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1 Solar Energy Commercial Applications Valerie Rauluk Venture Catalyst Inc. Solar America Cities Briefing June 23, 2009 Agenda Intro Opportunity Applications Financing How to start 2 Venture Catalyst Inc. 30 years experience in business/ project design and development 11 years experience in renewable energy commercialization & financing 20 year presence in Arizona 3

2 Opportunity Solar energy supplies over 35% of electricity and 69% of our energy needs by 2050 (3,500 GW), dominated by solar electric photovoltaic ( PV ) technologies. The Grand Solar Plan, Scientific American January 2008 Solar energy development brings 12 jobs per MW (35 million +). Solar energy development increases energy security. Arizona is a key nexus for solar energy deployment and solar energy innovation and manufacturing. 4 Benefits of Solar Energy Solar is a zero-emission energy source Solar is scalable and growing Growing globally at 41% per annum, 60% in U.S. Solar is competitive Nuclear, coal, natural gas power plant costs have increased significantly Transmission/ distribution infrastructure has increased in costs and takes significantly longer Solar is predictable Distributed technologies can be built quickly, averting power crises more effectively Solar is well correlated to air conditioning and lighting loads Solar space is available Each year over 2 billion square feet of new roofs are installed supporting far more than 40 GW solar needed to meet 100% of incremental load growth in the US Deployment Technology Type Solar Thermal Solar Photovoltaic ( PV ) Development Format Central Station Large scale (20MW+), remote locations, connected to transmission infrastructure (higher voltage, longer distance) Distributed Generation ( DG ) Large (up to 20MW) to small scale connected to distribution network near customer load (lower voltage, shorter distances) 6

3 Capturing the sun s heat or light 7 Power Delivery Transmission Distribution 8 Solar Thermal Options for Utility-Scale Power 9

4 Distributed Resources: Solar Thermal 5 Flat plate thermal collectors, each 40,000 BTUs per day. 48 Evacuated Tubes, for domestic hot water and radiant floor heat. Concentrated Solar Power parabolic trough (Sopogy Sopanova 4.0, 60sf 934 kwh per year) Distributed Resources: Solar Thermal Solar Cooling Absorption Chiller System Solar Electric (PV)

5 Photovoltaics (PV) Solar Electric: Kinds of Technology Crystalline More energy produced / sq. ft. More $$$ per kw More prevalent Time-tested Types: Mono-crystalline silicon Poly-crystalline silicon Thin film Less energy produced / sq ft. Less $$$ per kw Better performance in shading & heat Flexible and laminate forms Types: Amorphous silicon (a-si) Cadmium telluride (CdTe) Copper indium gallium diselenide (CIGS) Modules & Mounting Methods 14 Modules & Mounting Methods

6 Distributed Resources: Photovoltaic Ground Mounted Alamosa under construction. Alamosa, CO 8.22MW Rifle, CO 1MW Pictures courtesy of SunEdison Distributed Resources: Photovoltaic Parking Shade Mounted Stockton, CA (250kw) sidewalk awning, parking shade canopy and roof top Patton State Hospital, CA (259kw) Pictures courtesy of SunEdison Solar Photovoltaic Options for Utility-Scale Distributed Power Seagull Lighting (2 facilities, 1MW) Sicor Laboratories (404kW) Cal Food Distributor (1.2MWs) ICU Medical (475kW) Staples Ontario, CA; Rialto, CA (560kW) Sure Save Storage (886kW) 18

7 Large Scale Distributed Generation Alamosa, Colorado 8.2 MW SunEdison for Xcel Energy Generation Distributed 19 Reducing Risk & Exposure to Fossil Fuels Electricity Price Drivers Solar Benefits U.S. Commercial Electricity Prices: By Region On average, prices have increased 4.76% each year for the last 8 years Year Energy (cents/kwh) New England Middle Atlantic Pacif ic West South Central South Atlantic East North Central East South Central Mountain West North Central

8 Energy Demand Drives Costs Demand drives energy production Energy plants are dispatched by (lowest) variable costs Utility rate breakdown Baseload rate Peak rates driven by volatile variable costs 35 Demand charges Natural gas & "peaker" 30 plants determined by facility s 25 highest energy use Baseload (coal) 20 To save energy $$$ 15 Baseload (nuclear) 10 Reduce peak Baseload (Wind / 5 Hydro) demand from utility 0 Energy Demand (kw) 12:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 Time of Use Peak Energy Prices: Volatile & Increasing Cause Effect Lower natural gas (NG) production Higher NG prices Less new NG drilling Higher NG prices Oil prices increase Higher NG prices Higher NG prices Utilities raise rates Natural Gas Futures Prices Solar reduces your peak demand Energy Demand (kw) Energy Demand (kw) :00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 12:00 3:00 6:00 9:00 12:00 15:00 18:00 21:00 Time of Use Time of Use Solar Natural gas & "peaker" plants Baseload (coal) Baseload (nuclear) Baseload (Wind / Hydro)

9 Programs & Financing Federal Investment Tax Credits State Investment Tax Credits Arizona State Tax Credit State Sales Tax waiver Utility Incentive/ Rebate/ Loans USDA Renewable Energy Grants & Loans Third Party Financing/ Private Investment Capital Utility rate-payer contribution 25 Financing Details 26 Federal Investment Tax Credits 30% of investment with carry forward and carryback No limits (change from prior legislation) Monetizing the tax credit: timing is everything Issues concerning what is eligible and treatment of utility incentive Consult your tax advisor 27

10 State Incentives 10% Investment tax credit up to $25K max. No sales tax on equipment purchases. 28 Utility Incentives Per watt if under 30 KW Performance based, per kwh paid monthly/ quarterly over 20 years The Renewable Energy Credits are relinquished if incentives are taken. 29 Renewable Energy Credits Definition in Arizona: 1 credit equals 1 kwh generated from a allowable renewable energy generator Value Set by agreed upon matrix Selling/ Banking 30

11 How to start Project Assessment Roof space or ground space (10 watts per sf, 1 MW per 6-10 acres) Roof capacity, safety factors for ground. Solar capture & shading/ obstructions Energy consumption and profile. Interconnection/ meters Matching generator capacity to load Avoided cost review Identify & Select designer/ developer/ project partner (including utility) Financial Review (when financed) Viability of business Business credit status. Financial statements 31 In conclusion Significant opportunity Prudent Investment. Variety of applications depending on site, load and technology 32 Thank you! Contact: Valerie Rauluk Venture Catalyst Inc

12 Emerging Storage Opportunities Technology improvements across all forms Compressed Air Energy Storage in Arizona salt caverns 34 Arizona Salt Deposits Resource for Compressed Air Energy Storage 35 Compressed Air Energy Storage 36

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