Study Guide for Exam on Light

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2 Name: 12. When incoming rays of light strike a flat mirror at an angle close to the surface of the mirror, the reflected rays are a. inclined high above the mirror s surface. b. parallel to the mirror s surface. c. perpendicular to the mirror s surface. d. close to the mirror s surface. 13. When a straight line is drawn perpendicular to a flat mirror at the point where an incoming ray strikes the mirror s surface, the angles of incidence and reflection are measured from the normal and a. the angles of incidence and reflection are equal. b. the angle of incidence is greater than the angle of reflection. c. the angle of incidence is less than the angle of reflection. d. the angle of incidence can be greater than or less than the angle of reflection. 14. When two parallel mirrors are placed so that their reflective sides face one another, images form. This is because the image in one mirror becomes the for the other mirror. a. multiple; object c. inverted; center of curvature b. reduced; virtual image d. enlarged; focal point 15. If you stand 3.0 m in front of a flat mirror, how far away from you would your image be in the mirror? a. 1.5 m c. 6.0 m b. 3.0 m d m 16. Which of the following best describes the image produced by a flat mirror? a. virtual, inverted, and magnification greater than one b. real, inverted, and magnification less than one c. virtual, upright, and magnification equal to one d. real, upright, and magnification equal to one 17. When the reflection of an object is seen in a flat mirror, the distance from the mirror to the image depends on a. the wavelength of light used for viewing. b. the distance from the object to the mirror. c. the distance of both the observer and the object to the mirror. d. the size of the object. 18. A concave mirror forms a real image at 25 cm from the mirror surface along the principal axis. If the corresponding object is at a 10.0 cm distance, what is the mirror s focal length? a. 1.4 cm c. 12 cm b. 17 cm d. 7.1 cm 19. A concave mirror forms a real image at 17 cm from the mirror surface along the principal axis. If the corresponding object is at a 36 cm distance, what is the mirror s focal length? a. 19 cm c. 12 cm b. 47 cm d. 26 cm 20. A concave mirror forms a real image at 42 cm from the mirror surface along the principal axis. If the corresponding object is at a 88 cm distance, what is the mirror s focal length? a. 28 cm c. 12 cm b. 17 cm d. 9 cm 21. If a virtual image is formed 10.0 cm along the principal axis from a convex mirror with a focal length of 15.0 cm, what is the object s distance from the mirror? a cm c. 6.0 cm b. 12 cm d. 3.0 cm 2

3 Name: 22. In the diagram above, the image of object B would be a. virtual, enlarged, and inverted. c. virtual, reduced, and upright. b. real, enlarged, and upright. d. virtual, enlarged, and upright. 23. In the diagram above, the image of object B would be a. real, reduced, and upright. c. virtual, reduced, and inverted. b. virtual, enlarged, and upright. d. virtual, reduced, and upright. 24. When the reflection of an object is seen in a flat mirror, the image is a. real and upright. c. virtual and upright. b. real and inverted. d. virtual and inverted. 25. When parallel rays that are also parallel to the principal axis strike a spherical mirror, rays that strike the mirror the principal axis are focused at the focal point. Those rays that strike the mirror the principal axis are focused at points between the mirror and the focal point. a. perpendicular to; far from c. close to; far from b. close to; perpendicular to d. far from; close to 26. A parabolic mirror, instead of a spherical mirror, can be used to reduce the occurrence of which effect? a. spherical aberration c. chromatic aberration b. mirages d. light scattering 27. Which of the following is NOT an additive primary color? a. yellow c. red b. blue d. green 28. What color does yellow pigment subtract from white light? a. blue c. yellow b. red d. green 29. What color does blue pigment subtract from white light? a. blue c. violet b. red d. green 3

4 Name: 30. Which of the following is NOT a primary subtractive color? a. yellow c. magenta b. cyan d. blue 31. A wave on a rope approaches two gratings in a row. The wave is polarized parallel to grating 1 and perpendicular to grating 2. The wave passes through a. only grating 1. c. both gratings. b. only grating 2. d. neither grating. 32. As the angle is between the electric-field waves and the transmission axis increases, a. the component of light that passes through the polarizer decreases and the brightness of the light decreases. b. the component of light that passes through the polarizer decreases and the brightness of the light increases. c. the component of light that passes through the polarizer increases and the brightness of the light decreases. d. the component of light that passes through the polarizer increases and the brightness of the light increases. 33. When the transmission axis is perpendicular to the plane of polarization for light, a. all the light passes through. c. little of the light passes through. b. most of the light passes through. d. no light passes through. 34. Part of a pencil that is placed in a glass of water appears bent in relation to the part of the pencil that extends out of the water. What is this phenomenon called? a. interference c. diffraction b. refraction d. reflection 35. Refraction is the term for the bending of a wave disturbance as it passes at an angle from one into another. a. glass c. area b. medium d. boundary 36. Which is an example of refraction? a. A parabolic mirror in a headlight focuses light into a beam. b. A fish appears closer to the surface of the water than it really is when observed from a riverbank. c. In a mirror, when you lift your right arm, the left arm of your image is raised. d. Light is bent slightly around corners. 37. The of light can change when light is refracted because the wavelength changes. a. frequency c. color b. media d. transparency 38. Light is NOT refracted when it is a. traveling from air into a glass of water at an angle of 35 to the normal. b. traveling from water into air at an angle of 35 to the normal. c. striking a wood surface. d. traveling from air into a diamond at an angle of When light passes at an angle to the normal from one material into another material in which its speed is higher, a. it is bent toward the normal to the surface. b. it always lies along the normal to the surface. c. it is unaffected. d. it is bent away from the normal to the surface. 4

5 Name: 40. When light passes at an angle to the normal from one material into another material in which its speed is lower, a. it is bent toward the normal to the surface. b. it always lies along the normal to the surface. c. it is unaffected. d. it is bent away from the normal to the surface. 41. When a light ray passes from zircon (n = 1.923) into fluorite (n = 1.434) at an angle of 60, its path is a. bent toward the normal. c. parallel to the normal. b. bent away from the normal. d. not bent. 42. An object is placed along the principal axis of a thin converging lens that has a focal length of 30.0 cm. If the distance from the object to the lens is 40.0 cm, what is the distance from the image to the lens? a cm c m b cm d m 43. An object is placed 6.0 cm from a thin converging lens along the axis of the lens. The lens has a focal length of 9.0 cm. What is the distance from the image to the lens? a. 3.0 cm c. 18 cm b. 3.0 cm d. 18 cm 44. An object is placed 14.0 cm from a diverging lens. If a virtual image appears 10.0 cm from the lens on the same side as the object, what is the focal length of the lens? a cm c cm b. 35 cm d. 8.0 cm 45. A film projector produces a 1.51 m image of a horse on a screen. If the projector lens is 4.00 m from the screen and the size of the horse on the film is 1.07 cm, what is the magnification of the image? a. 141 c b d An object that is 18 cm from a converging lens forms a real image 22.5 cm from the lens. What is the magnification of the image? a c b d In the diagram of a compound microscope above, where would you place the slide? a. at O c. at F 0 b. at I 2 d. at I 1 5

6 Name: 48. Which of the following describes what will happen to a light ray incident on a glass-to-air boundary at greater than the critical angle? a. total reflection c. partial reflection, partial transmission b. total transmission d. partial reflection, total transmission 49. If atmospheric refraction did not occur, how would the apparent time of sunrise and sunset be changed? a. Both would be later. b. Both would be earlier. c. Sunrise would be later, and sunset would be earlier. d. Sunrise would be earlier, and sunset would be later. 50. Which is NOT correct when describing the formation of rainbows? a. A rainbow is really spherical in nature. b. Sunlight is spread into a spectrum when it enters a spherical raindrop. c. Sunlight is internally reflected on the back side of a raindrop. d. The angle between the incident white light and the returning violet ray is In a double-slit interference pattern the path length from one slit to the first dark fringe of a double-slit interference pattern is longer than the path length from the other slit to the fringe by a. three-quarters of a wavelength. c. one-quarter of a wavelength. b. one-half of a wavelength. d. one full wavelength. 52. Interference effects observed in the early 1800s were instrumental in supporting a concept of the existence of which property of light? a. polarization c. wave nature b. particle nature d. electromagnetic character 53. In Young s double-slit experiment, a wave from one slit arrives at a point on a screen one wavelength behind the wave from the other slit. What is observed at that point? a. dark fringe c. multicolored fringe b. bright fringe d. gray fringe, neither dark nor bright 54. In order to produce a sustained interference pattern by light waves from multiple sources, which condition or conditions must be met? a. Sources must be coherent. b. Sources must be monochromatic. c. Sources must be coherent and monochromatic. d. Sources must be neither coherent nor monochromatic. 55. Two beams of coherent light are shining on the same sheet of white paper. When referring to the crests and troughs of such waves, where will darkness appear on the paper? a. where the crest from one wave overlaps the crest from the other b. where the crest from one wave overlaps the trough from the other c. where the troughs from both waves overlap d. Darkness cannot occur because the two waves are coherent. 56. For stable interference to occur, the phase difference must be a. V C. c. 1 2 b. cλ. d. constant. 57. The distance between the two slits in a double-slit experiment is 0.04 mm. The second-order bright fringe ( m = 2) is measured on a screen at an angle of 2.2 from the central maximum. What is the wavelength of the light? a. 560 nm c. 750 nm b. 630 nm d. 770 nm 6

7 Name: 58. The distance between two slits in a double-slit experiment is m. The first-order bright fringe is measured on a screen at an angle of 12 from the central maximum. What is the wavelength of the light? a. 3.1 l0 3 nm c. 6.0 l0 2 nm b nm d nm 59. At the first dark band in a single-slit diffraction pattern, the path lengths of selected pairs of wavelets differ by a. one wavelength. c. one-half wavelength. b. more than one wavelength. d. less than half of one wavelength. 60. Monochromatic light shines on the surface of a diffraction grating with lines/cm. The first-order maximum is observed at a 20.0 angle. Find the wavelength. a. 520 nm c. 680 nm b. 480 nm d. 360 nm 61. Light with a wavelength of nm passes through a lines/cm diffraction grating. What is the second-order angle of diffraction? a c b d Light with a wavelength of nm passes through a lines/m diffraction grating. What is the first-order angle of diffraction? a c b d Light with a wavelength of nm passes through a lines/cm diffraction grating. What is the first-order angle of diffraction? a c b d For high resolution in optical instruments, the angle between resolved objects should be a. as small as possible. c b. as large as possible. d If light waves are coherent, a. they shift over time. b. their intensity is less than that of incoherent light. c. they remain in phase. d. they have less than three different wavelengths. 66. Energy can be added to a. stimulated emission. c. light amplification. b. an active medium. d. a ray. 67. Which of the following is the process of using a light wave to produce more waves with properties identical to those of the first wave? a. stimulated emission c. hologram b. active medium d. bandwidth 68. Which of the following is a device that produces an intense, nearly parallel beam of coherent light? a. spectroscope c. laser b. telescope. d. diffraction grating 69. A laser CANNOT be used a. to treat glaucoma. c. to read bar codes. b. to measure distance. d. to reverse heart-attack damage. 7

8 Name: Short Answer 70. What type of reflection is illustrated in the figure above? 71. What type of reflection is illustrated in the figure above? 72. When rays of light are incident upon a spherical mirror far from the principal axis, fuzzy images form. What is this characteristic of spherical mirrors? 73. Spherical aberration may be avoided by employing a mirror or by making sure that the diameter of a spherical mirror is sufficiently. 74. The focal point and center of curvature of a spherical mirror all lie along the. 75. Why are some primary colors called additive? 76. What occurs when beams of light of three primary colors are combined? 77. What occurs when light passed through a red filter is combined with light passed through a green filter? 78. What occurs when yellow light is combined with blue light? 79. What occurs when subtractive primary colors are combined? 80. What color results when yellow and blue pigment are combined? 81. How is the brightness of a light source affected by distance? 82. When does refraction occur? 83. How are two converging lenses used to view an object in a compound microscope? 84. Why is it impossible to see an atom with a compound microscope? 85. In a refracting telescope, why does the eyepiece act as a simple magnifier? 8

9 Name: 86. In a refracting telescope, is the image upright or inverted? Explain. 87. At the end of the day, why are we able to see the sun after it has passed below the horizon? 88. What atmospheric conditions produce a mirage? 89. Why do motorists sometimes see what appear to be wet spots on the road on a dry summer day? 90. Use the figure above to describe how a mirage is produced. 91. What is dispersion? 92. How does white light passing through a prism produce a visible spectrum? 93. What does the perceived color of each water droplet in a rainbow depend on? 94. What is the position and kind of image produced by the lens above? Draw a ray diagram to support your answer. 95. What is the position and kind of image produced by the lens above? Draw a ray diagram to support your answer. 9

10 Name: 96. The dark lines in a double-slit interference pattern are due to interference, and the bright lines are due to interference. 97. Describe the pattern that results from the single-slit diffraction of monochromatic light. 98. What is resolving power? 99. Why is the resolving power for optical telescopes on Earth limited? 100. What are the advantages of using a "laser knife" in surgical procedures? 101. How is a laser used in a compact disc player? 102. How are lasers used to determine the distance from Earth to the moon? 10

11 Study Guide for Exam on Light Answer Section MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ:

12 40. ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: B PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: C PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: D PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: SHORT ANSWER 70. ANS: diffuse PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: specular PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: spherical aberration PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ:

13 73. ANS: parabolic; small PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: principal axis PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: When they are added in varying proportions, they can form all of the colors of the spectrum. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: They form white light. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Yellow light appears. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: White or colorless light appears. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: When they are combined, they filter out all light. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: green PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Brightness decreases by the square of the distance from the source. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: Refraction occurs when light s velocity changes. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: An object placed just outside the focal length of the objective lens forms a real, inverted image just inside the focal point of the eyepiece. This eyepiece, the second lens, serves to magnify the image. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ:

14 84. ANS: In order to be seen, the object under a microscope must be at least as large as a wavelength of light. An atom is several times smaller than a wavelength of visible light. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: It acts as a simple magnifier because it is positioned so that its focal point lies very close to the focal point of the objective lens. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: It is inverted on the objective lens, and the eyepiece magnifies this inverted object. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Rays of light from the sun strike Earth s atmosphere and are bent because the atmosphere has an index of refraction different from that of the near-vacuum of space. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A mirage may be produced when the ground is so hot that the air above the ground is warmer than air at higher altitudes. The difference in temperature causes the air to have different indexes of refraction, so refraction occurs. This sends light from the sky upward into an observer s eyes. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Light rays from the blue sky above are refracted by the warm air next to the dark, hot road and end up traveling upward into the motorists eyes. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: In this situation, the observer sees the palm tree in two different ways. One group of light rays reaches the observer by the straight-line path A. In addition, a second group of rays travels along the curved path B because of refraction. Consequently, the observer also sees an inverted image of the palm tree. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Dispersion is the process of separating polychromatic light into its component wavelengths because n is a function of wavelength for all material mediums. Snell s law says that the angles of refraction will be different for different wavelengths even if the angles of incidence are the same. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Each colored component of the incoming ray is refracted depending on its wavelength. The rays fan out from the second face of the prism to produce a visible spectrum. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ:

15 93. ANS: The perceived color depends on the angle at which that drop is viewed. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A real image will be produced between F and 2F. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: A real image will be produced outside 2F. PTS: 1 DIF: II OBJ: ANS: destructive; constructive PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: The pattern is one of alternation light and ark bands. The brightest light band is at the center. The light bands decrease in brightness as the distance from the center increases. PTS: 1 DIF: IIIB OBJ: ANS: Resolving power is the ability of an optical instrument to separate two images that are close together. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ:

16 99. ANS: Constantly moving layers of air blur the light from objects in space and limit the resolving power. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: A "laser knife" cuts through tissue like a steel scalpel; however, the energy from the laser coagulates blood, sealing the blood vessels and preventing blood loss and infection. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Light from a laser passes through a glass plate and then a lens that directs it onto the compact disc. The reflection or lack of a reflection of the laser light is then read by a detector and the signal is sent through electrical circuits. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ: ANS: Astronomers direct a pulse of light toward one of several reflectors that were placed on the moon s surface by astronauts. The distance from Earth to the moon can be measured by finding the time the light takes to travel to the moon and back. PTS: 1 DIF: I OBJ:

17 Study Guide for Exam on Light [Answer Strip] D 12. D 30. A 40. A 31. C 1. A 13. A 32. B 41. B 2. D 22. C 42. C 3. A 14. D 43. D 4. A 5. C 15. C 16. D 33. B 34. B 44. A 6. A 45. C 7. B 17. D 23. C 24. B 35. B 36. A 46. A 8. D 18. C 25. C 19. C 37. A 9. D 10. A 20. A 26. A 27. C 38. D 11. A 21. A 28. D 39. A 47. B 29.

18 Study Guide for Exam on Light [Answer Strip] A 48. C 58. C 49. C 59. D 50. C 60. B 61. B 51. B 62. C 52. B 53. A 63. C 54. A 64. C 65. B 55. B 66. A 67. D 56. C 68. D 57. D 69.

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