freiberg (with IISB) Surfaces LSC Gelsenkirchen Hydrogen Technology CSE Boston (Fh-USA) 10% basic financing 90% contract research 40% industry, 50% public 77 M budget ( 12) > 10% p.a. growth rate 5

6 Transformation into a Sustainable Energy Future Requires: Increased energy efficiency in buildings, transport (e-mobility) and production Rapid development of all renewable energies, especially wind, PV, ST, hydro, geothermal and biomass towards a 100% renewable energy future with lowest emission of climate gases Development of energy storage technologies 6 Expansion of the electricity grid for longdistance transport and smart consumers

7 World Energy Resources (1Twy = 8760 TWhr) 7 Quelle: M. Plass, CFV

8 Module Price [inflation adjusted / Wp] 2011 Price Learning Curve (all c-si PV Technologies) 1980 Learning Rate: With each doubling of cumulative production, price went down by 20%! Cost of PV electricity 2013: ca. 13 ct/kwh in Germany < 6-8 $ct/kwh in sun-rich countries 8 1 0,01 0, Cumulat ed Product ion [GWp] 2013: Ready-installed rooftop system in Germany: down to 1 /Watt! Source: Navigant Consulting; EuPD Module price (since 2006) Design: PSE AG 2012

9 IEA outlook on PV installations world-wide Rapidly declining cost of PV generated electricity open up new market opportunities Current 30GW/a market will increase to a 100+ GW/a market in 2020; For 2050, even IEA predicts more than GW of globally installed PV capacity! 9

10 Technologies for a 100% Renewable Energy Scenario 3 components needed at about 1:1:1 Grid Storage Hydro, Geothermal, Biomass... 10

11 Source: Fraunhofer IWES The biggest challenge of the sustainable electricity system: Fluctuations of electricity production by solar and wind Measures to secure electricity supply: Mix of renewable energies Expansion of the distribution grid to capture solar electricity and balance differing regional solar electricity generation Expansion of high-voltage grid to bring wind electricity to consumers and balance differing regional generation Smart Grids Demand-side management (consumption follows generation) Building up short time storage capacities (peak shaping) Building up seasonal storages 11 Following a typical load curve with RES (one week example) wind Pumped-storage plant We Th Fr Sa Su Mo Tu solar bio gas storage export import

12 ISE model of an integrated energy system for Germany: Electricity-gas-heat- with storage (without transportation, industry) 12

13 ISE model of an integrated energy system: Electricity-gas-heat - minimal cost scenario:118 bn /a Same as 2012! 13

14 The Road Towards the Energy Transition: Development of Energy Efficiency and Renewable Energies Deutschland auf dem Weg in ein neues Energiezeitalter Energieeffizienz BIP/PEV (Mio.! 2010 / PJ) Zeitalter der Energieeffizienz Energiekonzept DEU 1990 DEU DEU 1973 DEU 1950 Zeitalter der Erneuerbaren Anteil Erneuerbare am Bruttostromverbrauch (Prozent) BMWi, IIIC2 14 Graph: K. Kübler, BMBF, FVEE 2011

15 Improvement of collaborative research and development of environmentally sound technologies Technologies for rapid mitigation of the climate problem through increased energy efficiency and introduction of renewable energies are readily available. Germany decided to phase out nuclear power by 2022 and embark on a rapid transition of the energy system towards more efficient use of rapidly increasing amounts of renewable energy. The institutes of the Fraunhofergesellschaft FhG, as well as other German institutions such as DLR, are well prepared to provide technology assistance, GIZ and FhG offer local contacts worldwide. Harvesting solar and wind energy will be a key pillar of future, renewablebased energy systems The cost of solar energy has come down in the last 18 months; $ 1.50 / Watt p installed PV energy corresponds to electricity costs at 5-10 cts/kwh At electricity costs from burning oil above 20 ct/kwh, replacing daytime use by PV and keeping existing fossil-based generators for night-time needs will already greatly reduce CO 2 emissions and save energy subsidies! 15

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