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1 MATH 90 CHAPTER 1 Name:. 1.1 Introduction to Algebra Need To Know What are Algebraic Expressions? Translating Expressions Equations What is Algebra? They say the only thing that stays the same is change. Our physical world is always changing and varying. In order to understand, interpret and predict the physical world we need a math way to express variableness Algebra. Algebra revolutionized the way we interact with the world. Algebra is the power to translate the real world into mathematics. This course will give the skills to exercise and understand this power. Expressions Definitions: A is a letter used to represent a number that can change or that is unknown. A is another name for a number. An is a math statement with variables and/or numbers, often with operations signs and grouping symbols. z, 9 Examples: w + 10, 2y(a + 3), 5, x Scott Eckert pg. 1

2 Evaluate the Expression Evaluate means find the value. Evaluate the expressions below: 13 z when z = 6 5z y when z 9 and y 15 Translation 2 more than Bill s age. 4 less than d. The sum of 7 and twice n 83% of the possible pts. a + b a b ab, a b a(b) a b a/b a b Add, sum of, plus, more than, increased by Subtract, difference, minus, less than, decreased by Multiply, product times, twice, of Divide, quotient, ratio of, per Equations Definitions: An is a math sentence that sets. Examples: = 9 5(4) = 10 x 3 = 9 Scott Eckert pg. 2

3 Equations Definitions: A is a number for the variable that makes the equation. Examples: Is 7 a solution to 94/y = 12? Translate: 15% of all waste is recycled. This is the same as 47 million tons of recycled material. What s the total waste generated? end 1.2 The Laws of Algebra Need To Know Some of the Laws of Algebra Commutative Associative Distributive Commutative Law Commutative Law of Addition Changing in addition is still equivalent. Commutative Law of Multiplication Changing order in multiplication. Scott Eckert pg. 3

4 Associative Law Associative Law of Addition Changing in addition is still equivalent. Associative Law of Multiplication Changing groups in multiplication Distributive Law Distributive Law Multiplication distributes across addition Examples Check for Understanding Match the statement to its corresponding Law Math Statement x(9w) = (x9)w x w = 9 + x + w 4(a 5) = 4a 20 Laws Commutative Associative Distributive Scott Eckert pg. 4

5 Check for Understanding Identify which law(s) correspond to each statement 1. t + (3 + w) = (3 + w) + t 2. (7 + y) + x = 7 + (x + y) Distributive Law in reverse Definition: Factoring or factor (verb) (noun) parts in a multiplication parts of an expression separated by + or The Distributive Law backwards: ab + ac = a(b + c) Examples: Factor each expression. 5y + 5z 9 + 9x 14a + 56b + 7 end 1.3 Fractions Need To Know Prime Factoring Operations on Fractions Simplify (Reduce) Multiply Divide Add Subtract Scott Eckert pg. 5

6 Vocabulary Definitions: Prime numbers are numbers that can only be factored by one and itself. { Prime factoring - means to write a number as a product of only prime numbers. Prime Factoring Prime factor 48 Prime factor 180 Reducing Fractions Reduce 9 21 Reduce Scott Eckert pg. 6

7 Multiplication of Fractions Simplify each expression Recall fraction multiplication x 4 3 a c b d ac bd Division of Fractions Recall Division of fractions is. a b c d a b d c Simplify: Add and Subtract Fractions Recall the method to add fractions Recall the method to subtract fractions Scott Eckert pg. 7

8 Renaming Fractions Recall how to use the to rename fractions. 9 =. 19 = Least Common Denominator Definition The least common denominator (LCD) is the Ways to find the LCD 1) Use intuition 2) Use the prime factoring method Find the LCD 1, 1 1, 1, How to find the LCD Find the LCD for 1) 12 and 18 2) 60 and 42 Steps to find LCD 0. OR 1. Prime each denominator 2. Create a product using kind of factor raised to the that occurs in any one factoring Scott Eckert pg. 8

9 Add and Subtract Fractions Recall how to add fraction How to add or fraction Find the LCD Rename each fraction (use the fancy one ) Add numerators Reduce Practice Simplify: 7 _ How to + or fraction 1. Find the LCD 2. Rename (use the fancy one ) 3. Add numerators 4. Reduce Simplify: end 1.4 Subsets of Real Numbers Need To Know Subsets of the Real Numbers Comparisons Symbols Absolute Value Scott Eckert pg. 9

10 Number Sets Numbers are all Numbers. Irrational Numbers are the numbers that aren t Rational. Numbers are the. (numbers of the form a/b where b is not zero) are the numbers = { } Negative Natural Numbers + Whole Numbers Numbers are the numbers = { } {0} + Natural Numbers Numbers are the numbers = { } Number Sets Two Diagrams REAL NUMBERS Real Numbers ,.. 10, 2, 1,,0,,1,, 15, Rational Numbers Integers Whole Numbers Irrational Numbers Rational Numbers ,.. 2, 1,,0,,1, Integers -17,..-2,-1,0,1,..39 Irrational Numbers 10,, 15 Fraction but non-integer 4 2,, Natural Numbers Negative Natural,-17,,-2,-1 Whole Numbers 0,1,,39 Zero 0 Natural Numbers 1, 2,,39 Check for Understanding 2 5, 0.25, 0, 1,,, 2, 0.333, 5 7 Categorize and list the numbers from the set to each set below. Natural Numbers Rational Numbers { } { } Whole Numbers Irrational Numbers { } { } Integers Real Numbers { } { } Scott Eckert pg. 10

11 Comparison Symbols True or False 4 < -4-4 < 3-4 < -4 a = b a b a < b a < b a > b a > b a is equal to b a is not equal to b a is less than b a is less than OR equal to b a is greater than b a is greater than OR equal to b Number Line Key Vocabulary Positive Numbers Numbers to the right of zero. Negative Numbers Numbers to the left of zero. Opposite of a number is on the other side of zero. Points on the number line correspond to real numbers. All of the points represent all of the Real Numbers. Absolute Value Inequality Comparisons If a number is further left on the number line, it is less than (<). If a number is further right on the number line, it is greater than (>). Examples: Fill in the blank with < or > ¼ -¾ -8-5 end Scott Eckert pg. 11

13 Adding Signed Numbers Vector Model (Adding with the Number Line) Vectors are graphs of arrows with length and direction. Positive numbers are arrows to the right. Negative numbers are arrows to the left. Examples 1) ) (-3) + (-1) 3) (-5) + 2 4) 4 + (-6) Adding Signed Numbers-Rules Rules for Adding 1) If the signs are the, values and the sign. 2) If the signs are the, values and keep the the value. Examples 1) ) (-2) + (-6) 3) (-5) + 2 4) 8 + (-5) Adding Like Terms are parts of an expression They may be numbers and/or variables often combined with multiplication or division. Numerical Coefficient is the number factor of a term. Like Terms are terms with the exact same variable factors. The Distributive Law helps us simplify expressions: 4x + 9x Adding Like Terms is as simple as adding coefficients. -11b + 5b 2x + (-5y) + (-5x) + (-9y) 8 + a +(-5.5a) + 7 Scott Eckert pg. 13

14 Translation and Practice Write the expression in mathematics and simplify. The sum of 5 and 11 increased by 4. Simplify the following expression. [18 + (-5)] + [9 + (-10)] 1.6 Subtracting Signed Numbers Need To Know Opposites Idea of Subtraction Rule for Subtraction Translation Opposites Definition: The opposite of a number a is written. Recall: Example: Find x and (-x) when x = 3. The Law of Opposites a + (-a) = 0 Scott Eckert pg. 14

15 Idea of Subtraction Goal: To make a model for distance and to make the rule of subtraction understandable (2)Problem: The team punts the football from 2 yards behind the goal line. The ball stops on the 50 yard line. How many yards did the ball travel? Rule For Subtraction Rule for subtracting signed numbers is the same as. Examples: Change each to addition (-4) (-4) Scott Eckert pg. 15

16 Subtraction of Signed Numbers Write each as an addition problem and then simplify your answer (-5) (-5) Subtraction Practice Simplify Simplify -9x + 5 3x 24 (-12) b 7 5b Translation Difference, decreased, take away, reduced, less and from are all key words for subtraction. Examples: Translate into mathematics and use the rule of subtraction to simplify. Subtract 5 from 8. Find the difference of 4 and 7. Scott Eckert pg. 16

17 1.7 Mult. & Div. of Real Numbers Need To Know Multiplication of Signed Numbers Division of Signed Numbers Apply to: Integers, Decimals and Fractions Sign Patterns in Multiplication Look at these multiplication problems and draw conclusions about sign results. (3)(2) = (3)(1) = (3)(0) = (3)(-1) = (3)(-2) = 3(-2) = 2(-2) = 1(-2) = 0(-2) = -1(-2) = Practice - Multiplication Summary of sign pattern for multiplication (+)(+) = + (+)( ) = ( ) ( ) = + ( )(+) = Simplify each expression (-4)(-8)(-1) (-3) (-5) (-2) (-1) The product of an odd # of negatives is The product of an even # of negatives is Scott Eckert pg. 17

18 Practice - Multiplication Simplify each expression Recall fraction multiplication a c ac b d bd Division w/ Signs and Fractions a b a 1 b a b Since, the sign rules for DIVISION are the same as for MULTIPLY. Fraction Facts Top =. Bottom = (+) (+) = ( ) ( ) = (+) ( ) = ( ) (+) = Division of Fractions Recall Division of fractions is the same as multiplication by the reciprocal. a b 7 9 c d 1 6 a b d c Scott Eckert pg. 18

19 1.8 Exponents and Order of Op. Need To Know Exponents Order of Operations Simplifying Expressions Exponents Exponents mean repeated multiplication Notation: 4 3 Examples: 5 4 (2x) 5 (-7) Practice - Order of Operation Order of Operations Always work left to right 1. Evaluate. 2. Evaluate. 3. Evaluate in order. 4. Evaluate in order. Simplify: ( 3 5) Scott Eckert pg. 19

20 Practice - Order of Operation Order of Operations Always work left to right 1. Evaluate grouped expressions. 2. Evaluate exponents. Simplify: 2(6 10) Evaluate multiplication or division in order left to right. 4. Evaluate addition or subtraction in order left to right. Practice - Order of Operation Order of Operations Always work left to right 1. Evaluate grouped expressions. 2. Evaluate exponents. Simplify: ( 1) 4 3. Evaluate multiplication or division in order left to right. 4. Evaluate addition or subtraction in order left to right. Scott Eckert pg. 20

21 Practice - Order of Operation Order of Operations Always work left to right 1. Evaluate grouped expressions. 2. Evaluate exponents. 3. Evaluate multiplication or division in order left to right. 4. Evaluate addition or subtraction in order left to right. Simplify: 6( 2) 5( 3) 5(4) 11 Simplifying Expressions Recall: -1(a) = -a, and that opposite and negative are synonymous What is (a + b) = Examples: -(7z + 6) -(13y 5x + 8) -(-8x 3 + 4x 2 3x) Simplifying Expressions Examples: 7y (2y + 9) 9t 5r 2(3r + 6t) 8n 2 +n 7(n + 2n 2 ) Scott Eckert pg. 21

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