Fraunhofer Diffraction

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Fraunhofer Diffraction"

Transcription

1 Physics 334 Spring 1 Purpose Fraunhofer Diffraction The experiment will test the theory of Fraunhofer diffraction at a single slit by comparing a careful measurement of the angular dependence of intensity of diffracted laser light with predictions of the theory. A qualitative overview of interference and diffraction phenomena will round off the experiment. Light waves are known to be transversely polarized waves. Unfortunately, the majority of diffraction problems of practical interest can be solved only for the simpler case of waves in a scalar field. The lack of a sound fundamental basis for diffraction theory emphasizes the need for experimental tests of its ability to correctly predict optical phenomena. Introduction "Diffraction" refers to the spreading of waves and appearance of fringes that occur when a wave front is constricted by an aperture in a screen that is otherwise opaque. The light pattern changes as you move away from the aperture, being characterized by three regions. Plane waves Intensity profiles X θμιν Z OA Intensity Aperture Shadow Fresnel Diffraction Z ~ a /λ Fraunhofer Diffraction Figure 3.1 Diffraction of plane waves at an aperture. 1. In the shadow region, close to the aperture, the boundary of the transmitted light is sharp and resembles the aperture in shape.. As you move away into the Fresnel region, the beam width remains comparable to that in the aperture, but narrow fringes appear at the edges. 3. Far away, in the Fraunhofer region, the beam spreads to a width much greater than that of the aperture and is flanked by many weaker fringes. Fraunhofer Diffraction 3.1 Spring 1

2 The Fraunhofer region is chosen for the experiment because the broader fringes are easier to measure with an optical detector of finite aperture, and the calculations are more straightforward than in region. y x R r P(x,y) x y Z axis Incident waves Aperture da Figure 3.. Geometry for the Kirchoff-Fresnel diffraction integral. z Observation plane The Huygens-Fresnel principle governs diffraction phenomena: "Every unobstructed element of a wavefront acts as a source of spherical waves with the same frequency as the primary wave. The amplitude of the optical field beyond is a superposition of all these wavelets taking account of their amplitudes and phases." The Kirchoff-Fresnel diffraction integral gives quantitative expression to these ideas. Consider plane waves incident on an aperture from the left, as shown in Figure 3.. The incident field is described via: ikz ( ωt) E z, t = E e INC ( ) The field in the aperture i.e., where z=, is then INC (, ) G the wave front of area da' and at position r = ( x, y,) E t E e ω i t =. A typical element of then acts as a source of Huygens wavelets. Our light detector sits at a point P in the observation screen, at a vector distance, R, from the origin of the aperture. Note that the distance of the detector, P, from the element da', is given by: G G r = R r The field at P due to the element da' is then equal to: iωt ikr Ee e de ( P) = da λ r = Source strength Huygens spherical wave ( ) ( ) The field at P due to the entire aperture is then a superposition of the wavelets from all the elemental areas: Fraunhofer Diffraction 3. Spring 1

3 ( ) E P Aperture Area iωt ikr Ee e = da λ r The detector measures the light intensity at P, rather than the electric field strength. Intensity is given by the magnitude of the time averaged Poynting vector, S G = E G B G µ = E Z z. Therefore, the detector measures: ˆ ( ) = ( ) I P E P Z Where Z = µ ε = 377Ω is the characteristic impedance (the ratio of the electric field magnitude to the magnetic field magnitude) of free space. In the present experiment, the aperture is a slit of width, a, while the detector is a photodiode at position, P. Evaluation of the Kirchoff-Fresnel integral for the slit gives the following prediction for the diffracted intensity: xa sin π a z I( P( x, z) ) λ = I INC λz xa π λ z This prediction is subject to the condition that the observation point is far enough away so that z a λ. From a practical perspective, z 1a λ is sufficiently far away for the theory to be quite accurate. Notice that the formula applies to a situation in which plane waves of uniform intensity are incident normal to a long narrow slit of uniform width. The rays from different parts of the slit to a given observing point are effectively parallel (the Fraunhofer condition). The design of the experiment must mimic these conditions as closely as is possible. The condition on parallelism of rays is adequately satisfied at a distance of z 1a λ or more, since the error depends on the square of this quantity. The general form of the intensity equation as a function of detector position, x, at a fixed distance, z, from the slit is sketched below on linear and logarithmic scales. For the range of intensities that you are likely to measure, only the log scale can represent the weaker high order fringes. You should plot the data on 5 cycle log-linear graph paper. If you use a plotting program to display the data, again, be sure to use a logarithmic intensity scale. Fraunhofer Diffraction 3.3 Spring 1

4 Apparatus A beam expander increases the diameter of the laser beam so that the light is uniform over the width of the diffracting slit. The intensity of the diffracted light is measured with a photodiode. The photocurrent is determined from the voltage developed across a load resistor, using a digital multimeter. An analyzing slit of width, w, restricts the effective aperture of the photodiode so that the detailed shape of the diffraction pattern can be discerned. The photodiode and analyzing slit can be moved horizontally (the x-direction) by a calibrated translation stage driven by tuning a lead screw of pitch 1 mm. The revolution counter indicates the integral number of mm. Each small division on the calibrated knob represents.1 mm. Be sure to disengage the worm drive by tuning the lifting screw before use. diffracting analyzing R 9V slit slit Lx1 Lx I(x,z) He-Ne laser Beam expander a Photodiode Calibrated translation stage Figure 3.3 Experimental arrangement for Fraunhofer Diffraction. DMM lead screw (1mm pitch) Fraunhofer Diffraction 3.4 Spring 1

5 Outline of the Experiment 1. Set up the apparatus Make up the diffraction and analyzing slits from razor blades. Measure the width of each with the measuring microscope to % if possible. On the optic bench, set up the laser, beam expander, diffracting slit, and calibrated translator. Mount the photodiode with analyzing slit on the translator. With the laser on, check that all the light passing through the analyzing slit also enters the detector for all positions of the translator. Draw the appearance of the fringes. Connect the photodiode circuit. Check that the output is not saturated when the detector is at the center of the central maximum.. Measurements Test the symmetry. Measure the intensities and positions for all the measurable maxima and minima on both sides of the center. The theory predicts that the pattern should be symmetric about the center. If it is not symmetric, then either the experiment has problems or the theory is wrong (or both!). If there is an asymmetry, assume that it is the experiment. Fix the problem before you go ahead. It is most likely a combination of non-uniform slit width, tilted slit, and detector at the wrong height. For the main data run, measure intensity versus detector position with about 5 points per peak. Make a step-wise scan from the x= position, to the maximum positive x; then return step-wise through the x= position and out to the greatest negative x. Then return to zero. Why is this procedure necessary? Do you need to improve on the procedure? Graph your results on 5-cycle log-linear paper. Compare the intensity of the full laser beam with the intensity at the center of the central maximum. 3. Compare you data with the following predictions of the Kirchoff-Fresnel single-slit formula. For the zeros of intensity, the position of the n-th zero should satisfy: λz xn = n n = ± 1, ±, ± 3, " a Graph the quantity ax n /z versus n for the various zeros. This plot should give a line with a slope of λ. Calculate the value of λ and compare it to the result you found from the Ronchi grating in the Projection Microscope laboratory. For maxima of intensity, the relative intensity of the n-th subsidiary maximum is predicted to be approximately: Fraunhofer Diffraction 3.5 Spring 1

6 I n 1 = n = ± 1, ±, ± 3, " I( x = ) 1 π n + I Graph n 1 versus n + on log-log paper. We expect a slope of -. I( x = ) The intensity at the central maximum is predicted to be: I( x = ) a = I λz 4. Overview of interference and diffraction. INC In your experimental kit, you will find two transparency slides with several frames of circular apertures. Slide A has four rows and three columns with single circular and rectangular apertures (rows 1-4 in column A) and pairs of apertures with different separations (rows 1-4 in columns b and c). Slide B has single apertures and several arrays of apertures. You can use the inspection microscope to examine the slides. Examine the diffraction patterns produced with the transparencies and interpret what you see. Illuminate each frame separately, using an aperture to restrict the size of the laser beam. Change the frame by moving the transparency over the aperture. Stick some magnetic tape on the slide and use a steel aperture plate so that the magnetic force holds the slide in position. Shown below are some pictures of several of the patterns you should be able to find. Slide A 1a Slide A a Slide B 1b Slide B a Slide B 3b Fraunhofer Diffraction 3.6 Spring 1

7 Problems 1. Verify that the equations of part 3) in the experiment do indeed follow from the Kirchoff- Fresnel formula for single slit diffraction. Slit widths What is the maximum width, a, of the diffracting slit if it is to satisfy the condition for Fraunhofer diffraction when the detector is 1 meter away from the slit, assuming that the wavelength is.6 microns? Calculate the width, w, of the scanning slit such that it samples only one tenth of the width of a subsidiary fringe. This width is needed so that you can properly map the shape of each fringe. 3. Laser beam. What is the minimum diameter needed for the expanded laser beam if the intensity is to be uniform to within 5% over the width of the diffracting slit? In other words, what is the minimum diameter needed so that: I x = I x = a ( ) ( ) I( x = ) =.5 Assume that the beam has a Gaussian intensity distribution: I /e () r I r I e R = I 5% a 4. Geometric problems in setting up the experiment. D r a. If the diffracting slit is tapered instead of being uniform in width, what would the diffraction pattern look like? Sketch the fringes. What effect would it have on the intensity distribution observed with the photodiode? b. If the slit is uniform, but slightly off the vertical position, how would the diffraction pattern be changed? Suppose the detector is correctly positioned for the central fringe, due to the non-vertical slit and is constrained to move horizontally, how would the apparent intensities of the fringes be changed? Sketch roughly the logarithmic graphs for the correct and incorrect geometries. Fraunhofer Diffraction 3.7 Spring 1

2. Do Not use the laser without getting instructions from the demonstrator.

2. Do Not use the laser without getting instructions from the demonstrator. EXPERIMENT 3 Diffraction Pattern Measurements using a Laser Laser Safety The Helium Neon lasers used in this experiment and are of low power (0.5 milliwatts) but the narrow beam of light is still of high

More information

Optical Interference and Diffraction Laboratory: a Practical Guide

Optical Interference and Diffraction Laboratory: a Practical Guide Optical Interference and Diffraction Laboratory: a Practical Guide Authors: Amparo Pons, Universitat de València, Dept. of Optics, Spain amparo.pons-marti@uv.es Juan C. Barreiro, Universitat de València,

More information

PHYS2090 OPTICAL PHYSICS Laboratory Fresnel Zone Plate

PHYS2090 OPTICAL PHYSICS Laboratory Fresnel Zone Plate PHYS2090 OPTICAL PHYSICS Laboratory Fresnel Zone Plate References Hecht Optics, Addison-Wesley Smith & King, Optics and Photonics: An Introduction, Wiley Higbie, Fresnel Zone Plate: Anomalous foci, American

More information

Diffraction of light by a single slit, multiple slits and gratings

Diffraction of light by a single slit, multiple slits and gratings Institute for Nanostructure- and Solid State Physics Laboratory Experiments in Physics for Engineering Students Hamburg University, Jungiusstraße 11 Diffraction of light by a single slit, multiple slits

More information

PHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II. Experiment 12. Physical Optics: Diffraction, Interference, and Polarization of Light

PHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II. Experiment 12. Physical Optics: Diffraction, Interference, and Polarization of Light PHYSICS 171 UNIVERSITY PHYSICS LAB II Experiment 12 Physical Optics: Diffraction, Interference, and Polarization of Light Equipment: Supplies: Laser, photometer with optic probe, optical bench, and angular

More information

INTERFERENCE and DIFFRACTION

INTERFERENCE and DIFFRACTION Course and Section Date Names INTERFERENCE and DIFFRACTION Short description: In this experiment you will use interference effects to investigate the wave nature of light. In particular, you will measure

More information

physics 112N interference and diffraction

physics 112N interference and diffraction physics 112N interference and diffraction the limits of ray optics shadow of the point of a pin physics 112N 2 the limits of ray optics physics 112N 3 the limits of ray optics physics 112N 4 this is how

More information

Experiment #3: Interference and Diffraction

Experiment #3: Interference and Diffraction Experiment #3: Interference and Diffraction EYE HAZARD: never look directly into a laser! Starting with experiment #4, Please always bring a formatted high-density PC diskette with you to the lab. Purpose:

More information

Diffraction and Interference of Light

Diffraction and Interference of Light Diffraction and Interference of Light Theory: When light encounters an opaque barrier with an opening that is not too large relative to the wavelength, it will bend around the edges to illuminate the space

More information

Young s Two Slit Interference

Young s Two Slit Interference 4/7/ Young s Two Slit Interference Equipment Needed Flashlight Jack, Table Laser, HeNe Meter stick Multiple Slit Set Pasco Optics Bench Pasco Viewing Screen, Optics Bench Power Supply, Laser HeNe Ruler,

More information

CORNU S SPIRAL. Such diffraction is called Fraunhofer diffraction.

CORNU S SPIRAL. Such diffraction is called Fraunhofer diffraction. CORNU S SPIRAL If a parallel beam of light from a distant source encounters an obstacle, the shadow of the obstacle is not a simple geometric shadow but is, rather, a diffraction pattern. For example,

More information

Chapter Four: Interference

Chapter Four: Interference Chapter Four Interference CHAPTER OUTLINE 4.1 Superposition of Waves 4.2 Interference 4.2.1Theory of Interference 4.2.2Intensity Distribution 4.2.3Superposition of Incoherent Waves 4.2.4Superposition of

More information

Diffraction of a Circular Aperture

Diffraction of a Circular Aperture Diffraction of a Circular Aperture Diffraction can be understood by considering the wave nature of light. Huygen's principle, illustrated in the image below, states that each point on a propagating wavefront

More information

PHYS-2212 LAB Coulomb s Law and the Force between Charged Plates

PHYS-2212 LAB Coulomb s Law and the Force between Charged Plates PHYS-2212 LAB Coulomb s Law and the Force between Charged Plates Objectives To investigate the electrostatic force between charged metal plates and determine the electric permittivity of free space, ε

More information

WORLD OF LIGHT LABORATORY LAB 4 Diffraction and Interference

WORLD OF LIGHT LABORATORY LAB 4 Diffraction and Interference WORLD OF LIGHT LABORATORY LAB 4 Diffraction and Interference INTRODUCTION: Diffraction and interference are quintessential wavelike properties that essentially all waves exhibit but other things do not.

More information

Diffraction and Interference PRECAUTION

Diffraction and Interference PRECAUTION Diffraction and Interference Equipment laser, eye goggles, optical bench, slide holder, slide with 4 single slits, slide with 4 double slits, 11X14 in paper mounted on wall opposite to lab bench, masking

More information

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions

Interference. Physics 102 Workshop #3. General Instructions Interference Physics 102 Workshop #3 Name: Lab Partner(s): Instructor: Time of Workshop: General Instructions Workshop exercises are to be carried out in groups of three. One report per group is due by

More information

INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES

INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES 1/2016 Sound 1/8 INTERFERENCE OF SOUND WAVES PURPOSE: To measure the wavelength, frequency, and propagation speed of ultrasonic sound waves and to observe interference phenomena with ultrasonic sound waves.

More information

Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light Polarization of Light Introduction Light, viewed classically, is a transverse electromagnetic wave. Namely, the underlying oscillation (in this case oscillating electric and magnetic fields) is along directions

More information

CAUTION Laser radiation can cause retinal damage and blindness if allowed to be focused into the eye

CAUTION Laser radiation can cause retinal damage and blindness if allowed to be focused into the eye Interference and Diffraction of Light When two or more waves overlap at some point, they can add together so that the combined amplitude could be either greater or less than the amplitudes of the constituent

More information

Lab 9: The Acousto-Optic Effect

Lab 9: The Acousto-Optic Effect Lab 9: The Acousto-Optic Effect Incoming Laser Beam Travelling Acoustic Wave (longitudinal wave) O A 1st order diffracted laser beam A 1 Introduction qb d O 2qb rarefractions compressions Refer to Appendix

More information

Chapter 24. Wave Optics

Chapter 24. Wave Optics Chapter 24 Wave Optics Wave Optics The wave nature of light is needed to explain various phenomena. Interference Diffraction Polarization The particle nature of light was the basis for ray (geometric)

More information

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment

Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Diffraction and Young s Single Slit Experiment Developers AB Overby Objectives Preparation Background The objectives of this experiment are to observe Fraunhofer, or far-field, diffraction through a single

More information

PHYS 2212L - Principles of Physics Laboratory II

PHYS 2212L - Principles of Physics Laboratory II PHYS 2212L - Principles of Physics Laboratory II Laboratory Advanced Sheet Diffraction 1. Objectives. The objectives of this laboratory are a. To be able use a diffraction grating to measure the wavelength

More information

Electrical Resonance

Electrical Resonance Electrical Resonance (R-L-C series circuit) APPARATUS 1. R-L-C Circuit board 2. Signal generator 3. Oscilloscope Tektronix TDS1002 with two sets of leads (see Introduction to the Oscilloscope ) INTRODUCTION

More information

Interference and Diffraction

Interference and Diffraction Chapter 14 nterference and Diffraction 14.1 Superposition of Waves... 14-14. Young s Double-Slit Experiment... 14-4 Example 14.1: Double-Slit Experiment... 14-7 14.3 ntensity Distribution... 14-8 Example

More information

Optics. LD Physics Leaflets. Diffraction Gratings P Photonic experiments Optical Applications. Objects of the experiment.

Optics. LD Physics Leaflets. Diffraction Gratings P Photonic experiments Optical Applications. Objects of the experiment. PJD 2014-12 Optics Photonic experiments Optical Applications LD Physics Leaflets Diffraction Gratings Objects of the experiment Investigation the principle of gratings Measuring wavelength and grating

More information

FYSP 103/K2. FRAUNHOFER S DIFFRACTION

FYSP 103/K2. FRAUNHOFER S DIFFRACTION FYSP 103/K2. FRAUNHOFER S DIFFRACTION Goals for the measurement To illustrate the phenomena related to diffraction and interference with different slit systems To deepen the understanding of the theory

More information

Experiments with Diffraction

Experiments with Diffraction Experiments with iffraction Abbie Tippie (tippie@optics.rochester.edu) and Tammy Lee (talee@optics.rochester.edu) What is diffraction? When parallel waves of light are obstructed by a very small object

More information

ConcepTest Superposition. If waves A and B are superposed (that is, their amplitudes are added) the resultant wave is

ConcepTest Superposition. If waves A and B are superposed (that is, their amplitudes are added) the resultant wave is ConcepTest 24.1 Superposition If waves A and B are superposed (that is, their amplitudes are added) the resultant wave is 1) 2) 3) 4) ConcepTest 24.1 Superposition If waves A and B are superposed (that

More information

Activity 9.1 The Diffraction Grating

Activity 9.1 The Diffraction Grating Group Number (number on Intro Optics Kit):. PHY385H1F Introductory Optics Practicals Day 9 Diffraction November 28, 2011 Facilitator Name:. Record-Keeper Name: Time-keeper:. Computer/Wiki-master:. NOTE:

More information

Physics 1051 Laboratory #6 Diffraction. CD Diffraction

Physics 1051 Laboratory #6 Diffraction. CD Diffraction CD Diffraction Contents Part I: Setup Part II: The Diffraction Grating Part III: CD Groove Spacing Part I: Introduction One of the goals in this lab is to use a diffraction grating to determine the wavelength

More information

Interferometers. OBJECTIVES To examine the operation of several kinds of interferometers. d sin = n (1)

Interferometers. OBJECTIVES To examine the operation of several kinds of interferometers. d sin = n (1) Interferometers The true worth of an experimenter consists in his pursuing not only what he seeks in his experiment, but also what he did not seek. Claude Bernard (1813-1878) OBJECTIVES To examine the

More information

Optics. Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson. LD Physics Leaflets P5.6.1.

Optics. Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson. LD Physics Leaflets P5.6.1. Optics Velocity of light Measurement according to Foucault/Michelson LD Physics Leaflets P5.6.1.1 Determining the velocity of light by means of the rotating-mirror method according to Foucault and Michelson

More information

Young s Double Slit Experiment

Young s Double Slit Experiment Young s Double Slit Experiment Apparatus optics bench laser slit film screen white paper and tape pencil metric ruler Ocean Optics spectrometer and fiber optics cable Goal In this experiment, you will

More information

with functions, expressions and equations which follow in units 3 and 4.

with functions, expressions and equations which follow in units 3 and 4. Grade 8 Overview View unit yearlong overview here The unit design was created in line with the areas of focus for grade 8 Mathematics as identified by the Common Core State Standards and the PARCC Model

More information

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm?

6) How wide must a narrow slit be if the first diffraction minimum occurs at ±12 with laser light of 633 nm? Test IV Name 1) In a single slit diffraction experiment, the width of the slit is 3.1 10-5 m and the distance from the slit to the screen is 2.2 m. If the beam of light of wavelength 600 nm passes through

More information

Laboratory 6: Diffraction and Interference

Laboratory 6: Diffraction and Interference Laboratory 6: Diffraction and Interference Renjie Li ID: 804291044 Physics 4BL Lab 8 May 20th 2015 Partner: Christine Truong TA: Eddie S. 1 Introduction In this lab, we will be performing experiments that

More information

Lab Report on Diffraction and Interference

Lab Report on Diffraction and Interference Lab Report on Diffraction and Interference Michael Goerz, Anton Haase 30. September 2005 GP II Tutor: M. Fushitani 1 Introduction We will do the experiment using the He-Ne-laser instead of the Na-lamp.

More information

EXPERIMENT 4. Microwave Experiments. Introduction. Experimental Procedure. Part 1 : Double Slit

EXPERIMENT 4. Microwave Experiments. Introduction. Experimental Procedure. Part 1 : Double Slit EXPERIMENT 4 Microwave Experiments Introduction Microwaves are electromagnetic radiation in the centimeter range of wavelengths. As such, they, like light, will exhibit typical wave properties like interference

More information

Polarization of Light

Polarization of Light Polarization of Light References Halliday/Resnick/Walker Fundamentals of Physics, Chapter 33, 7 th ed. Wiley 005 PASCO EX997A and EX999 guide sheets (written by Ann Hanks) weight Exercises and weights

More information

INTERFERENCE. Physics 122 June 2, 2006

INTERFERENCE. Physics 122 June 2, 2006 Physics 122 June 2, 2006 http://www.physics.sfsu.edu/~manuals/ph122/ I. Theory INTERFERENCE This laboratory will investigate the phenomenon of interference. The interference and diffraction of light waves

More information

EM Waves Practice Problems

EM Waves Practice Problems EM Waves Practice Problems PSI AP Physics B Name Multiple Choice 1. Which of the following theories can explain the bending of waves behind obstacles into shadow region? (A) Particle theory of light (B)

More information

Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance. Theory

Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance. Theory Physics 41, Winter 1998 Lab 1 - The Current Balance Theory Consider a point at a perpendicular distance d from a long straight wire carrying a current I as shown in figure 1. If the wire is very long compared

More information

Lecture 4. Physics 1502: Lecture 34 Today s Agenda

Lecture 4. Physics 1502: Lecture 34 Today s Agenda Physics 1502: Lecture 34 Today s Agenda Announcements: Midterm 2: graded soon Homework 09: Friday December 4 Optics Interference Diffraction» Introduction to diffraction» Diffraction from narrow slits»

More information

PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XIII

PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XIII PHYS-2020: General Physics II Course Lecture Notes Section XIII Dr. Donald G. Luttermoser East Tennessee State University Edition 4.0 Abstract These class notes are designed for use of the instructor and

More information

Young s Double-Slit Interference Experiment

Young s Double-Slit Interference Experiment Physics 4 Laboratory Young s Double-Slit Interference Experiment Prelab Exercise Please read the Procedure section and try to understand the physics involved and how the experimental procedure works. These

More information

Experiment 1 Wave Phenomena: Interference

Experiment 1 Wave Phenomena: Interference Experiment 1 Wave Phenomena: Interference 1. Objectives Observe the wave-characteristic of light using diffraction and interference. Apply the law of diffraction to find the wavelength of the light and

More information

PREVIOUS 8 YEARS QUESTIONS (1 mark & 2 marks) 1 mark questions

PREVIOUS 8 YEARS QUESTIONS (1 mark & 2 marks) 1 mark questions 230 PREVIOUS 8 YEARS QUESTIONS (1 mark & 2 marks) 1 mark questions 1. An object is held at the principal focus of a concave lens of focal length f. Where is the image formed? (AISSCE 2008) Ans: That is

More information

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli

Lecture PowerPoints. Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli Lecture PowerPoints Chapter 24 Physics: Principles with Applications, 7th edition Giancoli This work is protected by United States copyright laws and is provided solely for the use of instructors in teaching

More information

LIGHT DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE

LIGHT DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE LIGHT DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE LAB LIGH 4 From PASCO Scientific Laborator Notes INTRODUCTION That light is a wave phenomena is dramaticall observed with a well-collimated monochromatic light beam incidence

More information

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light

AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light AP Physics B Ch. 23 and Ch. 24 Geometric Optics and Wave Nature of Light Name: Period: Date: MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Reflection,

More information

Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets. Wave Nature of Light

Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets. Wave Nature of Light Wave Nature of Light Christian Huygen Light is a wave, not merely a ray As waves propagate each point on the wavefront produces new wavelets Chapter 24 Wavelength Changes Wavelength of light changes in

More information

CH 35. Interference. A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science.

CH 35. Interference. A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science. CH 35 Interference [SHIVOK SP212] March 17, 2016 I. Optical Interference: A. Interference of light waves, applied in many branches of science. B. The blue of the top surface of a Morpho butterfly wing

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Exam Name MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A single slit forms a diffraction pattern, with the first minimum at an angle of 40 from

More information

Lab 7: Fabry-Perot Interferometer

Lab 7: Fabry-Perot Interferometer Lab 7: Fabry-Perot Interferometer 1 Introduction Refer to Appendix D for photos of the apparatus A Fabry-Perot interferometer is a device that uses multiple beam interference of light for high resolution

More information

Diffraction of Laser Light

Diffraction of Laser Light Diffraction of Laser Light No Prelab Introduction The laser is a unique light source because its light is coherent and monochromatic. Coherent light is made up of waves, which are all in phase. Monochromatic

More information

Phase Manipulation and Young s Double Slit R. M. Kiehn and Lowell T. Wood Department of Physics University of Houston Houston, Texas

Phase Manipulation and Young s Double Slit R. M. Kiehn and Lowell T. Wood Department of Physics University of Houston Houston, Texas Phase Manipulation and Young s Double Slit R. M. Kiehn and Lowell T. Wood Department of Physics University of Houston Houston, Texas 77204-5506 First published on the web 11/17/97, updated 02/16/2000,

More information

Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 )

Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) 1 of 14 2/22/2016 11:28 PM Signed in as Weida Wu, Instructor Help Sign Out Rutgers Analytical Physics 750:228, Spring 2016 ( RUPHY228S16 ) My Courses Course Settings University Physics with Modern Physics,

More information

Ch 24 Wave Optics. concept questions #8, 11 problems #1, 3, 9, 15, 19, 31, 45, 48, 53

Ch 24 Wave Optics. concept questions #8, 11 problems #1, 3, 9, 15, 19, 31, 45, 48, 53 Ch 24 Wave Optics concept questions #8, 11 problems #1, 3, 9, 15, 19, 31, 45, 48, 53 Light is a wave so interference can occur. Interference effects for light are not easy to observe because of the short

More information

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING

WAVELENGTH OF LIGHT - DIFFRACTION GRATING PURPOSE In this experiment we will use the diffraction grating and the spectrometer to measure wavelengths in the mercury spectrum. THEORY A diffraction grating is essentially a series of parallel equidistant

More information

EXPERIMENT 8. To Determine the Wavelength of Sodium Light using Newton s Rings. Introduction. Background

EXPERIMENT 8. To Determine the Wavelength of Sodium Light using Newton s Rings. Introduction. Background EXPERIMENT 8 To Determine the Wavelength of Sodium Light using Newton s Rings Introduction Please read additional instructions on the bench for setting up the PC and camera for this experiment Newton s

More information

PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge

PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge Chapter 27 Solutions PSS 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge Description: Knight Problem-Solving Strategy 27.2 The Electric Field of a Continuous Distribution of Charge is illustrated.

More information

Purpose of the experiment

Purpose of the experiment Modern Physics Lab Spectroscopy Purpose of the experiment Familiarize you with advanced experimental techniques and equipment. Learn how to identify various elements by their emission spectrum. Background

More information

(a) (i) Label the diagram of the human eye to show the lens, retina and optic nerve.

(a) (i) Label the diagram of the human eye to show the lens, retina and optic nerve. Practice Test: 28 marks (42 minutes) Additional Problem: 37 marks (56 minutes) 1. This question is about the human eye. (a) (i) Label the diagram of the human eye to show the lens, retina and optic nerve.

More information

Interference & Diffraction

Interference & Diffraction Purpose A single-slit diffraction pattern results when a light beam passes through a single narrow aperture, or slit, whose width is not too much larger than a wavelength. A double-slit interference pattern

More information

Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water

Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water Experiment (8) Using light scattering method to find The surface tension of water The aim of work: The goals of this experiment are to confirm the relationship between angular frequency and wave vector

More information

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND

DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND DOING PHYSICS WITH MATLAB COMPUTATIONAL OPTICS RAYLEIGH-SOMMERFELD DIFFRACTION INTEGRAL OF THE FIRST KIND THE THREE-DIMENSIONAL DISTRIBUTION OF THE RADIANT FLUX DENSITY AT THE FOCUS OF A CONVERGENCE BEAM

More information

Chapter 38: Diffraction (interference part 2)

Chapter 38: Diffraction (interference part 2) Chapter 38: Diffraction (interference part 2) Diffraction is an interference effect like in Ch 37, but usually refers more specifically to bending of waves around obstacles (similar to refraction). Diffraction

More information

Modern Classical Optics

Modern Classical Optics Modern Classical Optics GEOFFREY BROOKER Department of Physics University of Oxford OXPORD UNIVERSITY PRESS Contents 1 Electromagnetism and basic optics 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 The Maxwell equations 1

More information

Activity P35: Light Intensity in Double-Slit and Single-Slit Diffraction Patterns (Light Sensor, Rotary Motion Sensor)

Activity P35: Light Intensity in Double-Slit and Single-Slit Diffraction Patterns (Light Sensor, Rotary Motion Sensor) Activity P35: Light Intensity in Double-Slit and Single-Slit Diffraction Patterns (Light Sensor, Rotary Motion Sensor) Concept DataStudio ScienceWorkshop (Mac) ScienceWorkshop (Win) Interference P35 Diffraction.ds

More information

Measurement of the Speed of Light in Air

Measurement of the Speed of Light in Air Measurement of the Speed of Light in Air Speed of Light 1 Measuring the speed of something is a familiar process, just measure the time it takes to travel a given distance. But as Galileo discover, light

More information

EP225 Note No. 7 Wave Interference and Di raction

EP225 Note No. 7 Wave Interference and Di raction EP5 Note No. 7 Wave Interference and Di raction 7.1 Superposition of Two Waves of Equal Wavelength When two waves of equal amplitude and wavelength, but with a phase di erence are superposed, E 0 sin(k!t)

More information

Physics 122 (Sonnenfeld), Spring 2013 ( MPSONNENFELDS2013 ) My Courses Course Settings

Physics 122 (Sonnenfeld), Spring 2013 ( MPSONNENFELDS2013 ) My Courses Course Settings Signed in as Richard Sonnenfeld, Instructor Help Sign Out Physics 122 (Sonnenfeld), Spring 2013 ( MPSONNENFELDS2013 ) My Courses Course Settings Course Home Assignments Roster Gradebook Item Library Essential

More information

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators

A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators A Guide to Acousto-Optic Modulators D. J. McCarron December 7, 2007 1 Introduction Acousto-optic modulators (AOMs) are useful devices which allow the frequency, intensity and direction of a laser beam

More information

Objectives 450 CHAPTER 10 LIGHT AND OPTICAL SYSTEMS

Objectives 450 CHAPTER 10 LIGHT AND OPTICAL SYSTEMS Objectives Use wave properties to explain interference and diffraction of light. Explain how double slits, a diffraction grating, a single slit, and an aperture produce interference patterns. Use measurements

More information

Mathematics Common Core Cluster. Mathematics Common Core Standard. Domain

Mathematics Common Core Cluster. Mathematics Common Core Standard. Domain Mathematics Common Core Domain Mathematics Common Core Cluster Mathematics Common Core Standard Number System Know that there are numbers that are not rational, and approximate them by rational numbers.

More information

Chapter 14. Interference and Diffraction

Chapter 14. Interference and Diffraction Chapter 14 Interference and Diffraction 14.1 Superposition of Waves... 14-14.1.1 Interference Conditions for Light Sources... 14-4 14. Young s Double-Slit Experiment... 14-4 Example 14.1: Double-Slit Experiment...

More information

Students will understand 1. use numerical bases and the laws of exponents

Students will understand 1. use numerical bases and the laws of exponents Grade 8 Expressions and Equations Essential Questions: 1. How do you use patterns to understand mathematics and model situations? 2. What is algebra? 3. How are the horizontal and vertical axes related?

More information

Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12

Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 HB 11-26-07 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 1 Magnetic Field of a Circular Coil Lab 12 Equipment- coil apparatus, BK Precision 2120B oscilloscope, Fluke multimeter, Wavetek FG3C function generator,

More information

Physics 9 Fall 2009 DIFFRACTION

Physics 9 Fall 2009 DIFFRACTION Physics 9 Fall 2009 NAME: TA: SECTION NUMBER: LAB PARTNERS: DIFFRACTION 1 Introduction In these experiments we will review and apply the main ideas of the interference and diffraction of light. After reviewing

More information

Experiment 7: Forces and Torques on Magnetic Dipoles

Experiment 7: Forces and Torques on Magnetic Dipoles MASSACHUSETTS INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOY Department of Physics 8. Spring 5 OBJECTIVES Experiment 7: Forces and Torques on Magnetic Dipoles 1. To measure the magnetic fields due to a pair of current-carrying

More information

3.5.4.2 One example: Michelson interferometer

3.5.4.2 One example: Michelson interferometer 3.5.4.2 One example: Michelson interferometer mirror 1 mirror 2 light source 1 2 3 beam splitter 4 object (n object ) interference pattern we either observe fringes of same thickness (parallel light) or

More information

AIM: To determine the grating element of a diffraction grating using laser source of known wavelength.

AIM: To determine the grating element of a diffraction grating using laser source of known wavelength. AIM: To determine the grating element of a diffraction grating using laser source of known wavelength. Prepared by: 1. Jagmeet singh Submitted to: 2. Ankur badhan Mr.Rohit verma 3. Vikas inder singh 4.

More information

PHYS 3324 Experiment 2: Atomic Spectra

PHYS 3324 Experiment 2: Atomic Spectra PHYS 3324 Experiment 2: Atomic Spectra Background Reading: Krane, pp. 185-189 Apparatus: Spectrometer, sodium lamp, hydrogen lamp, mercury lamp, diffraction grating, watchmaker eyeglass, small flashlight.

More information

Study Guide and Review for Electricity and Light Lab Final

Study Guide and Review for Electricity and Light Lab Final Study Guide and Review for Electricity and Light Lab Final This study guide is provided to help you prepare for the lab final. The lab final consists of multiplechoice questions, usually two for each unit,

More information

E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field.

E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field. E/M Experiment: Electrons in a Magnetic Field. PRE-LAB You will be doing this experiment before we cover the relevant material in class. But there are only two fundamental concepts that you need to understand.

More information

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab

EXPERIMENT O-6. Michelson Interferometer. Abstract. References. Pre-Lab EXPERIMENT O-6 Michelson Interferometer Abstract A Michelson interferometer, constructed by the student, is used to measure the wavelength of He-Ne laser light and the index of refraction of a flat transparent

More information

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet

4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet 4.4 WAVE CHARACTERISTICS 4.5 WAVE PROPERTIES HW/Study Packet Required: READ Hamper pp 115-134 SL/HL Supplemental: Cutnell and Johnson, pp 473-477, 507-513 Tsokos, pp 216-242 REMEMBER TO. Work through all

More information

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG

LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION CHARACTERISTICS X RAYS BREMSSTRAHLUNG LAUE DIFFRACTION INTRODUCTION X-rays are electromagnetic radiations that originate outside the nucleus. There are two major processes for X-ray production which are quite different and which lead to different

More information

PHY 171. Homework 5 solutions. (Due by beginning of class on Wednesday, February 8, 2012)

PHY 171. Homework 5 solutions. (Due by beginning of class on Wednesday, February 8, 2012) PHY 171 (Due by beginning of class on Wednesday, February 8, 2012) 1. Consider the figure below which shows four stacked transparent materials. In this figure, light is incident at an angle θ 1 40.1 on

More information

Reflection and Refraction

Reflection and Refraction Equipment Reflection and Refraction Acrylic block set, plane-concave-convex universal mirror, cork board, cork board stand, pins, flashlight, protractor, ruler, mirror worksheet, rectangular block worksheet,

More information

Physics Spring Experiment #8 1 Experiment #8, Magnetic Forces Using the Current Balance

Physics Spring Experiment #8 1 Experiment #8, Magnetic Forces Using the Current Balance Physics 182 - Spring 2012 - Experiment #8 1 Experiment #8, Magnetic Forces Using the Current Balance 1 Purpose 1. To demonstrate and measure the magnetic forces between current carrying wires. 2. To verify

More information

DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE

DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE DIFFRACTION AND INTERFERENCE In this experiment you will emonstrate the wave nature of light by investigating how it bens aroun eges an how it interferes constructively an estructively. You will observe

More information

ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES

ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES ELECTRIC FIELD LINES AND EQUIPOTENTIAL SURFACES The purpose of this lab session is to experimentally investigate the relation between electric field lines of force and equipotential surfaces in two dimensions.

More information

TWO AND MULTIPLE SLIT INTERFERENCE

TWO AND MULTIPLE SLIT INTERFERENCE TWO AND MULTIPLE SLIT INTERFERENCE Double Slit and Diffraction Grating. THEORY: L P L+nλ Light d θ L 0 C nλ Wall Screen P Figure 1 If plane waves of light fall at normal incidence on an opaque wall containing

More information

Wave Phenomena. Constructive and Destructive Interference

Wave Phenomena. Constructive and Destructive Interference Wave Phenomena INTERFERENCE PATTERN OF WATER WAVES DIFFRACTION OF LIGHT OFF A COMPACT DISC Constructive and Destructive Interference Constructive interference produces maxima, where crests meet crests

More information

Unit 2 Particles and Waves

Unit 2 Particles and Waves North Berwick High School Department of Physics Higher Physics Unit 2 Particles and Waves Section 5 Interference and Diffraction Section 5 Interference and Diffraction Note Making Make a dictionary with

More information

Diffraction from a Ruler

Diffraction from a Ruler Lab #27 Diffraction page 1 Diffraction from a Ruler Reading: Giambatista, Richardson, and Richardson Chapter 25 (25.1, 25.6, 25.7, 25.9). Summary: In this lab you will learn the diffraction analysis scientists

More information

DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY

DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY Experiment 8 Name: S.N.: SECTION: PARTNER: DATE: DIFFRACTION GRATINGS AND SPECTROSCOPY Objectives To introduce and calibrate a diffraction grating, and use it to examine several types of spectra. To learn

More information