# Waves and Light Extra Study Questions

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1 Waves and Light Extra Study Questions Short Answer 1. Determine the frequency for each of the following. (a) A bouncing spring completes 10 vibrations in 7.6 s. (b) An atom vibrates times in 5.0 s. (c) A sound wave from a guitar string has a period of s. 2. Find the period for each of the following: (a) A pendulum swings back and forth 20 times in 15 s. (b) A light wave has a frequency of Hz. (c) The Moon travels around Earth six times in d. 3. A 1.0 kg mass is hung from a spring whose constant, k, is 100 N/m. What is the period of oscillation of this mass when it is allowed to vibrate? 4. What is the period of a pendulum 0.40 m long? 5. Calculate the period for a spring whose force constant is 15 N/m, if the mass on the spring is 1.0 kg. 6. What is the period of a pendulum suspended from the CN Tower in Toronto by a light string m long? 7. You are designing a pendulum clock. How far must the centre of mass of the simple pendulum be located from the pivot point of rotation to give the pendulum a period of 1.0 s? 8. A kg cart is held between two identical, stretched springs on the air track illustrated. A force of 2.0 N is employed to hold the cart in a position 0.10 m from equilibrium. The cart is then released and allowed to vibrate from the 0.10 m position. (a) What is the force constant for the springs/cart system? (b) What is the frequency of vibration? (c) What is the maximum kinetic energy of the cart? (d) Where does (c) occur? (e) What is the cart speed in (c)? 9. The wavelength of a water wave in a ripple tank is m. If the frequency of the wave is 2.5 Hz, what is its speed? 10. The period of a sound wave from a piano is s. If the speed of the wave in air is m/s, what is its wavelength? 11. A source with a frequency of 20 Hz produces water waves that have a wavelength of 3.0 cm. What is the speed of the waves? 12. A wave in a rope travels at a speed of 2.5 m/s. If the wavelength is 1.3 m, what is the period of the wave? 13. An FM station broadcasts radio signals with a frequency off 92.6 MHz. If these radio waves travel at a speed of m/s, what is their wavelength?

2 14. A standing wave interference pattern is produced in a rope by a vibrator with a frequency of 28 Hz. If the wavelength of the waves is 20 cm, what is the distance between successive nodes? 15. The distance between the second and fifth nodes in a standing wave is 60 cm. What is the wavelength of the waves? What is the speed of the waves, if the source has a frequency of 25 Hz? 16. A tuning fork completes 2048 cycles in 8.0 s. What is its frequency? 17. The tine of a tuning fork vibrates with an amplitude of 0.13 cm. If the frequency of the fork is 200 Hz, what total distance will the tine travel in 1.00 min? 18. Thirty waves strike a concrete breakwater in 1.00 min. What is the period of the waves, in seconds? 19. Calculate the period when a spring, whose force constant is 20 N/m, is suspended vertically and loaded with a mass of 1.0 kg. 20. What is the period of an 80 cm pendulum on the Moon, where the acceleration due to gravity is 1.6 m/s 2? 21. On a particular planet, the period of a 0.50 m pendulum is 1.8 s. What is the acceleration due to gravity on this planet? 22. A pendulum completes 30 cycles in 15 s. Calculate its frequency and its period. 23. The distance between two successive nodes in a vibrating string is 10 cm. The frequency of the source is 30 Hz. What is the wavelength of the waves? What is their velocity? 24. This full-scale diagram shows a series of wave crests, all of which will pass a point in 0.50 s. (a) What is the wavelength in centimetres? (b) What is the frequency? (c) What is the velocity of the waves? 25. What are the wavelengths in air of the lowest and the highest audible frequencies if the range of human hearing is 20 Hz to 20 khz and the speed of sound is 342 m/s? 26. Standing waves are set up in a string by a source vibrating at 100 Hz. Seven nodes are counted in a distance of 63 cm (including one node at each end). (a) What is the wavelength of the waves travelling in the string? (b) What is the speed of these waves? 27. If the fundamental frequency produced by a guitar string is 400 Hz, what are the frequencies of the second, third and fourth harmonics? 28. If two successive overtones of a vibrating string differ by 450 Hz, what is the frequency of the fundamental? 29. A water wave has a wavelength of 2.0 cm in the deep section of a tank and 1.5 cm in the shallow section. If the speed of the wave in the shallow water is 12 cm/s, what is its speed in the deep water? 30. The speed and the wavelength of a water wave in deep water are 18.0 cm/s and 2.0 cm, respectively. If the speed in shallow water is 10.0 cm/s, what is the corresponding wavelength? 31. A wave travels 0.75 times as fast in shallow water as it does in deep water. What will the wavelength of the wave in deep water be, if its wavelength is 2.7 cm in shallow water?

3 32. A 5.0 Hz water wave, travelling at 30 cm/s in deep water, enters shallow water so that the angle between the incident wave in the deep water and the boundary is 50. If the speed of the wave in the shallow water is 27 cm/s, what is (a) the angle of refraction in the shallow water (b) the index of refraction for the media (c) the wavelength of the wave in the shallow water 33. A 10 Hz water wave travels from deep water, where its speed is 40 cm/s, to shallow water where its speed is 30 cm/s. The angle of incidence is 30. Find the following. (a) the index of refraction (b) the wavelengths in the two media (c) the angle of refraction in the shallow water 34. Water waves travelling at a speed of 28 cm/s enter deeper water at an angle of incidence of 40. What is the speed in the deeper water if the angle of refraction is 46? 35. (a) The velocity of a sound wave in cold air is 320 m/s, and in warm air, 384 m/s. If the wavefront in cold air is nearly linear, what will be the angle of refraction in the warm air if the angle of incidence is 30? (b) What would be the angle of refraction if the angle of incidence were 60? Explain your answer. 36. Two point sources generate identical waves that interfere in a ripple tank. The sources are located 5.0 cm apart, and the frequency of the waves is 8.0 Hz. A point on the first nodal line is located 10 cm from one source and 11 cm from the other. (a) What is the wavelength of the waves? (b) What is the speed of the waves? 37. A page in a student s notebook lists the following information, obtained from a ripple tank experiment with two point sources operating in phase: n = 3, x 3 = 35 cm, L = 77 cm, d = 6.0 cm, θ 3 = 25, and 5 crests = 4.2 cm. Determine the wavelength of the waves, using various methods. 38. In a ripple tank, a point on the third nodal line from the centre is 35 cm from one source and 42 cm from the other source. The sources are separated by 11.2 cm and vibrate in phase at 10.5 Hz. Calculate (a) the wavelength of the waves (b) the velocity of the waves 39. Two sources 6.0 cm apart, operating in phase, produce water waves. A student selects a point on the first nodal line and measures from it 30.0 cm to a point midway between the sources and 5.0 cm (on the perpendicular) to the right bisector. (a) What is the wavelength of the waves? (b) When the student selects a point on the second nodal line, he finds that it is 38.0 cm from the midpoint and 21.0 cm from the bisector. Determine the wavelength. (c) What would be the value of the angle θ for distant points on the first and second nodal lines described above? 40. A straight wave is generated in a ripple tank, and the images on the screen below the ripple tank are stopped by using a six-slit stroboscope that turns 20 times in 25 s. The distance between the first and fifth bright lines is 12 cm. (a) Assuming the strobe is at the highest stopping frequency, what is the frequency of the wave? (b) What is the wavelength of the shadow wave? 41. In a ripple tank, one complete wave is sent out every s. The wave is stopped with a stroboscope, and it is found that the separation between the first and sixth crests is 12 cm. (a) What is the wavelength?

5 (b) Point M, a nodal point, is 7.0 m from S 1 and more than 7.0 m from S 2. What are three possible distances M could be from S 2? (c) Point N, also a nodal point, is located 12.0 m from S 1 and 5.0 m from S 2. On what nodal line is it located? 50. Red light with a wavelength of 650 nm travels from air into glass (n = 1.51). (a) What will its velocity be in the glass? (b) What will its wavelength be in the glass? 51. If the wavelength of orange light is m in air, what is its frequency? 52. The frequency of a light is Hz. What is its wavelength in air, in nanometres? 53. A certain shade of violet light has a wavelength in air of m. If the index of refraction of alcohol relative to air for violet light is 1.40, what is the wavelength of the violet light in alcohol? 54. The index of refraction of turpentine relative to air for red light is A ray of red light (λ = m) strikes an air-turpentine boundary with an angle of incidence of 40. (a) What is the wavelength of red light in turpentine? (b) What is the angle of refraction in turpentine? 55. At what angle will 750 nm light produce a second minimum if the single-slit width is 2.0 µm? 56. If the first nodal line in a single-slit diffraction pattern occurs at an angle of 15 for light with a wavelength of 580 nm, what is the width of the slit? 57. Helium-neon laser light (λ = m) passes through a single slit with a width of 43 µm onto a screen 3.0 m away. What is the separation of adjacent minima, other than the central maximum? 58. Light travels in water at three-quarters the speed it travels in air. If the angle of incidence in air is 30, what would the angle of refraction be in water, according to a particle theorist? According to a wave theorist? 59. The wavelengths of the visible spectrum range from 400 nm to 750 nm. What is the range of the frequencies of visible light? 60. A radiation has a frequency of Hz. What is its wavelength? In what part of the spectrum is this radiation found? Assume that the radiation travels at the speed of light. 61. A certain shade of red light has a wavelength in air of m. If the index of refraction of alcohol relative to air is 1.40, what is the wavelength of this red light in alcohol? 62. A student doing Young s experiment measures a distance of 6.0 cm between the first and seventh nodal points on a screen located 3.0 m from the slit plate. (a) If the slit separation is 220 µm, what is the wavelength of the light being used? (b) What is the colour of the light?

6 63. Red light, of wavelength 600 nm, passes through two parallel slits. Nodal lines are produced on a screen 3.0 m away. The distance between the 1st and the 10th nodal lines is 5.0 cm. What is the separation of the two slits? 64. A student measuring the wavelength of a narrow, monochromatic source uses a double slit with a separation of 0.15 mm. A second student places markers on a screen 2.0 m in front of the slits at the positions of successive dark bands in the pattern. She finds that the dark bands are 0.56 cm apart. (a) Calculate the wavelength of the source in nanometres. (b) Calculate what the spacing of the dark bands would be if a source of wavelength 600 nm were used. 65. In an interference experiment, red light with a wavelength of m passes through a double slit. On a screen 1.5 m away, the distance between the 1st and 11th dark bands is 2.0 cm. (a) What was the separation of the slits? (b) What would the spacing be, between adjacent nodal lines, if blue light were used? (λ blue = m) 66. Monochromatic light from a point source illuminates two parallel, narrow slits. The centres of the slit openings are 0.80 mm apart. An interference pattern forms on a screen placed parallel to the plane of the slits and 50 cm away. The distance between two adjacent dark interference fringes is 0.30 mm. (a) Determine the wavelength of the light. (b) What would be the separation of the nodal lines if the slit centres were narrowed to 0.60 mm? 67. Monochromatic sodium light (589 nm) passes through a single slit cm wide. If a screen is placed 2.00 m from the slit, calculate the positions of the first and second minimums, measured from the centre of the pattern. 68. If 600 nm light falls on a single slit mm wide, what is the angular width of the central maximum? 69. Monochromatic light is directed through a slit mm wide. If the angle contained between the first minimum on either side of the central maximum is 8, what is the wavelength of the light? 70. An interference pattern is formed on a screen when helium-neon laser light ( ) is directed towards it through two slits. If the slits are 43µm apart and the screen is 2.5 m away, what will be the separation of adjacent nodal lines? 71. (a) What is the spacing of the dark fringes in an interference pattern reflected from an air wedge between two microscope slides 10 cm long, separated at one end by a paper of thickness 0.10 mm, illuminated with red light of wavelength 660 nm? (b) How would the spacing change if the wedge were filled with water (refractive index = 1.33)? 72. Light with a wavelength of 640 nm illuminates an air wedge 7.7 cm long. If the spacing between fringes is 0.19 cm, what is the thickness of the paper at the end of the air wedge? 73. A diffraction grating has 1000 slits/cm. When blue light (λ = 480 nm) is directed through the grating, what will be the separation of the bright points on a screen 4.00 m away? 74. Two plane glass surfaces are separated by an air film with a uniform thickness of 870 nm. If the film is illuminated perpendicularly by light having a wavelength of 580 nm, predict whether a bright or dark area will be seen by reflected light. 75. Light with a wavelength of 550 nm is used in a Michelson interferometer. (a) If 100 fringes move by the reference point, how far has the movable mirror shifted? (b) If the mirror moves 0.30 mm, how many fringes will move past the reference point? Problem

7 76. A 2.5 kg object, vibrating with simple harmonic motion, has a frequency of 1.0 Hz and an amplitude of 0.50 m. What is the restoring force on the object at the ends of the swing? 77. The distance between successive crests in a series of water waves is 4.0 m, and the crests travel 9.0 m in 4.5 s. What is the frequency of the waves? 78. A grandfather clock had a pendulum exactly 1.00 m long and kept perfect time. A naughty grandson broke the pendulum. When repaired, it was exactly 2.0 cm shorter than before. (a) Did the repaired clock lose or gain time? (b) What would the accumulated error be after one day of operation? (c) If the repaired clock were set correctly at midnight on New Year s Eve, when would it next indicate the correct time? 79. A spring vibrates with a frequency of 2.2 Hz when a mass of 0.50 kg is hung from it. What will its frequency be if a 1.00 kg mass is hung from it? 80. A series of strobe photos shows that a mass on a spring is located 10 cm from its equilibrium position 0.20 s after passing it, without having changed its direction of motion. What is the period of the vibrating mass if its amplitude is 20 cm? 81. What are the wavelengths in air of the lowest and the highest audible frequencies if the range of human hearing is 20 Hz to 20 khz and the speed of sound is 342 m/s? 82. A 50 kg gymnast carefully steps onto a trampoline and finds that it is depressed vertically 30 cm when it supports her mass in equilibrium. Assuming the trampoline has negligible mass and that it vibrates with SHM, find the natural period of oscillation of the gymnast if her feet never leave the trampoline. 83. A pendulum vibrates with a period of 2.0 s and an amplitude of 50 cm. What will be its displacement from the equilibrium position 0.75 s after passing through it? 1.5 s after passing through it? 84. A given crest of a water wave requires 5.2 s to travel between two points on a fishing pier located 19 m apart. It is noted in a series of waves that 20 crests pass the first point in 17 s. What is the wavelength of the waves? 85. Two men are fishing from small boats located 30 m apart. Waves pass through the water, and each man s boat bobs up and down 15 times in 1.0 min. At a time when one boat is on a crest, the other one is in a trough, and there is one crest between the boats. What is the speed of the waves? 86. Two pulses move toward each other as illustrated. Sketch the resultant shape of the medium when the two pulses overlap. 87. A triangular pulse is created in medium A. The speeds of pulses in mediums A, B, and C are 1.0 cm/s, 2.0 cm/s, and 1.5 cm/s, respectively. Draw a diagram to show the nature and position of the reflected and transmitted pulses when the original pulse reaches the middle of medium C. 88. A straight wave in the deep region of water in a ripple tank has a speed of 24 cm/s and a frequency of 4.0 Hz. It strikes the boundary between deep and shallow water, the angle between the wavefront and the boundary being 40. The speed in the shallow region is 15 cm/s. (a) What angle does the refracted wavefront make with the boundary?

9 96. A student doing Young s experiment finds that the distance between the first and the seventh nodal lines is 6.0 cm. If the screen is located 3.0 m from two slits, whose separation is 220 µm, what is the wavelength of the light? 97. Light with a wavelength of 670 nm passes through a slit with a width of 12 µm. Viewed on the screen, 30 cm away, (a) How wide is the central maximum in (i) degrees and (ii) centimetres? (b) What is the separation of adjacent minima (excluding the pair on either side of the central maximum)? 98. With two slits 0.12 mm apart, and a screen at a distance of 80 cm, the third bright line to one side of centre in an interference pattern is found to be displaced 9.0 mm from the central line. What was the wavelength of the light used? What colour was it? 99. When 640 nm light passes through a single slit, the central maximum produced on a screen 2.0 m away is 8.0 cm wide. What is the width of the slit? 100. A soap film with a thickness of 93 nm has a refractive index of When viewed perpendicularly in white light, what colour is strongly reflected? 101. A camera lens (n = 1.52) is coated with a film of magnesium fluoride (n = 1.25). What should the least thickness of the film be to minimize reflected light with a wavelength of 550 nm? 102. A student measuring the wavelength produced by a sodium vapour lamp directed the sodium light through two slits with a separation of 0.15 mm. An interference pattern was created on the screen, 3.0 m away. The student found that the distance between the first and the eighth consecutive dark lines was 8.0 cm. What was the wavelength of the light emitted by the sodium vapour lamp? 103. In an interference experiment, red light (600 nm) passes through a double slit. On a screen 1.5 m away, the distance between the 1st and 11th dark bands is 13.2 cm. What is the separation of the slits? What would the spacing be, between adjacent nodal lines, if blue light (450 nm) were used? 104. The index of refraction of one type of glass is According to the particle theory of light, what should be the speed of light in that glass? 105. An air wedge 9.8 cm long is separated at one end by a piece of paper cm thick. The distance between centres of the first and eighth successive dark bands is 1.23 cm. What is the wavelength of the light being used?

10 Waves and Light Extra Study Questions Answer Section SHORT ANSWER 1. ANS: (a) (b) (c) REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.1, p ANS: (a) (b) (c) REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.1, p ANS:

11 REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.2, p.456 MSC: SP 4. ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.2, p.456 MSC: SP 5. ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.2, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.2, p ANS:

12 REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.2, p ANS: (a) The two springs and the cart can be treated as a single spring and a cart. (b) (c) (d) At the rest position.

13 (e) Note the velocity of the cart is the same when it passes through the centre position going in either direction, as indicated by the + and sign. REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.05 KEY: FOP 12.2, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 12.4, p.463 MSC: SP 10. ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 12.4, p.464 MSC: SP 11. ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 12.4, p ANS:

14 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 12.4, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.6 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 12.4, p ANS: REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.7, p ANS: REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.7, p ANS:

15 REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: Distance travelled in one second is: Distance travelled in one minute is: REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS:

16 REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.1, p.447 MSC: SP 23. ANS: The distance between two successive nodes is. Therefore, the wavelength is 2(10 cm) = 20 cm

17 REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.7, p ANS: (a) (b) (c) Alternate Solution: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: REF: K/U, MC KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: (a)

18 (b) REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: 800 Hz, 1200 Hz, 1600 Hz REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.3, p.487 MSC: SP 30. ANS:

19 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.3, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.3, p ANS: (a) (b) (c) The wavelength in the shallow water is

20 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.3, p.489 MSC: SP 33. ANS: (a) (b) (c) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.3, p.489

21 34. ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.3, p ANS: (a) (b) R is undefined. This occurs because the critical angle has been exceeded and all the sound waves are reflected. This occurs in the so-called tunnel effect where sound travels a long distance over water. A boundary of warm-cold air forms above the water and nearly parallel to it reflecting wave back to the water as illustrated. REF: K/U, C OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.3, p ANS:

22 (a) (b) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.3 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.6, p.499 MSC: SP 37. ANS: Method 1: Method 2: Method 3:

23 Note that the three answers are slightly different because of experimental error and rounding off, which is to be expected. REF: K/U OBJ: 9.3 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.6, p.500 MSC: SP 38. ANS: (a) (b) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.3 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.6, p ANS: (a)

24 (b) (c) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.3 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.6, p ANS: (a) Thus the frequency of the wave is 4.8 Hz since it was stopped at the highest frequency. (b) The distance between the first and fifth wavelength is approximately Thus,. REF: K/U, I OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p.510

25 41. ANS: (a) (b) Thus the frequency of waves = 10 Hz REF: K/U, I OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: (a) 8.0 Hz (b) (i) Four slits, 1.0 Hz. This means the strobe frequency is one half the actual frequency. The wave would appear stationary, but would advance two wavelengths between successive looks. (ii) Four slits, 2.0 Hz Strobe frequency = frequency of waves The wave would appear stationary. (iii) Four slits, 4.0 Hz Strobe frequency = 2 wave frequency There would be stationary nodal points half a wavelength apart. Between these, crests and troughs would alternate at each successive look. What would be seen is a series of lines, alternating bright and dark, located one half wavelength apart! (c) (i) Actual wavelength is: (ii)

26 REF: K/U, C OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: (a) (b) (c) Frequency remains the same. Thus, the ratio of the frequency is 1.0. REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p.511

27 46. ANS: The radio will respond to the direct signal and to the reflected signal. If they are in phase constructive interference will occur, and if out of phase destructive interference will occur. When the girl moves a distance of 9.0 m the intensity goes from a maximum to a minimum. Since the 9.0 m move produces a path difference of 18 m, = 18 m and λ = 36 m. REF: K/U, MC OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.03 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: (a) (b) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.3 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS:

28 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.3 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: (a) (b) Nodal lines occur when path difference is Since, path difference could be 1.00 m, 3.00 m, and 5.00 m. Three possible distance from S 2 are: 7.0 m = 8.0 m 7.0 m = 10.0 m

29 7.0 m = 12.0 m (c) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.3 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: (a) (b) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.6 LOC: WA1.02 KEY: FOP 14.5, p.533 MSC: SP 51. ANS:

30 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.6 LOC: WA1.02 KEY: FOP 14.5, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.6 LOC: WA1.02 KEY: FOP 14.5, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.6 LOC: WA1.02 KEY: FOP 14.5, p ANS: (a)

31 (b) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.6 LOC: WA1.02 KEY: FOP 14.5, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 10.2 LOC: WAV.01 KEY: FOP 14.6, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 10.2 LOC: WAV.01 KEY: FOP 14.6, p ANS:

32 REF: K/U OBJ: 10.2 LOC: WAV.01 KEY: FOP 14.6, p ANS: For particles: For waves: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.4 LOC: WAV.01 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.6 LOC: WA1.02 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS:

33 This radiation is in the infrared region. REF: K/U OBJ: 9.6 LOC: WA1.02 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.6 LOC: WA1.02 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: (a) (b) red REF: K/U OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS:

34 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.6 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: (a) (b) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p.570

35 65. ANS: (a) (b) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: (a) (b)

36 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 10.2 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: Angular width is = 4.6. REF: K/U OBJ: 10.2 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: Angular width of central maximum is 2θ 1, thus θ 1 = 4

37 REF: K/U OBJ: 10.2 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.4, p ANS: (a) (b) If air is replaced by water,

38 REF: K/U OBJ: 10.4 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 14.7, p.550 MSC: SP 72. ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 10.4 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 14.7, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 10.3 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS:

39 Ray A: No phase change at boundary 2 Ray B: 180 phase change at boundary 1 Extra distance travelled by ray B is 2t = (2)(870 nm) = 1740 nm Since λ = 580 nm, the delay is Because of phase change ray B is 180 out of phase with ray A producing destructive interference (dark). REF: K/U, I OBJ: 10.4 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: (a) Change in path length for 100 fringes is But, because of the reflection, the mirror only moves half as far, (b) If mirror moves 0.30 mm, the distance the light travels increases is REF: K/U OBJ: 10.7 LOC: WA3.03 KEY: FOP 14.11, p.571 PROBLEM

40 76. ANS: But at maximum displacement x = A REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.2, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 12.4, p.463 MSC: SP 78. ANS: (a) Gained, since length is shorter.

41 (b) Thus, the clock runs about faster. The number of minutes in 24 h is 1440 min. Therefore the accumulated error in 24 h would be 1.01% or 14.5 min. (c) The number of days required to gain 24 h would be or the morning of March 10 (assuming a leap year) REF: K/U, MC OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: Thus,

42 REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: Thus, REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: REF: K/U, MC KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS:

43 This is the force exerted down upon the trampoline when she is standing on it. The force constant for the trampoline is given by F = kx, So, For SHM: REF: K/U OBJ: 4.5 LOC: EM1.01 KEY: FOP 12.2, p.456 MSC: SP 83. ANS: Note: The positive value of x, indicates that the pendulum is on the same side of the equilibrium position that it entered as the problem began. The negative value of x 2 indicates that the pendulum has moved to the opposite side of the equilibrium position.

44 REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.2, p.457 MSC: SP 84. ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 12.4, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS:

45 REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: Although the pulse will double in length in medium B, it will drop back to 1.5 times as long in C. It will still be upright, but of smaller amplitude, shown as (1). An upright reflection from face AB will be moving left in A with the original length and smaller amplitude, shown as (2). An inverted reflection from face BC will be moving left in B, with twice the original length and smaller amplitude, shown as (3). Think of the fun when (3) transmits into A and also reflects with inversion back to being upright in B! REF: K/U KEY: FOP 12.10, p ANS: (a) (b)

46 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: (a)

47 (b) Note: the phrase across three wavefronts was a bit ambiguous! REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: (a) (b) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.1 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS:

48 (a) (b) REF: K/U OBJ: 9.3 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS:

49 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.3 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS:

50 REF: K/U, MC OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.03 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS: (a) For interference maxima, Only possible values for n are 0 and 1. For maximum intensity the directions would be due north, N49 E and N49 W. (b) The 180 phase shift turns constructive interference points to destructive, so the three maximum directions become minimum. REF: K/U, C OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.03 KEY: FOP 13.8, p ANS:

51 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.4, p ANS: (a) (i) Thus,, and the width is 2(3.2 ) = 6.4. (ii) The width of the central maximum is 2y 1, or 2(1.7 cm) = 3.4 cm.

52 (b) Note that the central maximum is exactly twice the width of the separation of other adjacent nodal lines. REF: K/U OBJ: 10.2 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 14.6, p.540 MSC: SP 98. ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: Since central maximum:

53 REF: K/U OBJ: 10.2 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: This would be green light. REF: K/U OBJ: 10.4 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS:

54 For destructive interference the film thickness must be. REF: K/U, MC OBJ: 10.5 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.04 KEY: FOP 14.4, p.528 MSC: SP 103. ANS:

55 REF: K/U OBJ: 9.5 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.4, p ANS: By particle theory, REF: K/U OBJ: 9.4 LOC: WA1.05 KEY: FOP 14.11, p ANS: REF: K/U OBJ: 10.4 LOC: WA1.01 KEY: FOP 14.7, p.550

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### - the. or may. scales on. Butterfly wing. magnified about 75 times.

Lecture Notes (Applications of Diffraction) Intro: - the iridescent colors seen in many beetles is due to diffraction of light rays hitting the small groovess of its exoskeleton - these ridges are only

### waves rays Consider rays of light from an object being reflected by a plane mirror (the rays are diverging): mirror object

PHYS1000 Optics 1 Optics Light and its interaction with lenses and mirrors. We assume that we can ignore the wave properties of light. waves rays We represent the light as rays, and ignore diffraction.

### Thin Lenses Drawing Ray Diagrams

Drawing Ray Diagrams Fig. 1a Fig. 1b In this activity we explore how light refracts as it passes through a thin lens. Eyeglasses have been in use since the 13 th century. In 1610 Galileo used two lenses