# AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

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1 AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection, refraction, and the formation of images by mirrors and lenses has been successful described by the A) ray model of light. B) particle model of light. C) wave model of light. D) none of the given answers 1) 2) The angle of incidence A) may be greater than, less than, or equal to the angle of reflection. B) is always less than the angle of reflection. C) is always greater than the angle of reflection. D) must equal the angle of reflection. 2) 3) The principle on which mirrors work is A) refraction. B) dispersion. C) polarization. D) reflection. 3) 4) A plane mirror forms an image that is A) real and upside down. B) virtual and upright. C) virtual and upside down. D) real and upright. 4) 5) Plane mirrors produce images which A) could be smaller, larger, or the same size as the actual object, depending on the placement of the object. B) are always larger than the actual object. C) are always smaller than the actual object. D) are always the same size as the actual object. 5) 6) An image formed when the light rays do not actually pass through the image location, and would not appear on paper or film placed at that location is referred to as a A) real image. B) virtual image. 6) 7) An image formed when the light rays pass through the image location, and could appear on paper or film placed at the that location is referred to as a A) virtual image. B) real image. 7) 8) Is it possible to see a virtual image? A) No, since virtual images do not really exist. B) Yes, the rays that appear to emanate from a virtual image can be focused on the retina just like those from an illuminated object. C) No, since the rays that seem to emanate from a virtual image do not in fact emanate from the image. D) Yes, since almost everything we see is virtual because most things do not themselves give off light, but only reflect light coming from some other source. E) Yes, but only indirectly in the sense that if the virtual image is formed on a sheet of photographic film, one could later look at the picture formed. 8) 1

2 9) A spherical mirror on which reflection takes place on the outer surface of the spherical shape is referred to as a A) convex mirror. B) concave mirror. 9) 10) A spherical mirror on which reflection takes place on the inner surface of the sphere is referred to as a A) convex mirror. B) concave mirror. 10) 11) If the radius of curvature of the concave mirror is r, the focal length is A) r. B) 2r. C) r/2. D) cannot be determined from the information given 11) 12) A light ray, traveling parallel to a concave mirror's axis, strikes the mirror's surface near its midpoint. After reflection, this ray A) travels at right angles to the mirror's axis. B) passes through the mirror's center of curvature. C) again travels parallel to the mirror's axis. D) passes through the mirror's focal point. 12) 13) Light arriving at a concave mirror on a path parallel to the axis is reflected A) through the center of curvature. B) through the focal point. C) back parallel to the axis. D) back on itself. 13) 14) A light ray, traveling obliquely to a concave mirror's axis, crosses the axis at the mirror's center of curvature before striking the mirror's surface. After reflection, this ray A) passes through the mirror's focal point. B) passes through the mirror's center of curvature. C) travels at right angles to the mirror's axis. D) travels parallel to the mirror's axis. 14) 15) Light arriving at a concave mirror on a path through the center of curvature is reflected A) through the focal point. B) back parallel to the axis. C) back on itself. D) midway between the focal point and the center of curvature. 15) 16) A light ray, traveling obliquely to a concave mirror's surface, crosses the axis at the mirror's focal point before striking the mirror's surface. After reflection, this ray A) passes through the mirror's focal point. B) passes through the mirror's center of curvature. C) travels at right angles to the mirror's axis. D) travels parallel to the mirror's axis. 16) 17) Light arriving at a concave mirror on a path through the focal point is reflected A) through the focal point. B) through the center of curvature. C) back on itself. D) back parallel to the axis. 17) 2

4 25) Sometimes when you look into a curved mirror you see a magnified image (a great big you) and sometimes you see a diminished image (a little you). If you look at the bottom (convex) side of a shiny spoon, what will you see? A) You will see a little you, right side up. B) You won't see an image of yourself because no image will be formed. C) You will either see a little you or a great big you, depending on how near you are to the spoon. D) You will see a little you, upside down. E) You will see a little you, but whether you are right side up or upside down depends on how near you are to the spoon. 25) 26) Concave spherical mirrors produce images which A) could be smaller than, larger than, or the same size as the actual object, depending on the placement of the object. B) are always smaller than the actual object. C) are always larger than the actual object. D) are always the same size as the actual object. 26) 27) Convex spherical mirrors produce images which A) are always larger than the actual object. B) are always the same size as the actual object. C) are always smaller than the actual object. D) could be larger than, smaller than, or the same size as the actual object, depending on the placement of the object. 27) 28) A single concave spherical mirror produces an image which is A) real only if the object distance is less than f. B) always virtual. C) real only if the object distance is greater than f. D) always real. 28) 29) A single convex spherical mirror produces an image which is A) real only if the object distance is less than f. B) always virtual. C) always real. D) real only if the object distance is greater than f. 29) 30) A negative magnification for a mirror means A) the image is inverted, and the mirror may be concave or convex. B) the image is upright, and the mirror is convex. C) the image is upright, and the mirror may be concave or convex. D) the image is inverted, and the mirror is concave. E) the image is inverted, and the mirror is convex. 30) 31) If the image distance is positive, the image formed is a A) real image. B) virtual image. 31) 32) If the image distance is negative, the image formed is a A) real image. B) virtual image. 32) 4

5 33) If the magnification is a positive value, the image is A) inverted. B) upright. 33) 34) If the magnification is a negative value, the image is A) inverted. B) upright. 34) 35) If the absolute value of the magnification is larger than one, then the image is A) the same size as the object. B) larger than the object. C) smaller than the object. 35) 36) If the absolute value of the magnification is smaller than one, then the image is A) the same size as the object. B) larger than the object. C) smaller than the object. 36) 37) If the absolute value of the magnification is equal to one, then the image is A) the same size as the object. B) larger than the object. C) smaller than the object. 37) 38) Light travels fastest A) in a vacuum. B) through water. C) through diamond. D) through glass. 38) 39) For all transparent material substances, the index of refraction A) is equal to 1. B) is greater than 1. C) is less than 1. D) could be any of the given answers; it all depends on optical density. 39) 40) An index of refraction less than one for a medium would imply A) reflection is not possible. B) that the speed of light in the medium is greater than the speed of light in vacuum. C) that the speed of light in the medium is the same as the speed of light in vacuum. D) refraction is not possible. 40) 41) The index of refraction of diamond is This means that a given frequency of light travels A) 2.42 times faster in diamond than it does in vacuum. B) 2.42 times faster in diamond than it does in air. C) 2.42 times faster in air than it does in diamond. D) 2.42 times faster in vacuum than it does in diamond. 41) 42) The angle of incidence A) is always less than the angle of refraction. B) is always greater than the angle of refraction. C) may be greater than, less than, or equal to the angle of refraction. D) must equal the angle of refraction. 42) 5

6 43) Light traveling at an angle into a denser medium is refracted A) equally. B) away from the normal. C) parallel to the normal. D) toward the normal. 43) 44) Light enters air from water. The angle of refraction will be A) less than the angle of incidence. B) equal to the angle of incidence. C) greater than the angle of incidence. 44) 45) A ray of light, which is traveling in air, is incident on a glass plate at a 45 angle. The angle of refraction in the glass A) is greater than 45. B) is less than 45. C) is equal to 45. D) could be any of the above; it all depends on the index of refraction of glass. 45) 46) The principle on which fiber optics is based is A) dispersion. B) refraction. C) polarization. D) total internal reflection. 46) 47) The critical angle for a beam of light passing from water into air is This means that all light rays with an angle of incidence greater than this angle will be A) absorbed. B) partially reflected and partially transmitted. C) totally reflected. D) totally transmitted. 47) 48) The principle on which lenses work is A) polarization. B) refraction. C) dispersion. D) total internal reflection. 48) 49) Lenses that are thickest at the center called A) diverging lenses. B) converging lenses. 49) 50) Lenses that are thinner at the center than the edges are called A) diverging lenses. B) converging lenses. 50) 51) Lenses that are thicker at the center A) bend light rays to a point beyond the lens. B) spread out light rays. C) reflect light rays back. D) have no effect on light rays. 51) 52) Two diverging lenses are similar except that lens B is rated at 20 diopters, whereas lens A is rated at 10 diopters. The focal length of lens B is A) four times the focal length of lens A. B) one-half of the focal length of lens A. C) twice the focal length of lens A. D) one-fourth of the focal length of lens A. 52) 6

7 53) A light ray, traveling parallel to the axis of a thin concave lens, strikes the lens near its midpoint. After traveling though the lens, this ray emerges traveling obliquely to the axis of the lens A) such that it never crosses the axis. B) passing between the lens and its focal point. C) passing through the focal point. D) crossing the axis at a point equal to twice the focal length. 53) 54) A light ray, traveling parallel to the axis of a convex thin lens, strikes the lens near its midpoint. After traveling through the lens, this ray emerges traveling obliquely to the axis of the lens A) such that it never crosses the axis. B) passing through its focal point. C) passing between the lens and its focal point. D) crossing the axis at a point equal to twice the focal length. 54) ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 55) State how to draw the three rays for finding the image position due to a thin lens. MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 56) A convex lens has focal length f. An object is located at infinity. The image formed is located A) at f. B) between the lens and f. C) at 2f. D) between f and 2f. 56) 57) A convex lens has a focal length f. An object is placed at f on the axis. The image formed is located A) at 2f. B) at infinity. C) between 2f and infinity. D) between f and 2f. 57) 58) A convex lens has focal length f. An object is placed at 2f on the axis. The image formed is located A) between the lens and f. B) at 2f. C) between f and 2f. D) at f. 58) 59) A convex lens has a focal length f. An object is placed between f and 2f on the axis. The image formed is located A) between f and 2f. B) at f. C) at 2f. D) at a distance greater than 2f from the lens. 59) 60) A convex lens has a focal length f. An object is placed between infinity and 2f from the lens on its axis. The image formed is located A) between the lens and f. B) between f and 2f. C) at f. D) at 2f. 60) 61) A object is placed between a convex lens and its focal point. The image formed is A) virtual and inverted. B) real and inverted. C) real and erect. D) virtual and erect. 61) 7

8 62) The images formed by concave lenses A) could be real or virtual, but always real when the object is placed at the focal point. B) could be real or virtual; it depends on whether the object distance is smaller or greater than the focal length. C) are always real. D) are always virtual. 62) 63) The image of the rare stamp you see through a magnifying glass is A) always upside-down compared to the stamp. B) either the same orientation or upside-down, depending on the thickness of the glass used. C) always the same orientation as the stamp. D) either the same orientation or upside-down, depending on how close the stamp is to the glass. 63) 64) A lamp is placed 1 m from a screen. Between the lamp and the screen is placed a converging lens of focal length 24 cm. The filament of the lamp can be imaged on the screen. As the lens position is varied with respect to the lamp, A) no sharp image will be seen for any lens position. B) a sharp image will be seen when the lens is either 40 cm from the lamp or 60 cm from the lamp, but not otherwise. C) a sharp image will be seen when the lens is halfway between the lamp and the screen. D) a sharp image will be seen when the lens is 40 cm from the lamp. E) a sharp image will be seen when the lens is 60 cm from the lamp. 64) 65) Two thin lenses, of focal lengths f1 and f2 placed in contact with each other are equivalent to a single lens of focal length of A) 1/(f1 + f2). B) f1 + f2. C) f1f2/(f1 + f2). D) (f1 + f2)/f1f2. 65) 66) Two thin double-convex (convex-convex) lenses are placed in contact. If each has a focal length of 20 cm, how would you expect the combination to function? A) about like a single lens of focal length less than 20 cm B) about like a single lens of focal length 40 cm C) about like a single lens of focal length 20 cm D) about like a single lens of focal length slightly greater than 20 cm 66) 67) A diverging lens (f = -4.0 cm) is positioned 2.0 cm to the left of a converging lens f = +6.0 cm). A 1.0-mm diameter beam of parallel light rays is incident on the diverging lens from the left. After leaving the converging lens, the outgoing rays A) converge. B) will travel back toward the light source. C) diverge. D) form a parallel beam of diameter D < 1.0 mm. E) form a parallel beam of diameter D > 1.0 mm. 67) ESSAY. Write your answer in the space provided or on a separate sheet of paper. 68) State Huygen's principle. 8

9 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 69) Which of the following is a false statement? A) All points on a given wave front have the same phase. B) The spacing between adjacent wave fronts is one-half wavelength. C) Rays are always perpendicular to wave fronts. D) All wave fronts have the same amplitude. 69) 70) The wave theory of light is attributed to A) Albert Einstein. B) Isaac Newton. C) Christian Huygens. D) Max Planck. 70) 71) The particle theory of light is attributed to A) Christian Huygens. B) Albert Einstein. C) Isaac Newton. D) Max Planck. 71) 72) When a light wave enters into a medium of different optical density, A) its speed and frequency change. B) its speed, frequency, and wavelength change. C) its speed and wavelength change. D) its frequency and wavelength change. 72) 73) When a beam of light (wavelength = 590 nm), originally traveling in air, enters a piece of glass (index of refraction 1.50), its frequency A) is reduced to 2/3 its original value. B) is unaffected. C) increases by a factor of D) none of the given answers 73) 74) When a beam of light (wavelength = 590 nm), originally traveling in air, enters a piece of glass (index of refraction 1.50), its wavelength A) increases by a factor of B) is unaffected. C) is reduced to 2/3 its original value. D) none of the given answers 74) 75) What principle is responsible for light spreading as it passes through a narrow slit? A) diffraction B) polarization C) refraction D) interference 75) 76) Radio waves are diffracted by large objects such as buildings, whereas light is not noticeably diffracted. Why is this? A) The wavelength of light is much smaller than the wavelength of radio waves. B) The wavelength of light is much greater than the wavelength of radio waves. C) Radio waves are coherent and light is usually not coherent. D) Radio waves are unpolarized, whereas light is plane polarized. 76) 77) What principle is responsible for alternating light and dark bands when light passes through two or more narrow slits? A) refraction B) dispersion C) interference D) polarization 77) 9

10 78) Two light sources are said to be coherent if they A) are of the same frequency and amplitude. B) are of the same frequency, and maintain a constant phase difference. C) are of the same frequency. D) are of the same amplitude, and maintain a constant phase difference. 78) 79) What do we mean when we say that two light rays striking a screen are in phase with each other? A) They are traveling at the same speed. B) They alternately reinforce and cancel each other. C) When the electric field due to one is a maximum, the electric field due to the other is also a maximum, and this relation is maintained as time passes. D) They have the same wavelength. 79) 80) Two beams of coherent light travel different paths arriving at point P. If the maximum constructive interference is to occur at point P, the two beams must A) travel paths that differ by a whole number of wavelengths. B) travel paths that differ by an odd number of half-wavelengths. 80) 81) Two beams of coherent light travel different paths arriving at point P. If the maximum destructive interference is to occur at point P, the two beams must A) travel paths that differ by an odd number of half-wavelengths. B) travel paths that differ by a whole number of wavelengths. 81) 82) At the first maxima on either side of the central bright spot in a double-slit experiment, light from each opening arrives A) 90 out of phase. B) in phase. C) 180 out of phase. D) none of the given answers 82) 83) At the first minima on either side of the central bright spot in a double-slit experiment, light from each opening arrives A) 90 out of phase. B) 180 out of phase. C) in phase. D) none of the given answers 83) 84) At the second maxima on either side of the central bright spot in a double-slit experiment, light from A) one opening travels two wavelengths of light farther than light from the other opening. B) each opening travels the same distance. C) one opening travels one wavelength of light farther than light from the other opening. D) one opening travels twice as far as light from the other opening. 84) 85) In a Young's double slit experiment, if the separation between the slits decreases, what happens to the distance between the interference fringes? A) It remains the same. B) It increases. C) It decreases. D) There is not enough information to determine. 85) 10

11 86) In a double-slit experiment, it is observed that the distance between adjacent maxima on a remote screen is 1.0 cm. What happens to the distance between adjacent maxima when the slit separation is cut in half? A) It increases to 4.0 cm. B) It decreases to 0.50 cm. C) It decreases to 0.25 cm. D) It increases to 2.0 cm. 86) 87) One beam of coherent light travels path P1 in arriving at point Q and another coherent beam travels path P2 in arriving at the same point. If these two beams are to interfere destructively, the path difference P1 - P2 must be equal to A) a whole number of wavelengths. B) zero. C) a whole number of half-wavelengths. D) an odd number of half-wavelengths. 87) 88) If a wave from one slit of a Young's double slit experiment arrives at a point on the screen one-half wavelength behind the wave from the other slit, which is observed at that point? A) dark fringe B) gray fringe C) multi-colored fringe D) bright fringe 88) 89) Why would it be impossible to obtain interference fringes in a double-slit experiment if the separation of the slits is less than the wavelength of the light used? A) The two slits would not emit coherent light. B) The fringes would be too close together. C) In no direction could a path difference as large as one wavelength be obtained, and this is needed if a bright fringe, in addition to the central fringe, is to be observed. D) The very narrow slits required would generate many different wavelengths, thereby washing out the interference pattern. 89) 90) The separation between adjacent maxima in a double-slit interference pattern using monochromatic light is A) greatest for red light. B) greatest for blue light. C) greatest for green light. D) the same for all colors of light. 90) 91) The principle which explains why a prism separates white light into different colors is A) dispersion. B) polarization. C) refraction. D) total internal reflection. 91) 92) The principle which allows a rainbow to form is A) polarization. B) dispersion. C) refraction. D) total internal reflection. 92) 93) White light is A) light of wavelength 550 nm, in the middle of the visible spectrum. B) a mixture of all frequencies. C) the opposite (or complementary color) of black light. D) the term used to describe very bright light. E) a mixture of red, green, and blue light. 93) 94) Light with wavelength slightly shorter than 400 nm is called A) ultraviolet light. B) infrared light. C) visible light. D) none of the given answers 94) 11

12 95) Light with wavelength slightly longer than 750 nm is called A) infrared light. B) visible light. C) ultraviolet light. D) none of the given answers 95) 96) Which color of light undergoes the greatest refraction when passing from air to glass? A) violet B) yellow C) red D) green 96) 97) Which color of light undergoes the smallest refraction when passing from air to glass? A) yellow B) green C) violet D) red 97) 98) In a single slit diffraction experiment, if the width of the slit increases, what happens to the width of the central maximum on a screen? A) It remains the same. B) It increases. C) It decreases. D) There is not enough information to determine. 98) 99) The colors on an oil slick are caused by reflection and A) polarization. B) refraction. C) diffraction. D) interference. 99) 100) When a beam of light, which is traveling in glass, strikes an air boundary, there is A) a 180 phase change in the reflected beam. B) a 45 phase change in the reflected beam. C) no phase change in the reflected beam. D) a 90 phase change in the reflected beam. 100) 101) When a beam of light, which is traveling in air, is reflected by a glass surface, there is A) a 180 phase change in the reflected beam. B) a 45 phase change in the reflected beam. C) a 90 phase change in the reflected beam. D) no phase change in the reflected beam. 101) 102) What principle is responsible for the fact that certain sunglasses can reduce glare from reflected surfaces? A) refraction B) total internal reflection C) polarization D) diffraction 102) 103) When the transmission axes of two Polaroid films are perpendicular to each other, what is the percentage of the incident light which will pass the two films? A) 75% B) 50% C) 0% D) 25% 103) 12

13 Answer Key Testname: APBCH23AND24 1) A 2) D 3) D 4) B 5) D 6) B 7) B 8) B 9) A 10) B 11) C 12) D 13) B 14) B 15) C 16) D 17) D 18) Ray 1 leaves the top of the object and is drawn such that it is parallel to the axis; therefore after reflection it must pass along a line through the focal point. Ray 2 leaves the top of the object and is made to pass through the focal point; therefore it must reflect so it is parallel to the axis. Ray 3 leaves the top of the object and is made to pass through the center of curvature; therefore it must reflect back on itself. 19) C 20) B 21) D 22) D 23) A 24) A 25) A 26) A 27) C 28) C 29) B 30) D 31) A 32) B 33) B 34) A 35) B 36) C 37) A 38) A 39) B 40) B 41) D 42) C 43) D 44) C 13

14 Answer Key Testname: APBCH23AND24 45) B 46) D 47) C 48) B 49) B 50) A 51) A 52) B 53) A 54) B 55) Ray 1 leaves the top of the object and is drawn such that it is parallel to the axis; therefore it emerges from the lens along a line through the focal point on the back side of the lens. Ray 2 leaves the top of the object and is made to pass through the other focal point; therefore it emerges from the lens parallel to the axis. Ray 3 leaves the top of the object and is directed toward the very center of the lens; therefore it emerges from the lens a the same angle as it entered. 56) A 57) B 58) B 59) D 60) B 61) D 62) D 63) D 64) B 65) C 66) A 67) E 68) Every point on a wave front can be considered as a source of tiny wavelets that spread out in the forward direction at the speed of the wave itself. The new wave front is the envelope of all the wavelets - that is, tangent to all of them. 69) D 70) C 71) C 72) C 73) B 74) C 75) A 76) A 77) C 78) B 79) C 80) A 81) A 82) B 83) B 84) A 85) B 86) D 14

15 Answer Key Testname: APBCH23AND24 87) D 88) A 89) C 90) A 91) A 92) B 93) B 94) A 95) A 96) A 97) D 98) C 99) D 100) C 101) A 102) C 103) C 15

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