Green Energy in Europe - Potentials and Prospects

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1 Green Energy in Europe - Potentials and Prospects Gerfried Jungmeier, JOANNEUM RESEARCH, Austria Tel: +43 (0) Fax: +43 (0) Wood Source of Material and Energy InnovaWood /ITD Conference June 2007, Poznan/Poland

2 Outline Prospects for Bioenergy Success Stories for Bioenergy Plants Environmental Aspects Background

3 Indicators of Human Influence on the Atmoshere During Industrial Era Source: IPCC 2007

4 Observed Changes in the Past 150 years Source: IPCC 2007

5 Natural biomass cycle Energy generation from biomass energy nutrients carbon ash residues

6 Role of Bioenergy and Wood Products in Greenhouse Gas Mitigation Greenhouse gas mitigation options Reduction of Enhancement sources of sinks Bioenergy and wood products Source: IEA Bioenergy 2001 Fossil fuel substitution Product substitution etc. Afforestation and harvest Durable wood products etc.

7 Cumulated Effects on Carbon by Using Biomass for CO 2- Uptake, Material and Energy Bild: III/S 316/Figure 4.6 Source: IPCC 2001

8 Bioenergy Systems Biomass- Production Biomass- Processing Biomass- Fuels Biomass- Combustion Forestry - thinning - clear cut Agriculture - lignocellulosic crops -oilcrops - starch crops - sugar-crops -straw - manure Trade & Industry - sawn industry wastes - wood industry wastes - waste wood -organicwaste Mechanical - chipping -pelleting - briquetting - pressing (Thermo)chemical -drying - gasification -pyrolysis - estering Biological/chemical - methane fermentation - alcohol fermentation Solid Biofuels - wood logs - wood chips - wood pellets -bark - straw pellets/balls Liquid Biofuels - biodiesel - vegetable oil - bioethanol - synthetic biofuel Gaseous Biofuels - biogas - wood gas - Synthetic natural gas (SNG) - biohydrogen Heat - single stove - central heating - heating plant Electricity & Heat - CHP plant with + steam turbine + gas turbine + gas&steam turbine + stirling engine + combustion engine + hot air engine + fuel cell Transportation service - combustion engine - fuel cell

9 Steps Towards A Sustainable Energy System Increasing of Energy Security e.g. domestic renewable energy Reduction of local pollutants e.g. PM10, NO x Reduction of Greenhouse Gas Emissions, e.g. Kyoto-Target: minus 13% in year 2010 ref (further) Increase of using Renewable Energy e.g. biomass, solar energy Long-term Vision Increasing of Energy Efficiency in energy conversion, e.g. replacement of old by new heating systems Energy efficient sustainable energy system with 100% renewable energy Energy Saving Reduction of useful energy consumption with same energy service, e.g. insulation of buildings

10 Comparison Bioenergy to Fossil Energy Bioenergy system Slow increasing atmospheric carbon Carbon fixation Carbon oxidation Fossil energy system Strong increasing atmospheric carbon Life cycle assessment according to Auxiliary fossil energy emissions Renewable biotic carbon stocks Biomass Fossil fuel Decreasing fossil carbon stocks Auxiliary fossil energy emissions ISO Life Cycle Assessment Harvesting Processing Production Processing Byproducts Byproducts Standard Methodology of IEA Bioenergy Task 38 Greenhouse Gas Balances of Bioenergy systems Transport Storage Conversion in heat and power plants Transport Storage Conversion in heat and power plants Recommendations of COST Action E9 Life Cycle Assessment of Forestry and Forest Products Heat/electricity distribution Useful energy: Heat Electricity Heat/electricity distribution Legend: Carbon flow* Energy flow * Other GHG and auxiliary fossil energy inputs are excluded in this figure for reasons of simplicity

11 Example I: Heat from Wood Wood collection biomass Heating oil raw oil extraction transportation transportation pelletizing Natural decomposition refinery storage transportation combustion in heating boiler combustion in heating boiler 1 kwh heat

12 Results: Heat from Wood CO CH4 N2O recovered wood pellets wood pellets heating oil CO2-eq Greenhouse gas emissions [g CO 2 -eq./kwh heat ]

13 Example II: Co-Generation Electricity and Heat Biogas combustion engine Collection Transport Digestion Combustion engine Distribution Digested manure Reference use of manure Fertilizer Oil combustion engine Storage undigested manure Undigested manure Syn. fertilzer Extraction Transport Refinery Transport Combustion engine Distribution 0.33 kwh electricity kwh heat

14 Results: Co-Generation Electricity and Heat Kind of greenhouse gas CO2 CH4 N2O CO2-equivalent biogas combustion engine light oil combustion engine Greenhouse gas emissions [g CO 2 -eq/(0.33 kwh electricity kwh heat )]

15 Summary Comparison Cogeneration Electricity and Heat Fossil energy system Year Technology Bioenergy system [g CO 2 -eq/kwh] ood chips/waste wood/steam cycle % -92% -91% -90% ood chips/forestry/steam cycle/motor % -86% -83% -81% ood chips/forestry/steam cycle small % -91% -89% -88% ood chips/forestry/steam cycle big % -93% -92% -91% ood y chips/short p rotation/poplar/steam g cycle % -86% -84% -82% il/rape il/sunflower/combustion seed/combustion engine % -47% -38% -31% il/sunflower/combustion engine % -72% -68% -64% iogas/organic waste/combustion engine % -110% -112% -113% iogas/manure/combustion engine % -219% -239% -254% iogas/co-digestion waste oil/combustion engine % -116% -118% -120% hard coal steam cycle lignite/steam cycle light oil/combined cycle light oil/combustion engine natural gas/gas turbine natural gas/combined cycle natural gas/combustion engine % -88% -89% -77% -78% -80% -85% -86% -87% -89% -90% -91% -78% -79% -81% -15% -18% -27% -56% -57% -62% -116% -115% -113% -289% -283% -262% -125% -124% -121%

16 Example III: Transportation with Biodiesel Biodiesel rape seed production area Reference System Diesel set aside oil production transport fertilizer fertilizer prod. transport pressing rape cake animal feed soy production refinery esterification raw material glycerin production distribution glycerin energy heating oil distribution vehicle vehicle Transportation Service

17 Results: Transportation with Diesel and Biodiesel biodiesel rape seed biodiesel sunflower biodiesel recycled cooking oil diesel Greenhouse gas emissions [g CO 2 -eq/car-km]

18 Biomass CHP Plant - Fussach/Austria Source:

19 Recovered Wood Processing Source:

20 From Recovered Wood to High-quality Biofuel Source:

21 Scheme of the ORC Process Source:

22 Energy Flow of Organic Rankine Cycle Module thermal loses heat thermooil thermal efficiency electric efficiency electric loses Source:

23 Pre-assembled ORC Unit Source:

24 Data of Biomass CHP Plant Fussach Recovered wood input (different qualities) Amount 78,000 m³/a Primary energy 58.5 GWh/a Fuel power 7.8 MW biomass Electricity Electric power ORC 1.1 MW el Annual electricity production 8 GWh el /a Heat Thermal power (district and process heat) 5.8 MW th Annual heat production 44 GWh th /a Investment costs Total investment 8. Mio Source:

25 Biomass CHP Plant Güssing/Austria Fluidized bed gasification + gas engine solid biomass (chips) 4.5 MW th / 2 MW el Source:

26 Scheme of CHP Plant Güssing

27 Biodiesel Busses in Graz/Austria Grazer Stadtwerke AG Verkehrsbetriebe

28 Amounts of Recovered Wood in 20 COST E31 Countries Austria Belgium Croatia Denmark Finland France Germany Greece Hungary Ireland Italy The Netherlands Norway Poland Portugal Serbia-Montenegro Slovenia Spain Sweden United Kingdon Other uses: landfill, reuse, composting 28% 30 Mio. t/a (65 kg/(capita * year) corresponds to Energy generation 34% Recycling 38% about 13% of annual round wood consumption 227 Mio. Mio t/a about 444 PJ/a or 0.7% of primary energy consumption 67,000 PJ/a

29 Amounts of Recovered Wood in 20 COST E31 Countries The current management of recovered wood 30 Mio. t/a in the 20 COST E31 countries contribute to 150 PJ/a fossil fuel saving because of energy generation 10 Mio. t/a fresh wood saving because of recycling and reuse 11 Mio. t/a CO 2 reduction

30 Future Perspectives for Recovered Wood Characteristics Share Energy/Recycling CO 2 - Reduction Mio. t/a Demand of fresh wood Mio. t/a Current situation in 20 European Conutries 34% / 38% (others: 28%) Energy and Recycling 50% / 50% More Recycling 20% / 80% More Energy generation 100% / 0% -34 0

31 Conclusions Austrian Success Stories on bioenergy Significant greenhouse gas reduction with energy from biomass compared to fossil energy Many possibilities to generate energy from biomass heat, electricity, transportation

32 Outlook Source: 4 th Assessment Report,

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