Processi chimici localizzati per il fotovoltaico

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1 Processi chimici localizzati per il fotovoltaico M. Balucani Rise Technology S.r.l. Lung. P. Toscanelli Roma ENEA: Stato e prospettive del fotovoltaico in Italia June 26, 2014

2 Who is Rise Technology Rise is a SME founded in 2006 from researcher of University of Rome La Sapienza In 2013 Rise acquires 2BG brand and know-how in PV module production Core business: design and development of process and equipment for solar cell, semiconductor and PCB Headquarter and Design Center Rome Area : 100 m 2 Active R&D collaboration: CNIS - Centro di ricerca per le Nanotecnologie applicate all'ingegneria della SAPIENZA ENEA Casaccia Photovoltaic Division Production Unit San Martino di Lupari (Padova) Production area : m Turnover > 500K N. Staff =7 Main Production 2

3 Agenda / Outline / Overview Introduction Why looking for a selective wet process Photovoltaic State of the Art Localized Plating and Main Issues Our new Approach DLD/DLM Application to PV (FS and BS) Industrial Prototype Equipment Summary & Conclusions Acknowledgements 3

4 Introduction Silicon solar cell front and back side metallization uses Ag paste: Front side ~ mg/cell Back side ~ 20-35mg/cell Ag paste cost accounts for ~ 30% of total silicon solar cell cost Silicon solar cell cost is < $1/W 156x156 mm 2 mono-crystalline silicon solar cell Remove Ag and move to cheap metal: Cu 4

5 Why looking for a selective wet process Before the introduction of alternative metallization techniques, technical issues in reliability and adhesion have to be solved. Appropriate equipment also needs to be available Current plating main key issues: Pin-holes on Si 3 N 4 Anti-Reflection Coatings (ARC) of solar cells Back side: direct plating on Al (adhesion?) Front side: Ni-Cu adhesion to Si Speed of Plating LIP A/dm 2 Throughput and Space floor Drag-out ml/w Reduce additive consumption 5

6 State of the Art The concept of localized plating LECD (Localized EleCtrochemical Deposition) Static Meniscus Main Issues: No Refreshment of solution High current density: strong bubbling Base footprint dimension [R A Said Nanotechnology 14 (2003) pp ] 6

7 Our new Approach: DLD/DLM Dynamic Liquid Drop DLD 7

8 Our new Approach: DLD/DLM Dynamic Liquid Meniscus DLM 8

9 Application to PV: Front Side DLD-DLM configurations for: a) Opening of ARC layer or any kind of etching b) Porous Silicon formation on n-type doped emitter c) Electroplating on Porous Silicon region on n-type doped emitter d) Porous Silicon suitable for n- or p-type doped emitter e) Electroplating on Porous Silicon region on p-type emitter 9

10 Application to PV: Front Side SEM Cross-Section of Industrial PV cell with porous silicon ARC opening is done in 3 s 10

11 Application to PV: Front Side Cross-section made by Focus Ion Beam Cu Ni Si 11

12 Application to PV: Front Side 12

13 Application to PV: Back Side Back side plating of solar cell Interface of DLM plating on back side of solar cell < 25 mm 13

14 Application to PV: Back Side Solar cell Ni-Sn V OC, mv J SC, ma/cm 2 FF, % η, % Q6LMXP3-G3full rear contact Q6LMXP3-G3 Ag pad contact Δ full rear contact Ni-Sn pad contact Δ full rear contact Ni-Sn pad contact Δ full rear contact Ni-Sn pad contact Δ Sn, Ni-Sn, Cu-Sn 14

15 Industrial Prototype Equipment Industrial Prototype Equipment 15

16 Summary & Conclusion The New Selective Wet Processing allows: Plating on back contact solar cell (no need of resit) Plating on front contact (no need of resit) Very fast process: Jet Plating: Cu dep. rate =1mms -1 Drag-out is very low What more can DLD-DLM offer: Edge isolation of solar cell Wet etching (e.g. texturization of solar cells) And many other applications 16

17 Summary & Conclusion Industrial Level: Back side: ready for market Front side: BB ready, finger on progress WORLD CAPEX PV (2013) 7% 5% 8% 10% 16% 54% China Taiwan Japan Europe USA Other No Italian customer! 17

18 Acknowledgements Research Centre Casaccia Roma 18

19 Thanks for attention Open to Q&A 19

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