Materials and Technologies for Renewable Energy. ENEA R&D activities on PV. Anna De Lillo

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1 Italian National Agency for New Technologies, Energy and Sustainable Economic Development Materials and Technologies for Renewable Energy ENEA R&D activities on PV Anna De Lillo ENEA UTT-RINN Castel Romano, 13 aprile 2011

2 Activities in solar Technologies Technical Highlights: c-si solar cells Buried contact solar cells, η= 18% (on single crystal ) laser processing, high resolution serigraphy c-si solar cell for CPV η= 22.0% at 80X, 20.5% at 100X, e 20% at 200X (cell area 1.21 cm 2 )

3 Activities in solar Technologies Technical Highlights : Thin film solar cell Micromorph tandem solar cell a-si/µc-si η= 11.3% (10% stable) a-si tandem module 30 x 30 cm 2 η= 9.1% (7% stable)

4 Amorphous-crystalline Si Solar Cells Thin substrates (< 200 µm) can be used, reducing PV costs a-si/c-si double heterostructure Ag ITO n-a-si:h + CrSi i a-si.h p-type mc-si i a-si:h p asi:h ITO Al multicrystalline a-si/c-si single heterostructure monocrystalline Ag ITO n-a-si:h + CrSi i a-si p-type c-si diffusione Al Al Back contacted a-si:h/c-si heterostructure (BEHIND CELL, patent # BO2007A ) 35 Efficiency = 15.1 % Amorphous/crystalline silicon heterostructure solar cell based on multi-crystalline silicon, M. Tucci, L. Serenelli, S De Iuliis, D. Caputo, A Nascetti, G de Cesare. 21st EUPVSEC (2006) 902 UTRINN-PVC Efficiency = 17 % 17% efficiency heterostructure solar cell based on p-type crystalline silicon, M. Tucci, G. de Cesare, Journal of Non Crystalline Solids 338 (2004) 663. Current density (ma/cm 2 ) BEHIND Cell PC1D simulation BEHIND V oc = 695 mv V oc = 695 mv J sc = 35.3 ma/cm 2 FF = 60.9 % Eff = 15 % Area = 6.25 cm 2 J sc = 35.3 ma/cm 2 FF = 60.9% Eff = 15% Area 6.25 cm Voltage (V) Back contacted a-si:h/c-si heterostructure solor cells M. Tucci, L. Serenelli, E. Salza,, S. De Iuliis, L.J. Geerligs, D. Caputo, M. Ceccarelli, G. de Cesare; Journal of non-cryst. solids 354 (2008) 2386.

5 KESTERITES Thin film higher efficiency modules (13%) use semiconductors based on copper compounds like Cu(In,Ga)Se 2. In the next years these modules will have cost less than 1 1 /W and efficiency >14%. Worldwide production of In will give no more than 10 GW/year of CIGS modules Chalcopyrite: CuInSe 2 (I-III-VI) CIS Zn Sn Kesterite: Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (I-II-IV-VI) CZTS Good results have been achieved using Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (Eff=6.8 %) e Cu 2 ZnSn(S,Se) 4 (Eff=9.7 %)..

6 IBM record : Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 (Eff=6.8%) Area=0.45 cm 2 K. Wang, et al., Thermally evaporated Cu 2 ZnSnS 4 solar cells, Appl. Phys. Lett., 97, (2010)

7 ENEA process

8 Sample realization 2 step preparation Precursor Evaporations on substrate (glass + Mo) at 150 C SUBSTRATO ZnS Cu Sn Cu (330nm) (60nm) (150nm) (60nm) Sulfurization: Thermal treatment in N 2 flow T t /m tempo

9 CZTS film analysis 3000 CZTS IBM (FWHM=11 cm -1 ) CZTS ENEA (FWHM=6 cm -1 ) Raman signal Raman shift (cm -1 ) ENEA material shows a very good crystallographic quality.

10 CZTS cells made in ENEA Q.Y CZTS5 Dot 14 Area=0.126 cm2 Jsc=10.6 ma/cm 2 J (ma/cm 2 ) CZTS4 Dot 3 Area=0.02 cm 2 Voc=454 mv Jsc=8.13 ma/cm 2 FF=52.9 Eff=1.95 % λ (nm) V Best ENEA result: Voc=454 mv, Jsc=8.13 ma/cm 2, FF=52.9 %, Eff=1.95 %, Area=0.02 cm 2 IBM Record : Voc=587 mv, Jsc=17.8 ma/cm 2, FF=65 %, Eff=6.81 %, Area=0.45 cm 2

11 Organic Solar cells Glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/P3HT:PCBM/Al Voc = 635 mv Jsc 8.51 ma/cm 2, FF = 53.6%). Efficienza = 2.9% Area = 0.8 cm 2 Glove box for OPV processing UTTP-NANO

12 UTTP-NANO Devices and Technologies OPV activities P3HT:[60]PCBM P3HT:bis[60]PCBM AM1.5G 1000 W/m 2 (mismatch factor = 1.07) Area = 0.45 cm 2 Eff = 2.90 % FF = 53.6 % Jsc = 8.51 ma/cm 2 Voc = 635 mv Area = 0.80 cm 2 Eff = 2.91 % FF = 57.0 % Jsc = 6.82 ma/cm 2 Voc = 749 mv 12

13 Activities in solar Technologies Technical Highlights : thin film coatings Selective solar coating for high temperature application Application to parabolic trough CSP. Operation Temp. = 550 C α>94% ε< 0,14 at 550 C 2 patents Large Area 30 x 30 cm 2 MOCVD deposited ZnO:B film High transmittance, high conductivity, substitute for tin oxide Patent: Large area deposition system Low cost, high growth rate, optimum texturing

14 Activities in solar Technologies Technical Highlights : Concentrated PV Low cost concentrated PV module Plastic housing, acrilic lens, 24 cells η= 18.7% with c-si at 200X (optical active area) η=26.7% with MJ III-V cells at 250X (optical active area) Standard unit PhoCUS -5 kwp 2 axis heliostat (accuracy ±0.2 ), 35 m 2, 51 modules 2 patents for prismatic and hybrid lens Printed PMMA, suitable for 200X, high optical efficiency

15 Activities in solar Technologies Technical Highlights : PV components Patent PV street lamp Stapelia Patent design module for BIPV Boogie-Woogie Patent antitheft system for PV modules PV-Guardian Brodway boogie-woogie

16 Activities in solar Technologies Technical Highlights : Smart Grid 2 active grid demonstrators under development Capanna grid Integration of distributed generation systems based on renewableand demand control system for the grid of ENEA research centre CASACCIA (Rome) Pantelleria Island grid. Transition from a fuel based islanded distribution grid to an integrated distributed and smart renewable generation grid ENEA coordinates the Joint Programme on smart grids of European Energy Research Alliance (EERA)

17 Activities in solar Technologies PV modules test and qualification Research and Service for: Producers, installers, retailers. Dark and light I-V Complex Impedance Capacity vs frequency Capacity vs voltage Electrical insulation Infrared thermic analysis Optical transmittance Accelerated tests: Salt spray corrosion Thermal cycles Humidity and freeze Damp heat UV exposure Norme CEI-EN e CEI EN

18 Greenpeace 18 The Strategic Research Agenda

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