Brigitte WEISS Energy and Environmental Technologies Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology

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1 Research for a Sustainable Development Experiences from Austria Brigitte WEISS Energy and Environmental Technologies Federal Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology

2 Contents Why sustainable technologies? Examples and activities from Austria, sucess stories International technology cooperation Experiences and benefits Example I: biomass stoves Example II: solar thermal applications

3 Contents Why sustainable technologies? Examples and activities from Austria, sucess stories International technology cooperation Experiences and benefits Example I: biomass stoves Example II: solar thermal applications

4 Climate Change Source: Technology Review, MIT, Vol. 10/No. 3 (March 2005) aus Vortrag R. C. Marlay

5 Growth in energy demand Exajoules Andere Bioenergie Solarenergie Wasserkraft Kernenergie Gas (Methan) Rohöl Kohle World-wide primary energy mix, (Source: IIASA-WEC 1998, scenario A3)

6 Energy poverty Millions of People Without Electricity Millions of People Relying on Biomass 1.6 Billions of people world wide without electricity, 2.4 billions relying on traditional biomass (Source: IEA World Energy Outlook 2002)

7 Equal distribution developing countries industrialised countries equal use of ressources and doubling of the population of dev. countries (based on consumption level of industrialised countries) equal use of ressources at current population level (based on consumption level of industrialised countries) Global mass-flows consumption per-capita today Equal use of ressources, doubling of the population of dev. countries and half ot the current mass-flows Source: Wuppertal Institut für Klima, Umwelt, und Energie

8 Contents Why sustainable technologies? Examples and activities from Austria, sucess stories International technology cooperation Experiences and benefits Example I: biomass stoves Example II: solar thermal applications

9 One Austrian answer R&D Programme Technologies for a sustainable development Goal: to foster a structural change leading towards a sustianable economy through research, development and dissemination Programme started in 1995 Based on long term R&D tradition in energy and environmental R&D R&D topics: renewables, energy and ressource efficiency, strategic solution, socioeconomic aspects

10 Sustainable technology: 7 key principles Orientation at function / service Resource efficiency Use of renewable resources Multiple (cascadic) use of resources Embedding, flexibility and adaptibility (appropriateness) Tolerance (fault-proof), ability to learn and riskprecaution Ability to ensure work, income and quality of life

11 The programme R&D projects and accompanying measures Shows that sustainable technologies and solutions really work: demonstration projects Dissemination of the concept of sustainable development 3 subprogrammes: Building of Tomorrow Factory of Tomorrow Energy Systems of Tomorrow

12 The Programme Building of Tomorrow Support of research and development projects concerning energy efficiency, the use of renewable energy sources and the use of ecological building materials in the building sector. The results obtained will be implemented through trend-setting demonstration buildings. Factory of Tomorrow Support of research and development projects in the field of production processes, product service systems and renewable resources. The results will be put into practice through trend-setting demonstration projects. Energy Systems of Tomorrow Support of research and development projects concerning renewable energy sources, efficiency, system innovations and strategies. The results will be realised through trend-setting regional model systems.

13 Examples in Austria Façade ade integrated solar collector for water and space heating

14 Examples in Austria Straw house in passive house standard Office and exhibition Building Wall system: wood construction Insulation: straw bale Solar heating and cooling system

15 Examples in Austria Straw for insulation Use of renewable ressources: enviromentally friendly, no hazarduous waste Use of agricultural by-product: chap and locally available, income for local people

16 Examples in Austria Ecological alpine refuge hut, Alps, Hochschwab,, 2153 m Autarkic building maintainance Collecting rain water from roof Warm water produced by solar collectors Electricity produced by photovoltaic panels and wind

17 Examples in Austria Biomass Heating Plant Passail Biomass district heating Heat from local source: wood Thermal capacity: X MW Heat supply for Y households and Z (source: Lev)

18 Examples in Austria Steam Cycle CHP plant Reutte Heat and electricity from biomass 6,3 MW district heat (29 GWh/yr) 1,3 MW grid electricity (4,7 GWh/yr) Biomass input: t/yr Heat supply for Y households and Z (CHP: combined heat and power, source: VKW)

19 Examples in Austria Gasification CHP demo plant Güssing Fluidised bed gasifier 8 MW tot, 2 MW el 4,5 MW th Production of: heat, power, fuels for transport, syngas (CHP: combined heat and power, source: RENET)

20 Examples in Austria Combined logwood and pellet boiler Example for small scale biomass combustion: systems for individual households, small settlements, residential blocks Heating and hot water for households Automatic heating system user friendly high-tech biomass heating system (Source: Herz)

21 The achievements of Austrian R&D Example bioenergy CO (mg/nm3) Jahr Emission reduction CO emissions are an indicator for the quality of combustion and emissions in total R&D lead to a significant reduction of CO emissions of wood boilers for domestic use (Source: BLT Wieselburg)

22 The achievements of Austrian R&D example bioenergy Wirkungsgrad % Jahr Efficiency increase Efficiency is the decisive factor for good fuel use: low costs, more sustainability, get more for less R&D lead to a significant efficiency increase of wood boilers for domestic use (Source: BLT Wieselburg)

23 Accompanying factors for successful implementation example bioenergy Market development and professionalisation Competition and current improvements Guaranteed quality of biomass boilers Qualification courses for installers by Austrian biomass Association and boiler producers Service networks: service as a key for success 24 h repair guarantee, service contract, remote control of boiler paramenters by producers

24 Bioenergy use in Austria Primary Energy in Austria (Source: Wifo 1997) Other renewables: almost 100% bioenergy Bioenergy has a significant role in the Austrian energy system Hydropower 14,6% Other Renewables 12,1% Fossil fuels 73,3%

25 Contents Why sustainable technologies? Examples and activities from Austria, sucess stories International technology cooperation Experiences and benefits Example I: biomass stoves Example II: solar thermal applications

26 International technology collaboration Austrian activities IEA (International Energy Agency): technology programmes EU framework programmes International R&D projects ERA NET Networks and Centres of Excellence Technology Platforms Others

27 International collaboration - the benefits: Strengthening of R&D capacities Sharing of costs, pooling technical ressources Avoidance of the duplication of efforts and the repetition of errors learning from experiences of others Better visibility at international level Better international R&D contacts help to develop new ideas (+ proposals, projects, )

28 Two examples for technology collaboration success stories Examples in a field of high priority topics of Austrian energy R&D: Biomass Solar thermal appplications Technologies developed in Austria are adapted and implemented in developing countries Implementation of projects funded by ADA (Austrian Development Agency)

29 Combustion of firewood Open fire for cooking, heating and lighting Some 2.4 billions of people worls-wide rely on traditional biomass Problem: Combustion of firewood with low efficiency (10 20%) 80 90% of fuel is wasted High emissions (health problems!) High fuel demand causes deforesteation, desertification and heavy work loads on women and children

30 Clay stove for use in dev. countries Source: Austrian energy agency High efficiency clay stove based on austrian tile stove technology Based on centuries of technology experience in Austrian Alps Efficiency up to over 80% Built with locally available materials Training necessary to spread technology

31 Project design Baseline study to learn local needs Cooking habits, fuel availability, ethnosociology, gender situation, kitchen economy, income opportunities, technology acceptance, feasability and desirability Technology development Source: Austrian energy agency Following the results of baseline study, construction and optimisation of prototype stove on the test site

32 Implementation Implementation in target areas: Zimbabwe, Bhutan wood stove programme, support scheme Training and dissemination Project partners: IEZ, Johannes Kepler University Linz Austrian Tiled Stove Association Austrian Energy Agency Implementation funded by Austrian Development Agency R&D funded by Ministry for Transport, Innovation and Technology

33 Solar thermal applications Excellent framework conditions for solar application in Zimbabwe, replacement of: Electricity for hot water preparation: high prices, supply problems, limited access to electricity (infrastructure) da noch was rein Traditional solar drying of agricultural products: poor quality, high workloads, high losses Zimbabwe produces over t of fruits and vegetables/yr, 70% from smallholder farmers, 45% lost

34 Project design Starting point: Some 20 yrs of Austrian experience in solar energy Baseline study in Zimbabwe to learn about local needs and framework conditions Technology development, construction of prototypes and optimisation in close cooperation with local partners: University Harare, companies, installers Training courses for installers and producers Implementation: Facilities for hot water preparation, solar dryers for agricultural products

35 Drying chamber Coffee dryers, Zimbabwe Air collector Source: AEE-Intec

36 Speke Hotel in Kampala, Uganda Source: AEE-Intec

37 Implementation Implementation and dissemination in Zimbabwe up to 8/2004: 375 solaranlagen 6 solar dryers 8 training courses with 179 participants Dissemination also in Uganda, Iran Project partners: AEE-Intec Implementation funded by Austrian Development Agency

38 Technology is not the only solution, but a valuable instrument to implement sustainable development. There is not one single technology that can solve all problems, but a mix that has to be well adapted to every single situation. Often simple solutions are the best.

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