Crystalline Silicon Modules: The Brick Stones for a Photovoltaic Electricity Supply

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1 Crystalline Silicon Modules: The Brick Stones for a Photovoltaic Electricity Supply Institute for Photovoltaics, University of Stuttgart May 2013

2 Overview 1. PV-Installations (end 2012) GW world wide, 33 GW in Germany - PV electricity 8 to 12 ct/kwh in Germany and Japan 4 to 7 ct/kwh in North/South Africa 2. PV-Materials: Si is standard - 85 to 90 % of market - Develops further: higher efficiency, lower cost - Brick Stones of Photovoltaic Electricity Supply 3. PV-Research at ipv - Higher efficiencies - Large area systems

3 1. Installed PV Power

4 PV Power Map 2013: 440 W/person 2020: 650 W/person Source: Market Outlook, EPIA, 2011 W/person

5 PV-Power in Germany (May 2013) installed PV-power [MW] MW 0.2 km 2 growth factor in 20 years exponential year 35 GW 250 km 2 linear 2 GW/a 52 GW 2020: 650 W per habitant

6 3 x (13 x 1 kw) Grid-connected PV Systems Stuttgart Nicosia Cairo

7 PV Electricity Cost [ /kwh] electricity production costs [ /kw p ] ct 5-7 ct ct 2000 /kw p Germany 1500 /kw p 1000 /kw p 500 /kw p annual energy yield E [kwh/(kw p a)] Cyprus South Africa n = 20 years i = 6 %

8 A Simple (Installer s) Estimate: Modules: cent/w p = Euro/kW p. How about the system price? System Components Cost [ /kw p ] Share[%] Modules Inverter Stands, Cables, Mounting, Labor Installer s Profit System Price Modules make up only 40 % of system Price!! Further cost lowering possible by other components (mounting) and by standardization (module size and mounting systems)!

9 An Even Simpler Estimate Module price today: 50 cent/kw p = 500 /kw p Meaning of 500 /kw p for 15 %, 10 %, 5 % efficient module? What is price per area? Construction Material 15 % 6,7 m 2 (c-si) Price [ /m 2 ] 10 % 10 m 2 (CdTe) Price [ /m 2 ] 5 % 20 m 2 (a-si) Price [ /m 2 ] PV-Modules Windows Stainless Steel, 1 mm Brick Stones Steel, 1 mm 30 Bathroom Tiles Glass Construction Wood, 18 mm 10 Wall Paper 1-2 Crystalline Si Modules are Brick Stones of PV Energy Supply!

10 2. PV Materials

11 c-si 15 % a-si 6 % CdTe 10 % CIGS 12 % c-si Thin Films

12 Annual World Market of PV-Modules PV-modules [MW] MW c-si PV total a-si CdTe CIGS year 37 GW 100 B!! factor 2000 in 30 years!!!

13 Small Market Share for Thin Films Market Share [%] Crystalline Si Thin Films

14 3. Ipv-Research

15 Research Topics at ipv C: Systems B: Modules A: High Efficiency Cells

16 Industrial High Efficiency Cells η % η 20 % 1. Selective emitter Δη = % abs 2. Grid optimization +0.2 % abs 3. Fine line metallization % abs 4. Texture % abs 5. Hetero-junction back side +0.8 % abs

17 ipv Laser Doped Back Contact Solar Cell n + FSF n-type p + emitter SiO 2 SiO 2 n ++ BSF contacts Key techniques: - Sputtering - Laser Doping best cell V OC [mv] J SC [ma/cm²] FF [%] η [%] type * type Cell area: 4 cm²; *certified

18 DaySy = Daylight System Luminescence

19 Summary 1. PV-Installations (end 2012) GW world wide, 33 GW in Germany - PV electricity: 8 to 12 ct/kwh in Germany and Japan 4 to 7 ct/kwh in North/South Africa 2. PV-Materials: Si is standard - 85 to 90 % of market - Develops further: higher efficiency, lower cost - Brick Stones of Photovoltaic Electricity Supply 3. PV-Research at ipv - Porsche -cell from Uni Stuttgart - Large area systems (maintenance, characterization) - Intelligent Photovoltaics

20 AC energy yield E AC [kwh / kw(p)] two-axis-tracker Concentrix Atersa mono-c-si Annual yield Stuttgart Nicosia monocrystalline Atersa mono-c-si BP mono-c-si Sanyo HIT-Si SunPower mono-c-si multicrystalline Schott MAIN-Si Schott EFG-Si SolarWorld multi-c-si Solon multi-c-si average 2007 *) thin film Mitsubishi a-si(1) Schott a-si(2) First Solar CdTe Würth CIGS

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