2014 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Sample Tournament

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1 2014 ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Sample Tournament Station A: Neurons and Reflex Arc Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Use the Diagram 1 in answering Questions Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. 2. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled B on the diagram. 3. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled C on the diagram. 4. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled D on the diagram. 5. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled E on the diagram. Use Diagram 2 in answering Questions Which neuron (A, B, C) is the interneuron? 7. Which neuron (A, B, C) is the sensory neuron? 8. Which neuron (A, B, C) is the motor neuron? 9. Give the name and function of the structure labeled 5 on the diagram? 10. Using the numbers representing axon, cell body, and dendrite, give the numbers in the order of the travel of the impulse along the neuron. 1

2 Station A: Reflex Arc Diagram 1 Diagram 2 Use the Diagram 1 in answering Questions Give the name and functions of the structure labeled A on the diagram. Receptor - reacts to a stimulus 2. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled B on the diagram. Sensory Neuron (Afferent Neuron) - conducts impulses to the CNS 3. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled C on the diagram. Interneuron (Association Neuron) - consists of one or more synapses in the CNS (most are in the spine) 4. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled D on the diagram. Motor Neuron (Efferent Neuron) - conducts impulses from CNS to effector. 5. Give the name and functions of the structure labeled E on the diagram. Effector - muscle fibers or glands, responds by contracting or secreting a product. Use Diagram 2 in answering Questions Which neuron (A, B, C) is the interneuron? C 7. Which neuron (A, B, C) is the sensory neuron? B 8. Which neuron (A, B, C) is the motor neuron? A 9. Give the name and function of the structure labeled 5 on the diagram? Mylin Sheath fatty layer that provides insulation for the axon 10. Using the numbers representing axon, cell body, and dendrite, give the numbers in the order of the travel of the impulse through the body 3-> 2-> 1 2

3 Station B: Brain DIAGRAM 1 DIAGRAM 2 For Questions 11-15, use Diagram 1 to give the letter from the diagram for the location and then give the function for the following of the structures: 11. Medulla oblongata 12. Reticular formation 13. Cerebellum 14. Cerebrum 15. Hypothalamus For Questions 11-15, use Diagram 2 to give the letter from the diagram for the location and then give the function for the following of the structures: 16. Sensory-Motor Area 17. Auditory Area 18. Broca s area in the Left Hemisphere 19. Visual Area 20. Frontal eye field 3

4 Station B: Brain DIAGRAM 1 DIAGRAM 2 For Questions 11-15, use Diagram 1 to give the letter from the diagram for the location and then give the function for the following of the structures: 11. Medulla oblongata G vital reflexes as heart beat, respiration 12. Reticular formation F sets priorities 13. Cerebellum L-muscle coordination, muscle tone, balance 14. Cerebrum A conscious activities 15. Hypothalamus B control of hormones For Questions 11-15, use Diagram 2 to give the letter from the diagram for the location and then give the function for the following of the structures: 16. Sensory-Motor Area D- impulses come in and voluntary responses go out 17. Auditory Area I-hearing 18. Broca s area in the Left Hemisphere K- production of language or speech 19. Visual Area F- receives visual information from thalamus and associated with G the visual association area that interprets the visual information that has been received 20. Frontal eye field C- visual attention and eye movements 4

5 Station C: Nerve Impulse Mechanism Explain the mechanism by which a nerve impulse travels along a nerve cell. Use the diagrams if it will help you with your explanation. Sodium-potassium pump Action Potential Graph For Questions 26 30, use the letters from the Action Potential Graph to answer the questions? 26. Which letter represent when the potassium channels open? 27. Which letter represent when the sodium channels open? 28. Which letter represent when the more sodium channels open? 29. Which letter represent when the sodium channels close? 30. Which letter represent when the potassium channels close? 5

6 Station C: Nerve Impulse Mechanism Explain the mechanism by which a nerve impulse travels along a nerve cell. Use the diagrams if it will help you with your explanation. Sodium-potassium pump Action Potential Graph Sodium pump explained Neurons have a charge difference from the extracellular fluid surrounding them and this difference is termed a potential. The nerve impulse uses sodium and potassium ions to change potential forming an impulse or action potential by depolarization and repolarization and is termed its ACTION POTENTIAL Na +- K + pump - Mechanism for nerve impulse movement o The cell membrane of the neuron has thousands of tiny molecules called gates which allow sodium or potassium ions to pass through o Generally the gates are closed when the neuron is at rest o A nerve impulse begins when an impulse disturbs the cell membrane enough to OPEN the Sodium Gates. o The opening of the sodium gates allows sodium ions to MOVE INTO the neuron causing the inside to become more Positive than the outside with is called depolarized o As the impulse passes, the Potassium Gates OPEN allowing potassium ions to FLOW OUT so the inside resumes a negative charge and is termed repolarized. After a nerve impulse there is a short period when the neuron cannot transmit an impulse while it returns to normal the Refractory Period when the sodium-potassium pumps o returns sodium ions to the outside and potassium ions back to the inside returning the neuron to its RESTING POTENTIAL For Questions 26 30, use the letters from the Action Potential Graph to answer the questions? 26. Which letter represent when the potassium channels open? D 27. Which letter represent when the sodium channels open? A 28. Which letter represent when the more sodium channels open? B 29. Which letter represent when the sodium channels close? C 30. Which letter represent when the potassium channels close? E 6

7 Station D: Synapse & Brain Waves Explain the process occurring as an impulse reaches the Axon Terminal Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Theta Brain Waves For questions 36 39, identify the above resting wave forms from top to bottom Which of these wave forms tend to be present posteriorly more than anteriorly and are especially prominent with closed eyes and with relaxation? 7

8 Station D: Synapse & Brain Waves Explain the process occurring as an impulse reaches the Axon Terminal o When the impulse reaches the Axon Terminal, dozens of vesicles fuse with the cell membrane and discharge the neurotransmitter into the Synaptic Cleft or Space o When the neurotransmitter diffuses across the synapse and binds with the receptor on the dendrite of the next nerve cells, the new impulse is started in the dendrite o After the neurotransmitter relays it message, it is rapidly removed or destroyed. Alpha, Beta, Delta, and Theta Brain Waves For questions 36 39, identify the above resting wave forms from top to bottom. 36. Delta waves 37. Theta waves 38. Alpha waves 39. Beta waves 40. Which of these wave forms tend to be present posteriorly more than anteriorly and are especially prominent with closed eyes and with relaxation? Alpha waves 8

9 Station E: Human Skin Refer to the Skin Diagram for Questions What is number 1and what does it do? 42. What is number 2 and what does it do? 43. What is number 3 and what does it do? 44. What is number 8 and what does it do? 45. What is number 9 and what does it do? For questions 46-50, use Figures 1 and Which Figures (1 or 2) represents thin skin? 47. Where is thin skin found on the body? 48. Which Figure (1 or 2) is thick skin> 49. Where is thick skin found on the body? 50. How is thick skin different from thin skin? 9

10 Station E: Human Skin Refer to the Skin Diagram for Questions What is number 1and what does it do? Epidermis outer layer provides physical, chemical, and biological barriers 42. What is number 2 and what does it do? Dermis second layer has blood vessels, nerves, glands, and hair follicles 43. What is number 3 and what does it do? Subdermal layer - or hypodermis- below skin attaches skin to underlying organs and tissues has connective tissue and adipose tissue for insulation 44. What is number 8 and what does it do? Sweat gland - produce sweat to cool body 45. What is number 9 and what does it do? Subaceous gland - produce oil which lubricates hair and skin For questions 46-50, use Figures 1 and Which Figures (1 or 2) represents thin skin? Fig Where is thin skin found on the body? all parts of body except palms of hands and soles of feet 48. Which Figure (1 or 2) is thick skin> Fig Where is thick skin found on the body? palms of hands and soles of feet 50. How is thick skin different from thin skin? hairless, has thick epidermis, lacks sebaceous and has more sweat glands plus sense receptors are more densely packed 10

11 Station F: Cells and Layers of Skin Use A-F for Questions (Cell Types) use letters (G-N) on the diagram. 51. Which cell is the melanocyte? 52. Which cell is a live keratinocyte? 53. Which cell is a dead keratinocyte? 54. Which cell is a Merkel cell and helps with touch? 55. Which cell is a Langerhans cell and participates in immune responses? Use G-L for Questions (Cell Layers) use letters (A-F) on the diagram 56. Which layer is present only in thick skin? What is its name? 57. Which layer is where skin cells reproduce? What is its name? 58. Which layer Is the layer of dead flat keratinocytes? What is its name? 59. Which layer spine-like projections that tightly join the cells together? What is its name? 60. Which layer marks the transition between deeper metabolically active layers and the dead cells of the superficial strata? What is its name? 11

12 Station F: Cells and Layers of Skin Use A-F for Questions (Cell Types) use letters (G-N) on the diagram. 51. Which cell is the melanocyte? K 52. Which cell is a live keratinocyte? I 53. Which cell is a dead keratinocyte? G 54. Which cell is a Merkel cell and helps with touch? L 55. Which cell is a Langerhans cell and participates in immune responses? J Use G-L for Questions (Cell Layers) use letters (A-F) on the diagram 56. Which layer is present only in thick skin? What is its name? B Stratum lucidum 57. Which layer is where skin cells reproduce? What is its name? E Stratum basale 58. Which layer is the layer of dead flat keratinocytes? What is its name? A Stratum corneum 59. Which layer spine-like projections that tightly join the cells together? What is its name? D Stratum spinosum 60. Which layer marks the transition between deeper metabolically active layers and the dead cells of the superficial strata? What is its name? B Stratum granulosum 12

13 Station G: Skin What pigments are responsible for skin color and what factors are involved in skin color? How does UV light affect the skin How does aging affect the skin and the glands and accessory organs within the skin? 13

14 Station G: Skin What pigments are responsible for skin color and what factors are involved in skin color? How does UV light affect the skin Skin Pigments - three pigments are responsible for skin color- melanin, carotene, hemoglobin genes, sun exposure, volume of blood in the capillaries and RBC unoxygenated blood determine skin color Melanin is located mostly in epidermis Number of melanocytes are about the same in all races Difference in skin color is due to the amount of pigment that melanocytes produce and disperse to keratinocytes. Freckles are caused by the accumulation of melanin in patches Liver spots are also caused by the accumulation of melanin Melanocytes synthesize melanin from an amino acid called tyrosine along with an enzyme called tyrosinase. All this occurs in the melanosome which is an organelle in the melanocyte. Two types of melanin: eumelanin which is brownish black and pheomelanin which is reddish yellow Fair-skinned people have more pheomelanin and dark skinned people have more eumelanin UV light increases enzymatic activity in the melanosomes and leads to increasedmelanin production. A tan is achieved because the amount of melanin has increased as well as the darkness of the melanin. (Eumelanin provides protection from UV exposure while pheomelanin tends to break down with too much UV exposure) The melanin provides protection from the UV radiation but prolonged exposure may cause skin cancer How does aging affect the skin and the glands and accessory organs within the skin? Beginning in our 20s, the effects of aging begin to be visible in the skin. Stem cell activity declines: skin thin, repair difficult Epidermal dendritic cells decrease: reduced immune response Vitamin D3 production declines: calcium absorption declines and brittle bones Glandular activity declines: skin dries, body can overheat Blood supply to dermis declines: tend to feel cold Hair follicles die or produce thinner hair Dermis thins and becomes less elastic wrinkles Sex characteristics fade: fat deposits spread out, hair patterns change Genetically programmed chronologic aging causes biochemical changes in collagen connective tissues that give skin its firmness and elasticity. The genetic program for each person is different, so the loss of skin firmness and elasticity occurs at different rates and different times in one individual as compared with another. As skin becomes less elastic, it also becomes drier. Underlying fat padding begins to disappear. With loss of underlying support by fat padding and connective tissues, the skin begins to sag. It looks less supple and wrinkles form. The skin may be itchy with increased dryness. A cut may heal more slowly. 14

15 Station H: Immune Cells 71. Where are the precursor cells which form the immune cells produced? 72. What do the cells of the immune system defend against? 73. The lymph tissue assists in immunity where are these lymph tissues found? 74. Which cells are the chief phagocytes in the blood and become macrophages when in organs? 75. Which cells make and secrete antibodies? 76. Which cells recognize foreign antigens and secrete antibodies to guide the attack? 77. Which cells kills cells with the guidance of antibodies? 78. Which cells destroy worms? 79. Which cells trigger the inflammatory response? 80. Which cells are attacked by the HIV virus? 15

16 Station H: Immune Cells 71. Where are the precursor cells which form the immune cells produced? bone marrow 72. What do the cells of the immune system defend against? infectious agents, malfunctioning cells or abnormal body cells and foreign cells or particles 73. The lymph tissue assists in immunity where are these lymph tissues found? spleen, thymus, tonsils, lymph nodes, GALT, MALT, SALT 74. Which cells are the chief phagocytes in the blood and become macrophages when in organs? monocytes dendrite cells are also phagocytes in tissues that are in contact with external environment 75. Which cells make and secrete antibodies? plasma cells or plasma B cells 76. Which cells recognize foreign antigens and secrete antibodies to guide the attack? B cells 77. Which cells kills cancer cells, cells infected esp with viruses and other damaged cells? NK cells or cytotoxic T cells 78. Which cells destroy parasitic worms? eosinophils 79. Which cells trigger the inflammatory response and release histimines? basophils and Mast cells 80. Which cells are attacked by the HIV virus? helper T cells also macrophages and dendrite cells 16

17 Station I: Inflammation Process 81. What is the body s first line of defense? What helps with is defense? 82. What is the body s second line of defense? 83. What is the body s third line of defense? 84. Which line of defense is most involved in the inflammation process? 85. Is the response associated with the inflammation process - specific or nonspecific? Why? 86. What is the role of complement proteins? 87. What is the collective name for the types of immune cells with destroy invading organisms? 88. What is the major mechanism used to destroy invading organisms? 89. What make up the pus that is formed during the inflammation process? 90. What chemicals are released which cause redness, swelling, and pain? 17

18 Station I: Inflammation Process 81. What is the body s first line of defense? What helps with is defense? prevent entry intact skin and mucosae and their secretions 82. What is the body s second line of defense? fight infection and keep it local - phagocytic white blood cells, antimicrobial proteins, and other cells 83. What is the body s third line of defense? (Specific or innate response) combat major infections - Lymphocytes and Antibodies work on specific invaders produce memory cells to protect against another infection 84. Which line of defense is most involved in the inflammation process? Second line of defense 85. Is the response associated with the inflammation process - specific or nonspecific? Why? Non-specific it is designed to be immediate and fight all invaders 86. What is the collective name for the types of immune cells with destroy invading organisms? phagocytes mainly neutrophils 87. What is the role of complement proteins? activate other proteins in a domino fashion resulting in a cascade of reactions which attract phagocytes 88. What is the major mechanism used to destroy invading organisms? phagocytosis 89. What make up the pus that is formed during the inflammation process? Dead neutrophils make up a large proportion of puss 90. What chemicals are released which cause redness, swelling, and pain? histimines this is why antihistimines are used to reduce inflammation 18

19 Station J. Immune Responses The third line of defense is very specific and involves two processes. Use the diagram of these two processes in answering Questions Which is the third line of defense the adaptive response specific or nonspecific? 92. Which is the third line of defense the adaptive response immediate or is there a lag time between exposure and maximum response? 93. What is the name of the response which defends against extracellular pathogens by binding to antigens? 94. What is the name of the response process which defends against intracellular pathogens and cancer by binding to and lysing these cells? 95. Antigen-presenting cells stimulate what type of cells? What letter is it on the diagram? 96. Which type of cells stimulate B cells, cytotoxic Tcells and memory T cells? What letter is it on the diagram? 97. Free antigens directly activate what type of cells? What letter is it on the diagram? 98. What cells secrete antibodies and are derived from B cells? What letter is it on the diagram? 99. Which cells binding to and lyse infected cells or cancer cells? What letter is it on the diagram? 100. Which cells provide memory for the two response mechanisms to help with future infections? 19

20 Station J. Immune Responses The third line of defense is very specific and involves two processes. Use the diagram of these two processes in answering Questions Which is the third line of defense the adaptive response specific or nonspecific? specific 92. Which is the third line of defense the adaptive response immediate or is there a lag time between exposure and maximum response? lag time between exposure and maximum response 93. What is the name of the response which defends against extracellular pathogens by binding to antigens? Humoral (antibody-mediated) immune response 94. What is the name of the response process which defends against intracellular pathogens and cancer by binding to and lysing these cells? Cell-mediated immune response 95. Antigen-presenting cells stimulate what type of cells? What letter is it on the diagram? Helper T cells C on the diagram 96. Which type of cells stimulate B cells, cytotoxic Tcells and memory T cells? What letter is it on the diagram? Helper T cells C on the diagram 97. Free antigens directly activate what type of cells? What letter is it on the diagram? B cells A on the diagram 98. What cells secrete antibodies and are derived from B cells? What letter is it on the diagram? Plasma cells B on the diagram 99. Which cells binding to and lyse infected cells or cancer cells? What letter is it on the diagram? Active cytotoxic T cells H on the diagram 100. Which cells provide memory for the two response mechanisms to help with future infections? What letters is it on the diagram? Memory B cells and Memory T cells E & F on the diagram 20

21 Station K: Disorders For Questions , give the effects of the following drugs on the nervous system 101. Alcohol 102. Caffeine 103. Nicotine 104. Distinguish between 1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd degree burns. For Questions , use the pictures (A,B, and C) of skin cancer Which picture is of Basal cell carcinoma? 106. Which picture is of Squamous Cell Carcinoma? 107. Which picture is of Melanoma? 108. Which of these types of skin cancer is the most deadly? Why? 109. Which type of cells are infected by the HIV virus within the immune system? 110. Why is tissue matching so important in organ transplants 21

22 Station K: Disorders Give the effects of the following drugs on the nervous system 101. Alcohol - central nervous system depressant cell membranes are highly permeable to alcohol so once in the bloodstream it can diffuse into almost all body tissues. It is absorbed in the stomach so it gets into the blood stream quickly and slows down function of the nervous system 102. Caffeine -- acts as a central nervous system stimulant - caffeine suppresses melatonin for up to 10 hours and also promotes adrenalin. Melatonin is strongly associated with quality sleep, while adrenalin is the neurotransmitter associated with alertness 103. Nicotine - small doses of nicotine have a stimulating action on the central nervous system it is highly addictive nicotine's effects on the brain cause an increased release of neurotransmitters associated with pleasure. The brain quickly adjusts to repeated nicotine consumption by decreasing the amount of neurotransmitters released. The effect of this increased tolerance is that the smoker must continue to use nicotine in order to avoid the feelings of discomfort associated with withdrawal from the drug. Irritability and anxiety often ensue during nicotine withdrawal 104. Distinguish between 1 st, 2 nd, and 3 rd degree burns. 1st degree burns skin is inflamed, red - surface layer of skin is shed 2nd degree burns deeper injury - blisters form as fluid builds up beneath outer layers of epidermis 3rd degree burns full thickness of skin is destroyed -sometimes even subcutaneous tissues results in ulcerating wounds For Questions , use the pictures (A,B, and C) of skin cancer Which picture is of Basal cell carcinoma? B 106. Which picture is of Squamous Cell Carcinoma? C 107. Which picture is of Melanoma? A 108. Which of these types of skin cancer is the most deadly? Why? Malignant Melanoma it spreads rapidly often begins in molds 109. Which type of cells are infected by the HIV virus within the immune system? HIV infects vital cells in the human immune system such as helper T cells, macrophages, and dendrite cells 110. Why is tissue matching so important in organ transplants? human immune system is designed to attack anything it doesn't recognize white blood cells recognize the body's tissues by looking for a set of antigens on the surface of each cell so it is important to find tissue that has as many of the right MHC markers as possible 22

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