1 NCNU_2013_DD_7_1 Chapter 7 Memory and Programmable Logic 71I 7.1 Introduction ti 7.2 Random Access Memory 7.3 Memory Decoding 7.5 Read Only Memory 7.6 Programmable Logic Array 77P 7.7 Programmable Array Logic 7.8 Sequential Programmable Devices
2 7-1 Introduction NCNU_2013_DD_7_2 Memories are for binary information storage. Two main memory types: random access memory (RAM) and read only memory (ROM). [actually both of them are random accessible] RAM can perform both write and read operations, while ROM can perform only the read operation. Wit Write: storing new information into memory Read: transferring the stored information out of memory ROM is a programmable logic device (PLD) which stores the binary information via a hardware programming process. A PLD is an IC with internal logic gates connected through electronic paths that behave similarly il l to fuses that t will be burned out to obtain a specified function. Programmable logic array (PLA), programmable array logic (PAL), and the field programmable gate array y( (FPGA) are other commonly seen PLDs.
3 7-2 Random-Access Memory NCNU_2013_DD_7_3 A memory unit includes an array of storage cells, together th with associated read/write control circuits. The architecture of memory is such that information can be selectively retrieved from any of its internal locations. A memory unit stores binary information in groups of bits called words that move in and out of storage as a unit. A memory word is a group of 1 s and 0 s and may represent a number, an instruction, one or more alphanumeric characters, or any other binary coded information. Most computer memory uses words that are multiples of 8 bits in length. The capacity of a memory unit is usually stated t as the total t number of bytes that t the unit can store.
4 A Memory Unit of RAM NCNU_2013_DD_7_4 Memory is accessed dthrough hdata input and output tlines, address selection lines, and control lines that specify the direction of transfer. The n data input lines provide the information to be stored in memory, and the n data output lines supply the information coming out of memory. The k address lines specify the particular word chosen. Read/Write are the control linputs specify the transfer direction. i Each word in memory is assigned an identification address ranging from 0 up to 2 k - 1. The number of words (or bytes) in memory is typically ( y ) y yp y with one of the letters K (kilo), M (mega), and G (giga).
5 Example: 1K x 16 Memory A Memory NCNU_2013_DD_7_5
6 Write and Read Operations Wit Write operation Apply the binary address to the address lines Apply the data bits to the data input lines Activate the write input NCNU_2013_DD_7_6 Read operation Apply the binary address to the address lines Activate the read input Read/Write share a same pin; when memory is enabled, 0 for read and 1 for write.
7 RAM in HDL NCNU_2013_DD_7_7
8 Timing Waveforms NCNU_2013_DD_7_8 The memory operation is controlled by an external device such as a central processing unit (CPU) which is usually synchronized by a clock. Instead, the memory s read and write operations are specified by control inputs. The access time of memory is the time required to select a word and read it. The cycle time of memory is the time required to complete a write operation. The CPU must provide the memory control signals to synchronize its internal clocked operations with the read and write operations. This means that the access time and cycle time of the memory must be within a time equal to a fixed number of CPU clock cycles.
9 Write Cycle CPU clock is 50 MHz; a period of 20 ns The access/cycle time < 50 ns NCNU_2013_DD_7_9
10 Read Cycle NCNU_2013_DD_7_10
11 Types of Memories Staticti information are stored in latches remains valid as long as power is applied short read/write cycle Dynamic information are stored in the form of charges on capacitors the stored charge tends to discharge with time need to be refreshed (read and write back) reduced power consumption larger memory capacity NCNU_2013_DD_7_11 Volatile lose stored information when power is turned off SRAM, DRAM Non-volatile retain stored information after the removal of power ROM EPROM, EEPROM Flash memory
12 7-3 Memory Decoding NCNU_2013_DD_7_12 A memory unit contains memory cells and ddecoding di circuits. it Decoding circuits may select the memory word specified by the input address. A bit memory cell is shown below: The cell is modeled by an SR latch with associated gates to form a D latch. Actually, the cell is an electronic circuit with four to six transistors. The cell must be very small in order to be able to pack as many cells as possible i h ll il bl i IC hi Thi k b 10 9 ll d i 1 2 in the small area available in an IC chip. Think about 10 9 cells crowed in 1 cm 2.
13 A 4 x 4 RAM NCNU_2013_DD_7_13
14 NCNU_2013_DD_7_14 Two address lines are needed dto go through ha 2 x 4 decoder d to select one of fthe four words. The decoder is enabled with the memory enable input. Once a word has been selected (addressed), the read/write input determines the operation. During the read operation, the four bits of the selected word go through hthe multiinput OR gates to the output terminals. During the write operation, the data available in the input lines are transferred into the four binary cells of the selected word. Commercial RAMs may have a capacity of millions to trillions of words, and each word may range from 1 to 64bits. A memory with 2k words of n bits per word requires k address lines that go into a k x 2 k decoder. Each one of the decoder outputs selects one word of n bits for reading or writing. A decoder with k inputs and 2 k outputs requires 2 k AND gates with k inputs per gate.
15 Coincident Decoding NCNU_2013_DD_7_15 At two-dimensional i selection scheme can reduce the complexity of the decoding di circuits; for example, 1-k memory is shown. Each intersection represents a word that may have any number of bits. A single 10 x 1024 decoder needs input AND gates. Two 5 x 32 decoders require only 64 5-input AND gates. Reduce the circuit complexity and the cycle time. which address?
16 Address Multiplexing NCNU_2013_DD_7_16 Address multiplexing l i is used in DRAM design to reduce the number of pins in IC package. In a two dimensional array, the address is applied in two parts at different times, with the row address first and the column address second. Addresses are respectively latched into the 8-bit registers. RAS: row address strobe CAS: column address strobe The timing is important in the design and utilization of RAM.
17 7-5 Read-Only Memory (ROM) NCNU_2013_DD_7_17 ROM stores binary information permanently even when power is turned off and on again. A block diagram of a ROM consisting of k inputs and n outputs is shown. k address input lines can specify 2 k words. The inputs provide the address, and the outputs give the data word selected by the address. Integrated circuit ROM chips have one or more enable inputs and sometimes come with three state outputs to facilitate the construction of large ROM arrays.
18 Example: 32 x 8 ROM 5 t 32 d d 5-to-32 decoder 8 OR gates each has 32 inputs 32 x 8 internal programmable connections NCNU_2013_DD_7_18
19 Programming ROM Af fused-switch in each cross-point: itclose (two lines are connected) td) or open The fuse that can be blown by applying a high voltage pulse. NCNU_2013_DD_7_19 x: connected what are stored in these words? see next slide
20 ROM Table NCNU_2013_DD_7_20
21 Combinational Circuit Implementation ROM: a decoder d + OR gates sum of minterms a Boolean function => sum of minterms for an n-input, m-output combinational circuit 2 n m ROM the decoder is fixed, the inputs to OR gate is programmable Design procedure: 1. determine the size of ROM 2. obtain the programming truth table of the ROM 3. the truth th table = the fuse pattern NCNU_2013_DD_7_21
22 Example 7-1 NCNU_2013_DD_7_22 Design a combinational circuit it using a ROM. The circuit it accepts a three bit number and outputs a binary number equal to the square of the input number. 3 inputs and 6 outputs are required A partial truth table for the ROM B 1 = 0 B 0 = A 0 so, 8 x 4 ROM is enough
23 ROM Implementation for Example 7.1 NCNU_2013_DD_7_23 ROM table
24 Types of ROM Mask programming ROM IC manufacturers is economical only if large quantities PROM: Programmable ROM fuses, one-time programmable (OTP) universal programmer EPROM: Erasable PROM floating gate (tunneling) ultraviolet l t light erasable with transparent t window EEPROM: Electrically Erasable PROM longer time is needed to write in system programmable (ISP) Flash memory allowing simultaneous erasing of blocks of memory (flash erasable) current mainstream product NAND type and NOR type very high h density High voltage (> 10V) is required for non-mask programming NCNU_2013_DD_7_24
25 Combinational PLDs Th j t f bi ti l PLD diff i i th l t f th Three major types of combinational PLDs, differing in the placement of the programmable connections in the AND OR array. NCNU_2013_DD_7_25
26 7.6 Programmable Logic Array (PLA) NCNU_2013_DD_7_26 An array of programmable AND gates can generate any product tterms of fthe inputs; and an array of programmable OR gates can generate the sums of the products. More flexible use less circuits than ROM. Example: 3 inputs 4 product terms 2 outputs t XOR for inverting F 1 = AB + AC + A BC F 2 = (AC + BC)
27 PLA Programming Table NCNU_2013_DD_7_27 F 1 = AB + AC + A BC F 2 = (AC + BC) The size of a PLA is specified by the number of inputs, the number of product terms, and the number of outputs. For n inputs, k product terms, and m outputs, the internal logic of the PLA consists of n buffer inverter gates, k AND gates, m OR gates, and m XOR gates. There are 2n x k connections between the inputs and the AND array, k x m connections between the AND and OR arrays, y, and m connections associated with the XOR gates.
28 Examples 7-2 NCNU_2013_DD_7_28 Use PLA to implement tf F 1 (A, B, C) = (0124)F (0, 1, 2, 4); F 2 (A, B, C) = (0567) (0, 5, 6, Both the true value and the complement of the function should be simplified to check to reduce the number of distinct product terms (AND gates needed). The number of literals in a term is not important in PLA design The K-map for the simplification F 1 = (AB + AC + BC) F 2 = AB + AC + A B C Only four distinct product terms: AB, AC, BC, and A B C.
29 NCNU_2013_DD_7_29 AB AC BC A B C
30 7-7 Programmable Array Logic (PAL) PAL has a fixed OR array and a programmable AND array. Easier to program than, but is not as flexible as, the PLA. Example: PAL with 4 inputs and 4 outputs. There are four sections of three wide AND OR array, i.e. there are three programmable AND gates in each section and one fixed OR gate. The Boolean functions must be simplified to fit into each section. One of fthe outputs t is fed back kinto the AND gates for implementing functions with a large number of product terms. Unlike PLA, a product term cannot be shared among two or more OR gates; therefore, each function can be simplified by itself. NCNU_2013_DD_7_30
31 An Example Implementation Ui Using a PALt to design the following fll Boolean functions w(a,b,c,d) = (2,12,13) x(a,b,c,d) = ( ) (7,8,9,10,11,12,13,14) y(a,b,c,d) = (0,2,3,4,5,6,7,8,10,11,15) z(a,b,c,d) = (1,2,8,12,13) Simplify the functions w = ABC + A B CD x = A + BCD y = A B + CD + B D z = ABC + A B CD + AC D + A B C D = w + AC D + A B C D z has four product terms and can be reduced by using w. NCNU_2013_DD_7_31
32 PAL Programming Table NCNU_2013_DD_7_32
33 NCNU_2013_DD_7_33 w = ABC + A B CD x = A + BCD y = A B +CD+B D + z = w + AC D + A B C D
34 7-8 Sequential Programmable Devices Sequential programmable devices include both gates and dflip flops. Three major types: 1. Sequential (or simple) programmable logic device (SPLD) 2. Complex programmable logic device (CPLD) 3. Field programmable gate array (FPGA) NCNU_2013_DD_7_34
35 SPLD and its Macrocell NCNU_2013_DD_7_35 The sequential PLD is sometimes referred to as a simple PLD to differentiate t it from the complex PLD. A PAL that includes flip flops p is referred to as a registered PAL. Each section of an SPLD is called a macrocell, which is a circuit that contains a sum of products combinational logic function and an optional flip flop. Ab basic macrocell: PAL + edge-triggered dd-ff + tri-state output
36 Complex PLD NCNU_2013_DD_7_36 CPLD, which h is a collection of individual id PLDs on a single IC, is more economical to use than SPLD. A programmable interconnection structure (switch matrix) allows the PLDs to be connected to each other. The input output (I/O) blocks provide the connections to the IC pins which are driven by a three state buffer and can be programmed to act as input or output.
37 Field-Programmable Gate Array (FPGA) NCNU_2013_DD_7_37 Gate array is an IC design methodology with several lhundred dthousand gates (transistors) fabricated in a single chip while their interconnections are determined from the designer s specification in the last steps of foundry service. A field programmable gate array (FPGA) is a gate array like IC chip that can be programmed at the user s location. A typical FPGA consists of an array of millions of logic blocks (lookup tables, multiplexers, gates, and flip flops), surrounded by programmable input and output blocks and connected together via programmable interconnections. A lookup table is a truth table stored in an SRAM and provides the combinational circuit functions for the logic block, in the same way that combinational circuit functions are implemented with ROM. For example, a 16 x 2 SRAM can store the truth table of a combinational circuit that has four inputs and two outputs. The combinational logic section, along with a number of programmable multiplexers, is used to configure the input equations for the flip flop flop and the output of the logic block. There are different ways to store the truth table including SRAM, PROM, EEPROM, Flash,.
38 Basic Xilinx Architecture NCNU_2013_DD_7_38 Xilinx launched the world s first commercial FPGA in 1985, with the vintage XC2000 device family. The XC3000 and XC4000 families soon followed, setting the stage for today s Spartan, and Virtex device families. Each evolution improves in density, performance, power consumption, voltage levels, pin counts, and functionality. For example, the Spartan family of devices initially offered a maximum of 40K system gates, but today s Spartan 6 offers 150,000 logic cells plus 4.8Mb block RAM. Basic architecture of Spartan: CLB: configurable logic blocks IOB: I/O blocks
39 Configurable Logic Block (CLB) NCNU_2013_DD_7_39 E h CLB i t f bl l k t bl lti l i t d Each CLB consists of a programmable lookup table, multiplexers, registers, and paths for control signals
40 Interconnect Resources NCNU_2013_DD_7_40 A grid of switch matrices overlays the architecture t of CLBs to provide general purpose interconnect for branching and routing throughout the device. programmable interconnect points (PIPs)
41 I/O Block (IOB) NCNU_2013_DD_7_41
42 NCNU_2013_DD_7_42 Distributed RAM Cell from a Lookup Table S t d t th i hi di t ib t d d l t h RAM Spartan can accommodate their on chip distributed, dual-port, synchronous RAM (SelectRAM) to implement first in, first out register files (FIFOs), shift registers, and scratchpad memories, but their use reduces the CLBs available for logic.
43 Spartan Dual port RAM NCNU_2013_DD_7_43
44 Xilinx Spartan XL FPGA Family NCNU_2013_DD_7_44 Offer up to 80 MHz system performance, depending on the number of cascaded lookup tables, which reduce performance by introducing longer paths.
45 Xilinx Spartan II FPGAs NCNU_2013_DD_7_45 S t II i i d (200 MH ) d it ( t t ) d Spartan II improves in speed (200 MHz), density (200,000 system gates) and operating voltage (2.5 V); as well as four other distinguished features: (1) on chip block memory, (2) a novel architecture, (3) support for multiple I/O standards, and (4) delay locked loops (DLLs).
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