Diffraction of Laser Light

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Diffraction of Laser Light"

Transcription

1 Diffraction of Laser Light No Prelab Introduction The laser is a unique light source because its light is coherent and monochromatic. Coherent light is made up of waves, which are all in phase. Monochromatic light is a single color or wavelength. The wavelength of the red laser light is 670 nm (nm = nanometer = 10-9 m). In this experiment, the diffraction patterns of a single slit, a double slit, a human hair, and a circular aperture are examined. Theory Diffraction is produced when light passes through an opening whose size is the same order of magnitude as its wavelength. As the light spreads outward from the opening, the light waves travel different distances, producing an interference pattern at the screen. A bright spot is formed when the light waves interfere constructively and a dark spot is formed when they interfere destructively. For example, in a double slit experiment light from one slit travels a different distance than light from the second slit. A bright spot will be formed if the difference in distances is an integral number of wavelengths. A dark spot will be formed if the difference is a half-integral number of wavelengths (e.g.1/2, 3/2, 5/2, etc.). As can be seen from the above diagram, a bright spot will be formed when r 2 r 1 = mλ = dsinθ. For small angles (where R >> y), sinθ tanθ = y /R, so Pattern produced by a double slit. y = mλr (1) where m = 0, 1, 2, for a bright spot d and m = 1/2, 3/2, 5/2,...for a dark spot. 82

2 Pattern produced by a single slit. For a single slit, the condition for a dark spot is sinθ = mλ /d (2) where d is the width of the slit and m = 1,2,3,... for dark spots. The diffraction pattern produced by a human hair is the same as that which would be produced if a slit the width of the hair were used. If, instead of a single slit, we use a small circular opening of diameter d, we will observe a circular diffraction pattern instead of a linear diffraction pattern. The equation for the minima has the same form as that for the linear case, namely d sinθ = mλ. (3) However, m is no longer an integer but is the zero solutions to first order Bessel function divided by p. That is, m = l.220, 2.233, 3.283, 4.241,... Apparatus 1. laser 4. caliper 2. Single and double slits 3. optical bench, screen Procedure: 1. Double slit experiment: Shine the laser through a double slit and observe the diffraction pattern on a screen across the room. Sketch the pattern on the data sheet and measure the distance between the first minima on either side of the central bright spot. Repeat the measurement for the second minima. Divide the distance by 2 and find the angle Θ, then use Equation (1) to find d. Compare with known value. Repeat for a second slit 2. Single Slit Experiment Shine the laser through a single slit and observe the diffraction pattern. Sketch the pattern on the data sheet. Repeat the measurement in procedure 1 and find d for the slit. Compare with the known value. Repeat for a second single slit 83

3 3. Circular Aperture The diameter of circular opening can be determined by using laser light. Rotate the Slit Disk until the laser light shines through a circular opening. Now place the slits between 6 to 8 cm from the laser and place the screen on the optical bench.l You should see a pattern on the screen characterized by two or three dark rings. Sketch the diffraction pattern and measure the diameter of the ring. From the radius of the rings calculate the angle θ and from Equation (3) find the diameter of the ring. 4. Human hair Data Remove single slit disk and stretch a hair across the opening and tape the hair to the lens holders. Shine a laser across the hair. Repeat the same measurements and sketch as in procedure 1 and 2. Find the diameter of the hair. Double Slit Diffraction: A. First double slit R = B. Second double slit Known value of d = R = Sketch the diffraction pattern below 84

4 Single Slit Diffraction: A. First single slit R = B. Second Single Slit A. % difference = Circular Aperture R = 85

5 Human Hair Diffraction R = QUESTIONS: 1. On the single slit disk, there is a single slit whose width varies as the disk is rotated. How does the distance between the bright and dark spot vary as the disk is rotated from a small value d to a larger value of d? 2. On the double slit disk, the distance between the double slits varies from 0.02 mm to 0.08 mm. How does the distance between the bright and dark spot vary as the disk is rotated from a small value of d to a larger value of d? 86

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator.

PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam. Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. PHYS 222 Spring 2012 Final Exam Closed books, notes, etc. No electronic device except a calculator. NAME: (all questions with equal weight) 1. If the distance between two point charges is tripled, the

More information

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE RADIANT FLUX DENSITY AT THE FOCUS OF A CONVERGENCE BEAM

More information

3.5.4.2 One example: Michelson interferometer

3.5.4.2 One example: Michelson interferometer 3.5.4.2 One example: Michelson interferometer mirror 1 mirror 2 light source 1 2 3 beam splitter 4 object (n object ) interference pattern we either observe fringes of same thickness (parallel light) or

More information

INTERFERENCE OBJECTIVES PRE-LECTURE. Aims

INTERFERENCE OBJECTIVES PRE-LECTURE. Aims 53 L4 INTERFERENCE Aims OBJECTIVES When you have finished this chapter you should understand how the wave model of light can be used to explain the phenomenon of interference. You should be able to describe

More information

Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away.

Revision problem. Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612. Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. Revision problem Chapter 18 problem 37 page 612 Suppose you point a pinhole camera at a 15m tall tree that is 75m away. 1 Optical Instruments Thin lens equation Refractive power Cameras The human eye Combining

More information

Bio 321 Lightmicroscopy Electronmicrosopy Image Processing

Bio 321 Lightmicroscopy Electronmicrosopy Image Processing Bio 321 Lightmicroscopy Electronmicrosopy Image Processing Urs Ziegler Center for Microscopy and Image Analysis Light microscopy (Confocal Laser Scanning Microscopy) Light microscopy (Confocal Laser Scanning

More information

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2

ILLUSTRATIVE EXAMPLE: Given: A = 3 and B = 4 if we now want the value of C=? C = 3 + 4 = 9 + 16 = 25 or 2 Forensic Spectral Anaylysis: Warm up! The study of triangles has been done since ancient times. Many of the early discoveries about triangles are still used today. We will only be concerned with the "right

More information

Basic Physical Optics

Basic Physical Optics F UNDAMENTALS OF PHOTONICS Module 1.4 Basic Physical Optics Leno S. Pedrotti CORD Waco, Texas In Module 1-3, Basic Geometrical Optics, we made use of light rays to demonstrate reflection and refraction

More information

Physics 10. Lecture 29A. "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton

Physics 10. Lecture 29A. There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it. --Edith Wharton Physics 10 Lecture 29A "There are two ways of spreading light: to be the candle or the mirror that reflects it." --Edith Wharton Converging Lenses What if we wanted to use refraction to converge parallel

More information

Light Control and Efficacy using Light Guides and Diffusers

Light Control and Efficacy using Light Guides and Diffusers Light Control and Efficacy using Light Guides and Diffusers LEDs 2012 Michael Georgalis, LC Marketing Manager, Fusion Optix October 11, 2012 Agenda Introduction What Is Light Control? Improves Application

More information

Optical laser beam scanner lens relay system

Optical laser beam scanner lens relay system 1. Introduction Optical laser beam scanner lens relay system Laser beam scanning is used most often by far in confocal microscopes. There are many ways by which a laser beam can be scanned across the back

More information

PRECISION INTERFEROMETER

PRECISION INTERFEROMETER Includes Teacher's Notes and Typical Experiment Results Instruction Manual and Experiment Guide for the PASCO scientific Models OS-9255A thru OS-9258A 012-07137A 5/99 PRECISION INTERFEROMETER 1990 PASCO

More information

Spectroscopy Using the Tracker Video Analysis Program

Spectroscopy Using the Tracker Video Analysis Program Spectroscopy Using the Tracker Video Analysis Program Douglas Brown Cabrillo College Aptos CA 95003 dobrown@cabrillo.edu Spectroscopy has important applications in many fields and deserves more attention

More information

Lenses and Apertures of A TEM

Lenses and Apertures of A TEM Instructor: Dr. C.Wang EMA 6518 Course Presentation Lenses and Apertures of A TEM Group Member: Anup Kr. Keshri Srikanth Korla Sushma Amruthaluri Venkata Pasumarthi Xudong Chen Outline Electron Optics

More information

To explain the basics of how lasers work and let visitors experiment with laser properties.

To explain the basics of how lasers work and let visitors experiment with laser properties. Laser Lights Activity Goal To explain the basics of how lasers work and let visitors experiment with laser properties. NGSS Domain(s) PS1.A Structure of Matter PS3.B Definitions of Energy PS4.A Wave Properties

More information

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye

X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US. Hanno zur Loye X-Ray Diffraction HOW IT WORKS WHAT IT CAN AND WHAT IT CANNOT TELL US Hanno zur Loye X-rays are electromagnetic radiation of wavelength about 1 Å (10-10 m), which is about the same size as an atom. The

More information

Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment

Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment Physics 30 Worksheet # 14: Michelson Experiment 1. The speed of light found by a Michelson experiment was found to be 2.90 x 10 8 m/s. If the two hills were 20.0 km apart, what was the frequency of the

More information

The coherence length of black-body radiation

The coherence length of black-body radiation Eur. J. Phys. 19 (1998) 245 249. Printed in the UK PII: S143-87(98)86653-1 The coherence length of black-body radiation Axel Donges Fachhochschule und Berufskollegs NTA Prof. Dr Grübler, Seidenstrasse

More information

Guideline Laser Series

Guideline Laser Series Guideline Laser Series Highly visible alignment laser for visually demanding surfaces Red / Green long visible lines Equal brightness across length of the line Uniform Line (no fading at ends of the line)

More information

1 Basic Optics (1.2) Since. ε 0 = 8.854 10 12 C 2 N 1 m 2 and μ 0 = 4π 10 7 Ns 2 C 2 (1.3) Krishna Thyagarajan and Ajoy Ghatak. 1.

1 Basic Optics (1.2) Since. ε 0 = 8.854 10 12 C 2 N 1 m 2 and μ 0 = 4π 10 7 Ns 2 C 2 (1.3) Krishna Thyagarajan and Ajoy Ghatak. 1. 1 1 Basic Optics Krishna Thyagarajan and Ajoy Ghatak 1.1 Introduction This chapter on optics provides the reader with the basic understanding of light rays and light waves, image formation and aberrations,

More information

Phase singularities of the longitudinal field components in the focal region of a high-aperture optical system

Phase singularities of the longitudinal field components in the focal region of a high-aperture optical system D. W. Diehl and T. D. Visser Vol. 21, No. 11/November 2004/J. Opt. Soc. Am. A 2103 Phase singularities of the longitudinal field components in the focal region of a high-aperture optical system Damon W.

More information

View of ΣIGMA TM (Ref. 1)

View of ΣIGMA TM (Ref. 1) Overview of the FESEM system 1. Electron optical column 2. Specimen chamber 3. EDS detector [Electron Dispersive Spectroscopy] 4. Monitors 5. BSD (Back scatter detector) 6. Personal Computer 7. ON/STANDBY/OFF

More information

Chapter 22: Electric Flux and Gauss s Law

Chapter 22: Electric Flux and Gauss s Law 22.1 ntroduction We have seen in chapter 21 that determining the electric field of a continuous charge distribution can become very complicated for some charge distributions. t would be desirable if we

More information

MRC High Resolution. MR-compatible digital HD video camera. User manual

MRC High Resolution. MR-compatible digital HD video camera. User manual MRC High Resolution MR-compatible digital HD video camera User manual page 1 of 12 Contents 1. Intended use...2 2. System components...3 3. Video camera and lens...4 4. Interface...4 5. Installation...5

More information

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy

Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy Experiment #5: Qualitative Absorption Spectroscopy One of the most important areas in the field of analytical chemistry is that of spectroscopy. In general terms, spectroscopy deals with the interactions

More information

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics

UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics UNIVERSITY OF SASKATCHEWAN Department of Physics and Engineering Physics Physics 111.6 MIDTERM TEST #4 March 15, 2007 Time: 90 minutes NAME: (Last) Please Print (Given) STUDENT NO.: LECTURE SECTION (please

More information

The Fabry-Pérot Interferometer

The Fabry-Pérot Interferometer The Fabry-Pérot Interferometer Exercises: 1. Mounting the beam expander optics on the He Ne laser and adjustment. 2. Alignment of the total optical setup (laser, interferometer, monochromator). 3. Observing

More information

4. CAMERA ADJUSTMENTS

4. CAMERA ADJUSTMENTS 4. CAMERA ADJUSTMENTS Only by the possibility of displacing lens and rear standard all advantages of a view camera are fully utilized. These displacements serve for control of perspective, positioning

More information

Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) for FLEXPOINT Laser Modules

Diffractive Optical Elements (DOE) for FLEXPOINT Laser Modules With the help of DOEs it is possible to turn a simple laser dot into a variety of different beam patterns. All DOE s can be used with FLEXPOINT laser modules, either fixed to the module or removable in

More information

Data Provided: A formula sheet and table of physical constants is attached to this paper. DARK MATTER AND THE UNIVERSE

Data Provided: A formula sheet and table of physical constants is attached to this paper. DARK MATTER AND THE UNIVERSE Data Provided: A formula sheet and table of physical constants is attached to this paper. DEPARTMENT OF PHYSICS AND ASTRONOMY Autumn Semester (2014-2015) DARK MATTER AND THE UNIVERSE 2 HOURS Answer question

More information

POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS

POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS EXPERIMENT 4 POWDER X-RAY DIFFRACTION: STRUCTURAL DETERMINATION OF ALKALI HALIDE SALTS I. Introduction The determination of the chemical structure of molecules is indispensable to chemists in their effort

More information

Customized corneal ablation can be designed. Slit Skiascopic-guided Ablation Using the Nidek Laser. Scott MacRae, MD; Masanao Fujieda

Customized corneal ablation can be designed. Slit Skiascopic-guided Ablation Using the Nidek Laser. Scott MacRae, MD; Masanao Fujieda Slit Skiascopic-guided Ablation Using the Nidek Laser Scott MacRae, MD; Masanao Fujieda ABSTRACT PURPOSE: To present the approach of using a scanning slit refractometer (the ARK 10000) in conjunction with

More information

PHYS 39a Lab 3: Microscope Optics

PHYS 39a Lab 3: Microscope Optics PHYS 39a Lab 3: Microscope Optics Trevor Kafka December 15, 2014 Abstract In this lab task, we sought to use critical illumination and Köhler illumination techniques to view the image of a 1000 lines-per-inch

More information

Solar Observing in Schools

Solar Observing in Schools Solar Observing in Schools Basic solar observations and photography Prof. Ed Cackett ecackett@wayne.edu (313) 577 9355 http://physics.clas.wayne.edu/astronomy/sos.php Funded by the National Science Foundation

More information

MICROFOCUSING OF THE FERMI@ELETTRA FEL BEAM WITH A K-B ACTIVE OPTICS SYSTEM: SPOT SIZE PREDICTIONS. Lorenzo Raimondi

MICROFOCUSING OF THE FERMI@ELETTRA FEL BEAM WITH A K-B ACTIVE OPTICS SYSTEM: SPOT SIZE PREDICTIONS. Lorenzo Raimondi MICROFOCUSING OF THE FERMI@ELETTRA FEL BEAM WITH A K-B ACTIVE OPTICS SYSTEM: SPOT SIZE PREDICTIONS Lorenzo Raimondi PADReS Group Sincrotrone Trieste SCpA 1 FERMI@Elettra seeded FEL FEL 1 FEL 2 FEL 1 from

More information

3D Printing LESSON PLAN PHYSICS 8,11: OPTICS

3D Printing LESSON PLAN PHYSICS 8,11: OPTICS INVESTIGATE RATIONALE Optics is commonly taught through the use of commercial optics kits that usually include a basic set of 2-4 geometric lenses (such as double convex or double concave). These lenses

More information

ALMA Newsletter. ALMA In-depth. How Will ALMA Make Images? April 2010

ALMA Newsletter. ALMA In-depth. How Will ALMA Make Images? April 2010 How Will ALMA Make Images? Credit: ALMA (ESO / NAOJ / NRAO), Cynthia Collao (ALMA). The invention of the optical telescope by Galileo 400 years ago marked the beginning of modern astronomy. Galileo used

More information

AP Physics: Rotational Dynamics 2

AP Physics: Rotational Dynamics 2 Name: Assignment Due Date: March 30, 2012 AP Physics: Rotational Dynamics 2 Problem A solid cylinder with mass M, radius R, and rotational inertia 1 2 MR2 rolls without slipping down the inclined plane

More information

XXIX ENFMC - Annals of Optics 2006. 3D shadowgram projection using a simple diffractive screen José J. Lunazzi, Noemí I. Rivera Rodríguez.

XXIX ENFMC - Annals of Optics 2006. 3D shadowgram projection using a simple diffractive screen José J. Lunazzi, Noemí I. Rivera Rodríguez. 3D shadowgram projection using a simple diffractive screen José J. Lunazzi, Noemí I. Rivera Rodríguez. Universidade Estadual de Campinas - Instituto de Física lunazzi@ifi.unicamp.br, nrivera@ifi.unicamp.br

More information

Data Sheet. definiti 3D Stereo Theaters + definiti 3D Stereo Projection for Full Dome. S7a1801

Data Sheet. definiti 3D Stereo Theaters + definiti 3D Stereo Projection for Full Dome. S7a1801 S7a1801 OVERVIEW In definiti 3D theaters, the audience wears special lightweight glasses to see the world projected onto the giant dome screen with real depth perception called 3D stereo. The effect allows

More information

Laser Ranging to Nano-Satellites

Laser Ranging to Nano-Satellites 13-0222 Laser Ranging to Nano-Satellites G. Kirchner (1), Ludwig Grunwaldt (2), Reinhard Neubert (2), Franz Koidl (1), Merlin Barschke (3), Zizung Yoon (3), Hauke Fiedler (4), Christine Hollenstein (5)

More information

Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES

Microscopy. MICROSCOPY Light Electron Tunnelling Atomic Force RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES BIODIVERSITY I BIOL1051 Microscopy Professor Marc C. Lavoie marc.lavoie@cavehill.uwi.edu MAJOR FUNCTIONS OF MICROSCOPES MAGNIFY RESOLVE: => INCREASE CONTRAST Microscopy 1. Eyepieces 2. Diopter adjustment

More information

Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation

Light as a Wave. The Nature of Light. EM Radiation Spectrum. EM Radiation Spectrum. Electromagnetic Radiation The Nature of Light Light and other forms of radiation carry information to us from distance astronomical objects Visible light is a subset of a huge spectrum of electromagnetic radiation Maxwell pioneered

More information

L-LAS-TB-CL serie. laser light curtains for inline measuring tasks

L-LAS-TB-CL serie. laser light curtains for inline measuring tasks L-LAS-TB-CL serie laser light curtains for inline measuring tasks Maximum distance 2.000 mm Measurement range 6 up to 98 mm Resolution up to 4 µm up to 1,5 khz scan rate 0-10 V or 4-20 ma analogue output

More information

Modeling and Performance Analysis of DWDM Based 100 Gbps Low Power Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication (LP-IsOWC) System

Modeling and Performance Analysis of DWDM Based 100 Gbps Low Power Inter-satellite Optical Wireless Communication (LP-IsOWC) System ISSN(Print): 2377-0538 ISSN(Online): 2377-0546 DOI: 10.15764/STSP.2015.01001 Volume 2, Number 1, January 2015 SOP TRANSACTIONS ON SIGNAL PROCESSING Modeling and Performance Analysis of DWDM Based 100 Gbps

More information

Study of the Human Eye Working Principle: An impressive high angular resolution system with simple array detectors

Study of the Human Eye Working Principle: An impressive high angular resolution system with simple array detectors Study of the Human Eye Working Principle: An impressive high angular resolution system with simple array detectors Diego Betancourt and Carlos del Río Antenna Group, Public University of Navarra, Campus

More information

Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72

Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72 Physics 202 Problems - Week 8 Worked Problems Chapter 25: 7, 23, 36, 62, 72 Problem 25.7) A light beam traveling in the negative z direction has a magnetic field B = (2.32 10 9 T )ˆx + ( 4.02 10 9 T )ŷ

More information

Nightspot High performance floodlights for discharge lamps and LEDs

Nightspot High performance floodlights for discharge lamps and LEDs Nightspot High performance floodlights for discharge lamps and LEDs Design: Roy Fleedwood The Nightspot series of floodlights comes in three sizes and with rotationally symmetrical reflectors: - Nightspot

More information

Experiment 17. Group 728. Advanced Laboratory in Physics. (Holography) Author: Kay Jahnke Mail: kay.jahnke@uni-ulm.de. Signature:...

Experiment 17. Group 728. Advanced Laboratory in Physics. (Holography) Author: Kay Jahnke Mail: kay.jahnke@uni-ulm.de. Signature:... Experiment 17 (Holography) Group 728 Advanced Laboratory in Physics Author: Kay Jahnke Mail: kay.jahnke@uni-ulm.de Signature:... Author: Matthias Hocker Mail: matthias.hocker@uni-ulm.de Signature:... Adviser:

More information

WHITE PAPER. Are More Pixels Better? www.basler-ipcam.com. Resolution Does it Really Matter?

WHITE PAPER. Are More Pixels Better? www.basler-ipcam.com. Resolution Does it Really Matter? WHITE PAPER www.basler-ipcam.com Are More Pixels Better? The most frequently asked question when buying a new digital security camera is, What resolution does the camera provide? The resolution is indeed

More information

Color holographic 3D display unit with aperture field division

Color holographic 3D display unit with aperture field division Color holographic 3D display unit with aperture field division Weronika Zaperty, Tomasz Kozacki, Malgorzata Kujawinska, Grzegorz Finke Photonics Engineering Division, Faculty of Mechatronics Warsaw University

More information

LBS-300 Beam Sampler for C-mount Cameras. YAG Focal Spot Analysis Adapter. User Notes

LBS-300 Beam Sampler for C-mount Cameras. YAG Focal Spot Analysis Adapter. User Notes LBS-300 Beam Sampler for C-mount Cameras P/N SP90183, SP90184, SP90185 and SP90186 YAG Focal Spot Analysis Adapter P/N SP90187, SP90188, SP90189, SP90190, SP90191 User Notes Ophir-Spiricon Inc. 60 West

More information

18 Q0 a speed of 45.0 m/s away from a moving car. If the car is 8 Q0 moving towards the ambulance with a speed of 15.0 m/s, what Q0 frequency does a

18 Q0 a speed of 45.0 m/s away from a moving car. If the car is 8 Q0 moving towards the ambulance with a speed of 15.0 m/s, what Q0 frequency does a First Major T-042 1 A transverse sinusoidal wave is traveling on a string with a 17 speed of 300 m/s. If the wave has a frequency of 100 Hz, what 9 is the phase difference between two particles on the

More information

Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures

Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures CHINESE JOURNAL OF PHYSICS VOL. 49, NO. 1 FEBRUARY 2011 Laser-induced surface phonons and their excitation of nanostructures Markus Schmotz, 1, Dominik Gollmer, 1 Florian Habel, 1 Stephen Riedel, 1 and

More information

Physics 53. Kinematics 2. Our nature consists in movement; absolute rest is death. Pascal

Physics 53. Kinematics 2. Our nature consists in movement; absolute rest is death. Pascal Phsics 53 Kinematics 2 Our nature consists in movement; absolute rest is death. Pascal Velocit and Acceleration in 3-D We have defined the velocit and acceleration of a particle as the first and second

More information

Chapter 40. Quantum Mechanics

Chapter 40. Quantum Mechanics Chapter 40 Quantum Mechanics CHAPTER 40 QUANTUM MECHANICS That light had both a particle and a wave nature became apparent with Einstein s explanation of the photoelectric effect in 1905. One might expect

More information

Handy Pinhole Camera (Latin Camera Obscura) to observe the transit of Venus, eclipses and other phenomena occurring on the Sun

Handy Pinhole Camera (Latin Camera Obscura) to observe the transit of Venus, eclipses and other phenomena occurring on the Sun Lech Mankiewicz Centre for Theoretical Physics, Polish Academy of Sciences, Warsaw, Global Intelligent Robotic Telescopes Network GLORIA http://www.gloria-project.eu/ Paweł Rudawy Astronomical Institute,

More information

Laser diffuse reflection light scanner with background suppression. Dimensioned drawing

Laser diffuse reflection light scanner with background suppression. Dimensioned drawing Specifications and description HRTL 3B Laser diffuse reflection light scanner with background suppression Dimensioned drawing We reserve the right to make changes DS_HRTL3B_en.fm en 01-2010/12 50114049

More information

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK

vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK vii TABLE OF CONTENTS CHAPTER TITLE PAGE DECLARATION DEDICATION ACKNOWLEDGEMENT ABSTRACT ABSTRAK TABLE OF CONTENTS LIST OF TABLES LIST OF FIGURES LIST OF SYMBOLS / ABBREVIATIONS LIST OF APPENDICES ii iii

More information

Honeywell Night Vision Security. The Night Hawk Advantage

Honeywell Night Vision Security. The Night Hawk Advantage Honeywell Night Vision Security The Night Hawk Advantage What is Night Vision Security? Most crimes happen at night the challenge to the security professional is to ensure the video footage is effective

More information

Blackbody Radiation References INTRODUCTION

Blackbody Radiation References INTRODUCTION Blackbody Radiation References 1) R.A. Serway, R.J. Beichner: Physics for Scientists and Engineers with Modern Physics, 5 th Edition, Vol. 2, Ch.40, Saunders College Publishing (A Division of Harcourt

More information

Technical Report FP-2010-06. Simple injector for high-current sheet electron beams

Technical Report FP-2010-06. Simple injector for high-current sheet electron beams Technical Report FP-2010-06 Simple injector for high-current sheet electron beams Stanley Humphries, Ph.D. Field Precision LLC Albuquerque, New Mexico U.S.A. December 2010 1 Figure 1: Model electron trajectories

More information

X-ray thin-film measurement techniques

X-ray thin-film measurement techniques Technical articles X-ray thin-film measurement techniques II. Out-of-plane diffraction measurements Toru Mitsunaga* 1. Introduction A thin-film sample is two-dimensionally formed on the surface of a substrate,

More information

SafetyScan Lens. User Manual

SafetyScan Lens. User Manual SafetyScan Lens User Manual Contents Introduction 2 Lens selection 3 Beam quality parameter Using the tables Use with lasers whose M 2 is 1.2 4 Use with lasers whose M 2 is 3.0 5 Use with lasers whose

More information

Raman spectroscopy Lecture

Raman spectroscopy Lecture Raman spectroscopy Lecture Licentiate course in measurement science and technology Spring 2008 10.04.2008 Antti Kivioja Contents - Introduction - What is Raman spectroscopy? - The theory of Raman spectroscopy

More information

LM10. Micro Laser Displacement Sensor. The LM10 makes laser sensors super easy to use! New circuitry lowers costs

LM10. Micro Laser Displacement Sensor. The LM10 makes laser sensors super easy to use! New circuitry lowers costs 857 Micro Sensor General terms and conditions... P.1 Related Information Glossary of terms / General precautions... P.1019 / P.1027 Sensor selection guide... P.11~ / P.833~ About laser beam... P.1025 ~

More information

sensors Miniature Sensors - S100 The universal miniature photoelectric sensor

sensors Miniature Sensors - S100 The universal miniature photoelectric sensor Miniature Sensors - S1 The universal miniature photoelectric sensor Two threaded front mounting holes Two slotted rear mounting holes Anti-tampering sensor (no adjustment) Standard optic functions and

More information

Diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser

Diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser IAP - Lab Course in Modern Physics Lab Manual Diode-pumped Nd:YAG laser Author: Michael Siegrist, michael.siegrist@iap.unibe.ch Abstract In the first part of the experiment, the laser will be set up and

More information

Spot Weld Analysis with Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Arrays

Spot Weld Analysis with Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Arrays Spot Weld Analysis with Two-Dimensional Ultrasonic Arrays A. A. Denisov, C. M. Shakarji, R. Gr. Maev, J. M. Paille, B. B. Lawford, University of Windsor National Institute of Standards and Technology DaimlerChrysler

More information

Structure Factors 59-553 78

Structure Factors 59-553 78 78 Structure Factors Until now, we have only typically considered reflections arising from planes in a hypothetical lattice containing one atom in the asymmetric unit. In practice we will generally deal

More information

EE4367 Telecom. Switching & Transmission. Prof. Murat Torlak

EE4367 Telecom. Switching & Transmission. Prof. Murat Torlak FIBER OPTIC COMMUNICATIONS Optical Fibers Fiber optics (optical fibers) are long, thin strands of very pure glass about the size of a human hair. They are arranged in bundles called optical cables and

More information

Investigation of the Optical Properties of Liquid Deposition CuSO 4 Thin Film

Investigation of the Optical Properties of Liquid Deposition CuSO 4 Thin Film 015 IJSRST Volume 1 Issue 5 Print ISSN: 395-6011 Online ISSN: 395-60X Themed Section: Science and Technology Investigation of the Optical Properties of Liquid Deposition CuSO 4 Thin Film Nafie A. Almuslet

More information

Explain the role of blood and bloodstain patterns in forensics science. Analyze and identify bloodstain patterns by performing bloodstain analysis

Explain the role of blood and bloodstain patterns in forensics science. Analyze and identify bloodstain patterns by performing bloodstain analysis Lab 4 Blood Learning Objectives Explain the role of blood and bloodstain patterns in forensics science Analyze and identify bloodstain patterns by performing bloodstain analysis Introduction Blood, a

More information

Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money

Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money Understanding Laser Beam Parameters Leads to Better System Performance and Can Save Money Lasers became the first choice of energy source for a steadily increasing number of applications in science, medicine

More information

Problems 801. Problem 6.

Problems 801. Problem 6. 6 The figure on the next page shows a curved (parabolic) mirror, with three parallel light rays coming toward it. One ray is approaching along the mirror s center line. (a) Continue the light rays until

More information

AUDIO. 1. An audio signal is an representation of a sound. a. Acoustical b. Environmental c. Aesthetic d. Electrical

AUDIO. 1. An audio signal is an representation of a sound. a. Acoustical b. Environmental c. Aesthetic d. Electrical Essentials of the AV Industry Pretest Not sure if you need to take Essentials? Do you think you know the basics of Audio Visual? Take this quick assessment test on Audio, Visual, and Systems to find out!

More information

A Quick primer on synchrotron radiation: How would an MBA source change my x-ray beam. Jonathan Lang Advanced Photon Source

A Quick primer on synchrotron radiation: How would an MBA source change my x-ray beam. Jonathan Lang Advanced Photon Source A Quick primer on synchrotron radiation: How would an MBA source change my x-ray beam Jonathan Lang Advanced Photon Source APS Upgrade - MBA Lattice ε ο = 3100 pm ε ο = 80 pm What is emi7ance? I don t

More information

Longwave IR focal-plane binary optics

Longwave IR focal-plane binary optics Longwave IR focal-plane binary optics Z. Sikorski, H. Polakowski Institute of Optoelectronics, Military University of Technology, 2 Kaliskiego Str., -98 Warsaw, e-mail: zsikorsk@wat.waw.pl Abstract In

More information

Attaching the PA-A1-ATM Interface Cables

Attaching the PA-A1-ATM Interface Cables CHAPTER 4 Attaching the PA-A1-ATM Interface Cables To continue your PA-A1-ATM port adapter installation, you must attach the port adapter cables. The instructions that follow apply to all supported platforms.

More information

SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy

SCIENCE CHINA Physics, Mechanics & Astronomy SCIENCE CHINA Physics, echanics & Astronomy Article June 03 Vol.56 No.6: 074 078 doi: 0.007/s433-03-5095-4 Single-row laser beam with energy strengthened ends for continuous scanning laser surface hardening

More information

APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION

APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION APPENDIX D: SOLAR RADIATION The sun is the source of most energy on the earth and is a primary factor in determining the thermal environment of a locality. It is important for engineers to have a working

More information

DETERMINING SOLAR ALTITUDE USING THE GNOMON. How does the altitude change during the day or from day to day?

DETERMINING SOLAR ALTITUDE USING THE GNOMON. How does the altitude change during the day or from day to day? Name Partner(s) Section Date DETERMINING SOLAR ALTITUDE USING THE GNOMON Does the Sun ever occur directly overhead in Maryland? If it does, how would you determine or know it was directly overhead? How

More information

- using the examples of digital image analysis, CCD - devices and computer simulation.

- using the examples of digital image analysis, CCD - devices and computer simulation. Concept of Modern Optical Training Labs for Optical Engineering Students Serguej C. Stafeev. Yuri L. Kolesnikov, Alexander V. Srnirnov General Physics Department ofst.petersburg Institute of Fine Mechanics

More information

TAGARNO AS Sandøvej 4 8700 Horsens Denmark Tel: +45 7625 1111 Mail: mail@tagarno.com

TAGARNO AS Sandøvej 4 8700 Horsens Denmark Tel: +45 7625 1111 Mail: mail@tagarno.com 8 TAGARNO AS Sandøvej 4 8700 Horsens Denmark Tel: +45 7625 1111 Mail: mail@tagarno.com TAGARNO 2 Quick Image Capture Split Screen Function Magnification up to 320x Easy Height Adjustment SD-card ESD Security

More information

Micro-Optical Sensor Use in Boundary Layer Flows with Polymers and Bubbles

Micro-Optical Sensor Use in Boundary Layer Flows with Polymers and Bubbles 2 nd International Symposium on Seawater Drag Reduction Busan, Korea, 23-26 MAY 2005 Micro-Optical Sensor Use in Boundary Layer Flows with Polymers and Bubbles D. Modarress, P. Svitek (Measurement Science

More information

Face detection is a process of localizing and extracting the face region from the

Face detection is a process of localizing and extracting the face region from the Chapter 4 FACE NORMALIZATION 4.1 INTRODUCTION Face detection is a process of localizing and extracting the face region from the background. The detected face varies in rotation, brightness, size, etc.

More information

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI

Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI Instytut Fizyki Doświadczalnej Wydział Matematyki, Fizyki i Informatyki UNIWERSYTET GDAŃSKI I. Background theory. 1. Electromagnetic waves and their properties. 2. Polarisation of light: a) unpolarised

More information

Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03. The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington

Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03. The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington Rigaku XRD-System Instruction Manual v4/19/03 The Krishnan Group/Wilcox 132, University of Washington Contents: - General information - Safety - How to turn on the X-rays - How to turn off the X-rays -

More information

Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance. Dr. Steven R. Best. Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013

Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance. Dr. Steven R. Best. Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013 Antenna Properties and their impact on Wireless System Performance Dr. Steven R. Best Cushcraft Corporation 48 Perimeter Road Manchester, NH 03013 Phone (603) 627-7877 FAX: (603) 627-1764 Email: sbest@cushcraft.com

More information

Introduction Assignment

Introduction Assignment PRE-CALCULUS 11 Introduction Assignment Welcome to PREC 11! This assignment will help you review some topics from a previous math course and introduce you to some of the topics that you ll be studying

More information

CHAPTER 3: DIGITAL IMAGING IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY. 3.1 Basic Concepts of Digital Imaging

CHAPTER 3: DIGITAL IMAGING IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY. 3.1 Basic Concepts of Digital Imaging Physics of Medical X-Ray Imaging (1) Chapter 3 CHAPTER 3: DIGITAL IMAGING IN DIAGNOSTIC RADIOLOGY 3.1 Basic Concepts of Digital Imaging Unlike conventional radiography that generates images on film through

More information

Status of the FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser

Status of the FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser Status of the FERMI@Elettra Free Electron Laser E. Allaria on behalf of the FERMI team Work partially supported by the Italian Ministry of University and Research under grants FIRB-RBAP045JF2 and FIRB-RBAP06AWK3

More information

G482 Electrons, Waves and Photons; Revision Notes Module 1: Electric Current

G482 Electrons, Waves and Photons; Revision Notes Module 1: Electric Current G482 Electrons, Waves and Photons; Revision Notes Module 1: Electric Current Electric Current A net flow of charged particles. Electrons in a metal Ions in an electrolyte Conventional Current A model used

More information

Chapter 1 High-Resolution Optical and Confocal Microscopy

Chapter 1 High-Resolution Optical and Confocal Microscopy Chapter 1 High-Resolution Optical and Confocal Microscopy Olaf Hollricher and Wolfram Ibach Abstract In this chapter, the theory of optical image formation in an optical microscope is described, and the

More information

Computer Vision: Machine Vision Filters. Computer Vision. Optical Filters. 25 August 2014

Computer Vision: Machine Vision Filters. Computer Vision. Optical Filters. 25 August 2014 Computer Vision Optical Filters 25 August 2014 Copyright 2001 2014 by NHL Hogeschool, Van de Loosdrecht Machine Vision BV and Klaas Dijkstra All rights reserved j.van.de.loosdrecht@nhl.nl, jaap@vdlmv.nl,

More information

Experimental results for the focal waveform and beam width in the focusing lens with a 100 ps filter

Experimental results for the focal waveform and beam width in the focusing lens with a 100 ps filter EM Implosion Memos Memo 51 July, 2010 Experimental results for the focal waveform and beam width in the focusing lens with a 100 ps filter Prashanth Kumar, Carl E. Baum, Serhat Altunc, Christos G. Christodoulou

More information

Bloodstain Pattern Simulations: A Physical Analysis Tim Morrison, Parkway South High School, Manchester, MO

Bloodstain Pattern Simulations: A Physical Analysis Tim Morrison, Parkway South High School, Manchester, MO Bloodstain Pattern Simulations: A Physical Analysis Tim Morrison, Parkway South High School, Manchester, MO INTRODUCTION To close the yellow note, click once to select it and then click the box in the

More information

Correcting the Lateral Response Artifact in Radiochromic Film Images from Flatbed Scanners

Correcting the Lateral Response Artifact in Radiochromic Film Images from Flatbed Scanners Correcting the Lateral Response Artifact in Radiochromic Film Images from Flatbed Scanners Background The lateral response artifact (LRA) in radiochromic film images from flatbed scanners was first pointed

More information

Large FOV Mobile E-O Telescope for Searching and Tracking Low-orbit Micro-satellites and Space Debris

Large FOV Mobile E-O Telescope for Searching and Tracking Low-orbit Micro-satellites and Space Debris Large FOV Mobile E-O Telescope for earching and Tracking Low-orbit Micro-satellites and pace Debris WANG Jian-li 1, GAO Xin, TANG Jia, HAN Chang-yuan 1, ZHAO Jin-yu 1 1 Changchun Institute of Optics, Fine

More information

Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body

Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body G.1 EE1.el3 (EEE1023): Electronics III Mechanics lecture 7 Moment of a force, torque, equilibrium of a body Dr Philip Jackson http://www.ee.surrey.ac.uk/teaching/courses/ee1.el3/ G.2 Moments, torque and

More information