Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized"

Transcription

1 Resting membrane potential ~ -70mV - Membrane is polarized (ie) Electrical charge on the outside of the membrane is positive while the electrical charge on the inside of the membrane is negative

2 Changes in membrane potential: Terminology Depolarization: Inside of cell becomes less negative relative to outside (> 70 mv) Repolarization: Membrane returns to the resting potential ( 70 mv) after depolarization Hyperpolarization: Inside of cell becomes more negative relative to outside (< 70 mv) Graded potentials: Localized changes in membrane potential (either depolarization or hyperpolarization) - (eg) A change in membrane potential from -70 to -60mV = a 10 mv graded potential Action potentials: Rapid, substantial depolarization of the membrane ( 70 mv to +30 mv to 70 mv all in 1 ms) - Signal over long distances

3 The Structure of a Neuron Nerve impulse is generated here Direction of Impulse Nerve Impulse: An electrical charge that passes from one neuron to the next,and finally to an end organ, such as a group of muscle fibers

4 RESTING STATE Resting state

5 An action potential Serve as electrical signals in excitable tissues

6 Action potential Starts as a graded potential (Small localised change in membrane potential) Requires depolarization greater than the threshold value: mv Once threshold is met or exceeded, the all-or-none principle applies The strength of stimulus is not coded by the amplitude of the AP, but by the frequency. - When a greater stimulus strength is applied to a neuron identical AP s are produced more frequently.

7 Action potential Overshoot All AP s are of the same duration (~ 2 msec) and amplitude (~ -70 to +30 mv) Hyperpolarization Starts as a graded potential (Small localised change in membrane potential) Requires depolarization greater than the threshold value: mv Once threshold is met or exceeded, the all-or-none principle applies The strength of stimulus is not coded by the amplitude of the AP, but by the frequency. - When a greater stimulus strength is applied to a neuron identical AP s are produced more frequently.

8 Action potential The role of ion channels

9 Refractory period As stimulus intensity increases, the frequency of AP s increase Time between successive AP s is reduced Another AP can not be produced until the preceding one has finished Refractory period: Time during which the patch of axon membrane is unable to produce another AP

10 Value of the refractory period? - Allows propagation of action potential

11 The Velocity of an Action Potential Effect of myelination Action potential is faster in myelinated fibers Effect of neuron diameter Larger diameter neurons conduct nerve impulses faster Larger diameter neurons present less resistance to current flow

12 Conduction of action potentials in unmyelinated axons - Contiguous conduction Conduction speed: Nerve impulse travels 1 meter in 0.1s (100ms) = 10 meters/second

13 Neurons have cable properties This means that neurons can transmit charges through its cytoplasm ~ 1-2mm However these cable properties are poor Why? 1. There is high internal resistance to the spread of charges 2. Many charges leak out of the axon membrane

14 Myelinated axon Myelin sheath acts as insulation Prevents flux of ions across the membrane Nodes of Ranvier: Interruptions in the myelin sheath (~1mm apart) Ion channels are concentrated at the nodes of Ranvier This is where the AP s occur Cable properties mean the AP s jump from node to node Saltatory conduction Conduction is faster in myelinated than unmyelinated axons

15 Conduction of action potentials in myelinated axons - Saltatory conduction Conduction speed: Nerve impulse travels 1 meter in 0.007s (7ms) = 143 meters/second (14 times faster than in unmyelinated axon)

16 Multiple sclerosis is an autoimmune demyleinating disease of the CNS Myelin sheath Degradation of myelin sheath in multiple sclerosis Nerve cell MRI scan showing lesions in MS brain Muscle T-cells, macrophages & B-cells infiltrate the CNS and attack the myelin sheeth resulting in demyelination

17 Dysregulated conduction in a demyelinated nerve fibres in multiple sclerosis Normal Multiple Sclerosis Symptoms of MS: - Blurred vision -Muscle weakness -Ataxia Consequence of demyelination in MS - Loss of axonal conduction for neurons of the CNS and in clinical disability

18 The Synapse Synapse: Site of functional connection between a neuron and another cell CNS: Another neuron PNS: Another neuron or an effector cell in a muscle or gland

19 Synapses Point of communication between neurones Most synapses involve neurotransmitters Synapses can be: Excitatory Inhibitory The two types of postsynaptic potentials are: EPSP: Excitatory postsynaptic potentials IPSP: Inhibitory postsynaptic potentials

20 Glutamate generates an excitatory post-synaptic potential (EPSP) EAA (Glutamate) EAA Ca Glutamate (NMDA) receptor is a ligand-gated Ca 2+ channel

21 GABA generates an inhibitory post-synaptic potential MILLIVOLTS -50 GABA THRESHOLD GABA Cl- -80 TIME GABA A receptor is a ligand-gated Cl - channel

22 Excitatory Postsynaptic potentials (EPSPs) EPSPs are graded potentials that can initiate an action potential in an axon EPSPs bring the RMP closer to threshold and therefore closer to an action potential

23 Inhibitory synapses and IPSPs Neurotransmitter binding to a receptor at inhibitory synapses: Causes the membrane to become more permeable to potassium and chloride ions Leaves the charge on the inner surface more negative (due to flow of K+ out of the cell and the flow of Cl - in) IPSPs bring the RMP further away from the threshold Thereby reducing the postsynaptic neuron s ability to produce an action potential

24 Summation A single EPSP cannot induce an action potential EPSPs must summate temporally or spatially to induce an action potential Temporal summation One pre-synaptic neuron transmits impulses in rapidfire order Spatial summation Postsynaptic neuron is stimulated by a large number of pre-synaptic neurons at the same time IPSPs can also summate with EPSPs, canceling each other out

25 Recording electrode

26 Recording electrode

27 Integration of EPSPs and IPSPs occurs here

28 Key steps in chemical neurotransmission 1. Synthesis 2. Storage 3. Release Action potential Ca 2+ influx NT release (Exocytosis) 4. Receptor binding & activation Generation of a postsynaptic potential 5. Inactivation Metabolism/Reuptake Pre-synaptic neuron Post-synaptic neuron

29 What happens on the pre-synaptic side? AP arrives at the nerve terminal Nerve terminal membrane is depolarized Depolarization causes voltage regulated Ca 2+ channels to open Ca 2+ influx Action potential Ca 2+ Ca 2+ [Ca 2+ ]i = 100 nm [Ca 2+ ]e = 1-2 mm (10,000 fold difference approx.) Ca 2+ enters the nerve terminal down the concentration gradient

30 What happens on the pre-synaptic side? Ca 2+ activates enzymes and proteins in the nerve terminal Synaptic vesicles fuse with the plasma membrane & release their contents into the synaptic cleft by exocytosis Action potential Ca 2+ Ca 2+ There is a time delay of 0.5ms in synaptic transmission Time needed for Ca 2+ to enter & cause exocytosis of transmitter

31 Neurotransmitters Amines: Catecholamines, Acetylcholine, Serotonin Amino acids: Glutamate, GABA and Glycine Neuropeptides Action potential Ca 2+ Generate EPSP or IPSP Ca 2+ Neurotransmitters can be either exicitatory or inhibitory - Amount of neurotransmitter released is proportional to the frequency of action potentials produced at the nerve terminal

32 Summary: The Nerve Impulse A neuron's RMP of 70 mv is maintained by the sodiumpotassium pump. Changes in membrane potential occur when ion channels open, permitting ions to move from one side of the membrane to the other. If the membrane potential depolarizes by 15 to 20 mv the threshold is reached, resulting in an action potential. Impulses travel faster in myelinated axons and in neurons with larger diameters. Saltatory conduction refers to an impulse traveling along a myelinated fiber by jumping from one node of Ranvier to the next. Action potential results neurotransmitter release The neurotransmitter can generate an IPSP or EPSP in the post-synaptic neuron

33

Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function

Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function Nervous Systems: Neuron Structure and Function Integration An animal needs to function like a coherent organism, not like a loose collection of cells. Integration = refers to processes such as summation

More information

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling

Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Chapter 8 Neurons, Synapses, and Signaling Overview: Lines of Communication The cone snail kills prey with venom that disables neurons Neurons are nerve cells that transfer information within the body

More information

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making)

Association neurons allow for integration of information, reflexes and associative functions (decision making) The Nervous System Nervous system links sensory receptors and motor effectors Sensory (afferent) neurons carry impulses from receptors Motor (efferent) neurons carry impulses to effectors - muscles and

More information

Medfamily team Medfamily team 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for

Medfamily team Medfamily team 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for 1) The resting membrane potential: a. Is much closer to the equilibrium for Na+ than to the equilibrium potential for K+. b. Is much closer to the equilibrium for K+ than to the equilibrium potential for

More information

Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind

Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind Ch. 7 Neurons: The Matter of the Mind The nervous system: Controls, integrates and coordinates the body s activities Provides rapid and brief responses to stimuli Has 2 major divisions: 1. The central

More information

Nerve Cell Physiology

Nerve Cell Physiology Nerve Cell Physiology body is electrically neutral there are small differences in electrical charge between inside and outside of cell membranes due to differences in + and ions on inside and outside of

More information

Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System. Neuron Structure. Neuron Classification Schemes

Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System. Neuron Structure. Neuron Classification Schemes Biopsychology Chapter 2: Structure and Functions of Cells of the Nervous System Neuron Structure 2.2 Neuron Classification Schemes Neurons can be classified according to Number of axon processes: Unipolar:

More information

Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out

Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out Graded Potentials Passive electrotonic conduction decays with distance 1. Cytoplasm resistance 2. Plasma membrane resistance 3. Charges leaks out Length constant ( ) is defined as the distance over which

More information

CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS

CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS 5.1. SYNAPTIC TRANSMISSION CHAPTER 5 SIGNALLING IN NEURONS One of the main functions of neurons is to communicate with other neurons. An individual neuron may receive information from many different sources.

More information

Biology Slide 1 of 38

Biology Slide 1 of 38 Biology 1 of 38 2 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System What are the functions of the nervous system? 3 of 38 35-2 The Nervous System 1. Nervous system: a. controls and coordinates functions throughout the body

More information

NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY

NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY NEUROSCIENCE EXAM 1 FALL 2011 KEY Multiple Choice: Read the entire question and all answers before choosing (circle the letter ) the one best answer. Each question is worth 2 point 1. Which of the following

More information

Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet

Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet Anatomy & Physiology Neural Tissue Worksheet 1. Name the two major subdivisions of the nervous system Nervous System Nervous System 2. Name the two parts (organs) of the CNS 3. What are the three functions

More information

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue

12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue 12. Nervous System: Nervous Tissue I. Introduction to the Nervous System General functions of the nervous system The nervous system has three basic functions: 1. Gather sensory input from the environment

More information

Neuron Structure and Function

Neuron Structure and Function C H A P T E R 4 Neuron Structure and Function PowerPoint Lecture Slides prepared by Stephen Gehnrich, Salisbury University Neurons Vary in structure and properties Use same basic mechanisms to send signals

More information

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential

Neurophysiology. 2.1 Equilibrium Potential 2 Neurophysiology 2.1 Equilibrium Potential An understanding of the concepts of electrical and chemical forces that act on ions, electrochemical equilibrium, and equilibrium potential is a powerful tool

More information

The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.

The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl. The Action Potential Graphics are used with permission of: adam.com (http://www.adam.com/) Benjamin Cummings Publishing Co (http://www.awl.com/bc) ** If this is not printed in color, it is suggested you

More information

Nerves and Nerve Impulse

Nerves and Nerve Impulse Nerves and Nerve Impulse Terms Absolute refractory period: Period following stimulation during which no additional action potential can be evoked. Acetylcholine: Chemical transmitter substance released

More information

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY

HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY C H A P T E R 1 11 HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY THE HUMAN BODY: AN ORIENTATION FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM & NERVOUS TISSUE C H A P T E R 1 PART I HUMAN ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY FUNDAMENTALS OF THE NERVOUS

More information

The Nervous System CH 28

The Nervous System CH 28 The Nervous System CH 28 Nervous system Structure and function Nerve signals and their transmission Nervous systems The human brain Giant Squid! Artituthus can be 30 ft+ The Giant Squid Nervous System

More information

EXCITABILITY & ACTION POTENTIALS page 1

EXCITABILITY & ACTION POTENTIALS page 1 page 1 INTRODUCTION A. Excitable Tissue: able to generate Action Potentials (APs) (e.g. neurons, muscle cells) B. Neurons (nerve cells) a. components 1) soma (cell body): metabolic center (vital, always

More information

Bi 360: Midterm Review

Bi 360: Midterm Review Bi 360: Midterm Review Basic Neurobiology 1) Many axons are surrounded by a fatty insulating sheath called myelin, which is interrupted at regular intervals at the Nodes of Ranvier, where the action potential

More information

Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998

Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998 Neural Communication by Richard H. Hall, 1998 Forces and Membranes Now that we've considered the structure of the cells of the nervous system it is important to address their principal function, communication.

More information

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli.

FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. FUNCTIONS OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM 1. Sensory input. Sensory receptors detects external and internal stimuli. 2. Integration. The brain and spinal cord process sensory input and produce responses. 3. Homeostasis.

More information

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue

Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Chapter 11: Functional Organization of Nervous Tissue Multiple Choice 1. The nervous system A) monitors internal and external stimuli. B) transmits information in the form of action potentials. C) interprets

More information

CHAPTER 10: NERVOUS SYSTEM I. 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each.

CHAPTER 10: NERVOUS SYSTEM I. 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. OBJECTIVES: 1. Name the two major divisions of the nervous system and list the organs within each. 2. Fully discuss the three general functions of the nervous system, and draw a figure that summarizes

More information

Nerve Cell Flashcards

Nerve Cell Flashcards 1. What does the word innervates mean? Refers to a nerve supplying a muscle or organ. For example, The phrenic nerve innervates the diaphragm muscle. 2. 3 parts of the Nervous System 1. Central Nervous

More information

Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods. 250 20 Yes. 125 20 Yes. 60 20 No. 60 25 No.

Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods. 250 20 Yes. 125 20 Yes. 60 20 No. 60 25 No. 3: Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses (Part 2) Activity 5: The Action Potential: Measuring Its Absolute and Relative Refractory Periods Interval between stimuli Stimulus voltage (mv) Second action potential?

More information

Chapter 7: The Nervous System

Chapter 7: The Nervous System Chapter 7: The Nervous System Objectives Discuss the general organization of the nervous system Describe the structure & function of a nerve Draw and label the pathways involved in a withdraw reflex Define

More information

Structure and Function Relationship in Nerve Cells & Membrane Potential Asist. Prof. Aslı AYKAÇ

Structure and Function Relationship in Nerve Cells & Membrane Potential Asist. Prof. Aslı AYKAÇ Structure and Function Relationship in Nerve Cells & Membrane Potential Asist. Prof. Aslı AYKAÇ NEU Faculty of Medicine Biophysics Nervous System Cells Glia Not specialized for information transfer Support

More information

Nervous Tissue Chapter 12

Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 Nervous Tissue Chapter 12 Overview of the Nervous System Cells of the Nervous System Electrophysiology of Neurons Synapses Subdivisions of the Nervous System Two major anatomical subdivisions: Central

More information

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information

More information

Tibor G. Szántó Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology

Tibor G. Szántó Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen Department of Biophysics and Cell Biology Resting potential, action potential and electrical excitibility. Measurement of membrane potential. Tibor G. Szántó Medical and Health Science Center, University of Debrecen Department of Biophysics and

More information

Chapter 11 Nervous Tissue and Membrane Potentials

Chapter 11 Nervous Tissue and Membrane Potentials Chapter 11 Nervous Tissue and Membrane Potentials There are two types of nervous tissue cells o Neuroglia (glia or glial cells) support the functioning of neurons. o Neurons (nerve cells) transmit electrical

More information

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse

PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse PART I: Neurons and the Nerve Impulse Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. B. C. D. E. F. G. Identify each of the labeled structures of the neuron below. A. dendrites B. nucleus

More information

Nervous system. Figure 1 The nervous system.

Nervous system. Figure 1 The nervous system. Nervous system Components The nervous system is the central nervous system (CNS) - the brain and spinal cord, and the peripheral nervous system (PNS) - nerves connecting to the CNS and serving the body.

More information

REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date. The Resting Membrane Potential

REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date. The Resting Membrane Potential REVIEW SHEET EXERCISE 3 Neurophysiology of Nerve Impulses Name Lab Time/Date ACTIVITY 1 The Resting Membrane Potential 1. Explain why increasing extracellular K + reduces the net diffusion of K + out of

More information

Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation

Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation Lab #6: Neurophysiology Simulation Background Neurons (Fig 6.1) are cells in the nervous system that are used conduct signals at high speed from one part of the body to another. This enables rapid, precise

More information

BIOPHYSICS OF NERVE CELLS & NETWORKS

BIOPHYSICS OF NERVE CELLS & NETWORKS UNIVERSITY OF LONDON MSci EXAMINATION May 2007 for Internal Students of Imperial College of Science, Technology and Medicine This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship

More information

Essay Question for exam 3

Essay Question for exam 3 Essay Question for exam 3 Describe how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons. Include in your description how intracellular voltage changes during the action potential by labeling

More information

The vocabulary of nerve cells and the senses. Resting and action potentials: the transduction and coding of stimuli

The vocabulary of nerve cells and the senses. Resting and action potentials: the transduction and coding of stimuli The vocabulary of nerve cells and the senses Resting and action potentials: the transduction and coding of stimuli The Bottom Line For any external or internal signal to be recognized by the brain it must

More information

Neuron cell structure Dendrites: Soma: Axon hillock: Axon: Myelin sheath: Nodes of Ranvier: Axon terminal / Terminal buttons:

Neuron cell structure Dendrites: Soma: Axon hillock: Axon: Myelin sheath: Nodes of Ranvier: Axon terminal / Terminal buttons: Neuron cell structure s: Contain neuroreceptors that respond when exposed to neurotransmitters. : Body of neuron cell. DNA in the nucleus in the soma code for all the proteins of the neuron. Axon hillock:

More information

Localization of Certain Neurons Neurotransmitters Nerve Conduction. by: Mary V. Andrianopoulos, Ph.D

Localization of Certain Neurons Neurotransmitters Nerve Conduction. by: Mary V. Andrianopoulos, Ph.D Localization of Certain Neurons Neurotransmitters Nerve Conduction by: Mary V. Andrianopoulos, Ph.D Clarification: Types of Neuron There may be none, one, or many dendrites composing part of a neuron.

More information

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour:

Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: Name: Teacher: Olsen Hour: The Nervous System: Part 1 Textbook p216-225 41 In all exercises, quizzes and tests in this class, always answer in your own words. That is the only way that you can show that

More information

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular The Nervous System Overview The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, action and emotion reflects its activity. Its cells communicate by electrical

More information

The action potential and nervous conduction CH Fry and RI Jabr Postgraduate Medical School, Division of Clinical Medicine, University of Surrey, UK

The action potential and nervous conduction CH Fry and RI Jabr Postgraduate Medical School, Division of Clinical Medicine, University of Surrey, UK The action potential and nervous conduction CH Fry and RI Jabr Postgraduate Medical School, Division of Clinical Medicine, University of Surrey, UK CH Fry, PhD, DSc Professor of Physiology, Division of

More information

The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function

The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function C H A P T E R 3 The Action Potential, Synaptic Transmission, and Maintenance of Nerve Function Cynthia J. Forehand, Ph.D. CHAPTER OUTLINE PASSIVE MEMBRANE PROPERTIES, THE ACTION POTENTIAL, AND ELECTRICAL

More information

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006 Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Spring, 2006 Name * = correct answer Multiple Choice: 1. Axons and dendrites are two types of a) Neurites * b) Organelles c) Synapses d) Receptors e) Golgi cell components 2. The

More information

Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses

Nerves and Conduction of Nerve Impulses A. Introduction 1. Innovation in Cnidaria - Nerve net a. We need to talk more about nerves b. Cnidaria have simple nerve net - 2 way conduction c. Basis for more complex system in Vertebrates B. Vertebrate

More information

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006

Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006 Biology/ANNB 261 Exam 1 Name Fall, 2006 * = correct answer. 1. The Greek philosopher Aristotle hypothesized that the brain was a) A radiator for cooling the blood.* b) The seat of the soul. c) The organ

More information

Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron

Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Physiologic Anatomy of Neuron Basic parts of neuron (nerve cell) Cell body Dendrites Axon Axon hillock Axon terminals Action potentials are initiated at the axon hillock, and conducted throughout a nerve

More information

IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.

IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0. IV. Anatomy of a Neuron aka. A nerve cell: * various sizes; from < 1mm to 1 meter in length * various nerve impulse speeds; from 0.5 to 395 meters/sec [1to280 miles/hour] How do Neurons communicate? Neurons

More information

Major Structures of the Nervous System

Major Structures of the Nervous System Major Structures of the Nervous System Brain, cranial nerves, spinal cord, spinal nerves, ganglia, enteric plexuses and sensory receptors Tortora & Grabowski 9/e ã2000 JWS 12-1 Nervous System Divisions

More information

Andrew Rosen - Chapter 3: The Brain and Nervous System Intro:

Andrew Rosen - Chapter 3: The Brain and Nervous System Intro: Intro: Brain is made up of numerous, complex parts Frontal lobes by forehead are the brain s executive center Parietal lobes wave sensory information together (maps feeling on body) Temporal lobes interpret

More information

Neuron Function. How does a signal travel across and between neurons?

Neuron Function. How does a signal travel across and between neurons? Why? Neuron Function How does a signal travel across and between neurons? Just as the coaxial cables that run down your street or through your house carry television and Internet signals, the job of a

More information

The Action Potential

The Action Potential OpenStax-CNX module: m46526 1 The Action Potential OpenStax College This work is produced by OpenStax-CNX and licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License 4.0 By the end of this section, you

More information

Electrical Properties of Biological Systems

Electrical Properties of Biological Systems Laboratory 3 Electrical Properties of Biological Systems All cells are capable of maintaining a charge separation, or POTENTIAL DIFFERENCE, across their membranes. This is due to the diffusion of sodium

More information

Ion Channels. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com)

Ion Channels. Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) Ion Channels Graphics are used with permission of: Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com) ** There are a number of ion channels introducted in this topic which you

More information

Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

Vocab Term Definition of Term Example An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information. Chapter and Topic of this Review Guide: Chapter 2 the Brain pages 52-62 and the Psychology in Action Vocab Term Definition of Term Example Neuron An individual nerve cell. Carries and processes information.

More information

This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship

This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship IMPERIAL COLLEGE LONDON BSc/MSci EXAMINATION May 2008 This paper is also taken for the relevant Examination for the Associateship BIOPHYSICS OF NERVE CELLS & NETWORKS For Third and Fourth Year Physics

More information

The Nervous System : communication

The Nervous System : communication The Nervous System : communication A. Neurons = masses of nerve cells that transmit information 1. Cell Body - contains the nucleus and two extensions 2. Dendrites shorter, more numerous, receive information

More information

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System

ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY. Part 1: The Nervous System ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY Part 1: The Nervous System Please watch the following video. - Click the link below. - Adjust volume on speaker (far right on teacher desk). - Increase picture size by clicking bottom

More information

The Neuron and the Synapse. The Neuron. Parts of the Neuron. Functions of the neuron:

The Neuron and the Synapse. The Neuron. Parts of the Neuron. Functions of the neuron: The Neuron and the Synapse The Neuron Functions of the neuron: Transmit information from one point in the body to another. Process the information in various ways (that is, compute). The neuron has a specialized

More information

Nerve tissue. Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication

Nerve tissue. Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication Nerve tissue Development and function of the nervous system Neuron Membrane potentials Synaptic communication Development neuroectoderm neural plate neural tube: brain vesicles spinal cord neural crest

More information

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Cable Properties. Passive flow of current. Voltage Decreases With Distance

Slide 1. Slide 2. Slide 3. Cable Properties. Passive flow of current. Voltage Decreases With Distance Slide 1 Properties of the nerve, axon, cell body and dendrite affect the distance and speed of membrane potential Passive conduction properties = cable properties Signal becomes reduced over distance depending

More information

UNIT 7 NOTES. STIMULI ê RECEPTOR CELL SENSORY NEURON INTERNEURON (CNS)

UNIT 7 NOTES. STIMULI ê RECEPTOR CELL SENSORY NEURON INTERNEURON (CNS) UNIT 7 NOTES NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous System (NS) has 3 functions: 1. Sensory Input Conduction of electrical signals from sensory receptors 2. Integration Information is interpreted and response generated

More information

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz

Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz Student Academic Learning Services Page 1 of 8 Nervous System Quiz 1. The term central nervous system refers to the: A) autonomic and peripheral nervous systems B) brain, spinal cord, and cranial nerves

More information

How is the Nervous System Organized? Class Objectives: What is the Nervous System? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems

How is the Nervous System Organized? Class Objectives: What is the Nervous System? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems How is the Nervous System Organized? The Biology of the Mind Module 3: Neural and Hormonal Systems 1 Class Objectives: Understand the function and purpose of the nervous system Identify and define the

More information

Name Date Period Human Body Systems Review

Name Date Period Human Body Systems Review Name Date Period Human Body Systems Review Immune System: 1. What are pathogens? Why do we need to prevent them from colonizing our bodies? If pathogens do manage to colonize, what effects can they have?

More information

Chapter 9 Nervous System

Chapter 9 Nervous System Chapter 9 Nervous System Nervous System function: The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. at the ends of peripheral nerves gather information and convert it into nerve impulses. When sensory

More information

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B.

U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. U N IT 10 NE RVOUS SYS TE M REVIEW 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue

More information

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions

Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Parts of the Nerve Cell and Their Functions Silvia Helena Cardoso, PhD [ 1. Cell body] [2. Neuronal membrane] [3. Dendrites] [4. Axon] [5. Nerve ending] 1. Cell body The cell body (soma) is the factory

More information

Action Potentials I Generation. Reading: BCP Chapter 4

Action Potentials I Generation. Reading: BCP Chapter 4 Action Potentials I Generation Reading: BCP Chapter 4 Action Potentials Action potentials (AP s) aka Spikes (because of how they look in an electrical recording of Vm over time). Discharges (descriptive

More information

Go to the following web site and follow the instructions below:

Go to the following web site and follow the instructions below: The nervous system consists of three parts: the Brain, the Central Nervous System, and the Peripheral Nervous System. The Brain is the command center, the Central Nervous System is the brain and the spinal

More information

7.013 Problem Set

7.013 Problem Set 7.013 Problem Set 6-2013 Question 1 a) Our immune system is comprised of different cell types. Complete the table below by selecting all correct cell types from the choices provided. Cells types that Participate

More information

2006 7.012 Problem Set 6 KEY

2006 7.012 Problem Set 6 KEY 2006 7.012 Problem Set 6 KEY ** Due before 5 PM on WEDNESDAY, November 22, 2006. ** Turn answers in to the box outside of 68-120. PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PRINTOUT. 1. You create an artificial

More information

Figure: 11.2 ;pg 387 4

Figure: 11.2 ;pg 387 4 ANATOMY I; CHAPTER 11, NERVOUS SYSTEM Nervous system is the master control, 2 communication and coordinating system between the different body structures and systems Every activity, thought and emotion

More information

Before continuing try to answer the following questions. The answers can be found at the end of the article.

Before continuing try to answer the following questions. The answers can be found at the end of the article. EXCITABLE TISSUE ELECTROPHYSIOLOGY ANAESTHESIA TUTORIAL OF THE WEEK 173 8 TH MARCH 2010 Dr John Whittle Specialist Registrar Anaesthetics Dr Gareth Ackland Consultant and Clinical Scientist Anaesthetics,

More information

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C.

NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. NERVOUS SYSTEM B 1. Which of the following is controlled by the somatic nervous system? A. rate of heartbeat B. contraction of skeletal muscles C. increased blood flow to muscle tissue D. movement of food

More information

An introduction to the mathematical modeling in human physiology and medicine

An introduction to the mathematical modeling in human physiology and medicine Pisa, 5-8 September 2016 An introduction to the mathematical modeling in human physiology and medicine M.L. Manca Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine University of Pisa Scheme of work Lessons

More information

2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place

2. Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place Nervous Regulation A. Functions of the nervous system Maintain Regulator responses - controlling responses and directing them to the right place 3. Coordinate responses - B. Mechanisms for Nervous Regulation

More information

NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON. created by Dr. Joanne Hsu

NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON. created by Dr. Joanne Hsu NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: ANATOMY OF A NEURON NEURON AND NEURAL TRAMSMISSION: MICROSCOPIC VIEW OF NEURONS A photograph taken through a light microscope (500x) of neurons in the spinal cord. NEURON

More information

STRUCTURE OF SYNAPSES: OVERVIEW

STRUCTURE OF SYNAPSES: OVERVIEW STRUCTURE OF SYNAPSES: OVERVIEW Traditionally, a synapse is considered to be a site of apposition between two neurons, where an ion conductance change (impulse) across the plasma membrane of one brings

More information

Neurophysiology. Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex

Neurophysiology. Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex Neurophysiology Study of the cellular properties of nerve cells and how these properties give rise to behaviors from simple to complex Levels of organization of the nervous system From Shepherd Neurobiology,

More information

For thousands of years, humans have aspired to create intelligent. The Nervous System CHAPTER. Chapter Concepts

For thousands of years, humans have aspired to create intelligent. The Nervous System CHAPTER. Chapter Concepts CHAPTER 11 The Nervous System Chapter Concepts 11.1 Structures and Processes of the Nervous System Homeostasis is maintained in the human body by the various parts of the nervous system. Neural transmission

More information

Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange

Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Name: Questions on The Nervous System and Gas Exchange Directions: The following questions are taken from previous IB Final Papers on Topics 6.4 (Gas Exchange) and 6.5 (Nerves, hormones and homeostasis).

More information

EXCITABLE TISSUES LECTURE MANUAL (BY2202) 2011/2012. SF (2 nd yr) Biology Students. Professor Kumlesh K. Dev. Department of Physiology

EXCITABLE TISSUES LECTURE MANUAL (BY2202) 2011/2012. SF (2 nd yr) Biology Students. Professor Kumlesh K. Dev. Department of Physiology Name EXCITABLE TISSUES LECTURE MANUAL (BY2202) 2011/2012 SF (2 nd yr) Biology Students Professor Kumlesh K. Dev Department of Physiology This Manual is produced in conformity with College s policy on accessibility

More information

What is the basic component of the brain and spinal cord communication system?

What is the basic component of the brain and spinal cord communication system? EXPLORING PSYCHOLOGY David Myers The Biology of Mind Chapter 2 Neural Communication Neurons How Neurons Communicate How Neurotransmitters Influence Us The Nervous System The Peripheral Nervous System The

More information

11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg

11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg UNIT 4: Homeostasis Chapter 11: The Nervous System pg. 514 11.1: The Role of the Nervous System pg 516-521 Organisms need to senses heir environments to make appropriate adjustments and survive. The nervous

More information

Drugs, The Brain, and Behavior

Drugs, The Brain, and Behavior Drugs, The Brain, and Behavior John Nyby Department of Biological Sciences Lehigh University What is a drug? Difficult to define Know it when you see it Neuroactive vs Non-Neuroactive drugs Two major categories

More information

It s in Your Mind: Addiction as a Chronic Brain Disease. Marvin D. Seppala, MD Chief Medical Officer

It s in Your Mind: Addiction as a Chronic Brain Disease. Marvin D. Seppala, MD Chief Medical Officer It s in Your Mind: Addiction as a Chronic Brain Disease Marvin D. Seppala, MD Chief Medical Officer Addiction is Characterized by: Compulsion to seek and take the drug Loss of control in limiting intake

More information

Study and Analysis of Human Nervous System and Effects of External EM Signals on Conduction in Human Nerves

Study and Analysis of Human Nervous System and Effects of External EM Signals on Conduction in Human Nerves Study and Analysis of Human Nervous System and Effects of External EM Signals on Conduction in Human Nerves Manish Kumar Gupta, R K Khanna Vivekananda Global University, Jaipur, K J Rangra CEERI Pilani

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 2 The Neural Impulse Name Period Date MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The cell body is enclosed by the. A) cell membrane

More information

CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS.

CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS. CHAPTER 6 PRINCIPLES OF NEURAL CIRCUITS. 6.1. CONNECTIONS AMONG NEURONS Neurons are interconnected with one another to form circuits, much as electronic components are wired together to form a functional

More information

Structure. Function. Psych 202 Neurons - Wine Monday, April 7, Cognitive Neuroscience Psychology 202 Neural Signaling April 7, 2008.

Structure. Function. Psych 202 Neurons - Wine Monday, April 7, Cognitive Neuroscience Psychology 202 Neural Signaling April 7, 2008. 1 2 Cognitive Neuroscience Psychology 202 Neural Signaling April 7, 2008 Main points: Neurons operate mechanically. Compared with electronic devices, neurons are exceedingly slow. Jeff Wine, wine@stanford.edu

More information

Nervous Tissue (NT) NEURON

Nervous Tissue (NT) NEURON Nervous Tissue (NT) - highly specialized tissue - forms, receives and sorts signals (irritability) - transmits electrical impulses (conductivity) Functions of Nerve Tissue Nervous tissue allows an organism

More information

Nerve Cell Communication

Nerve Cell Communication Nerve Cell Communication Core Concept: Nerve cells communicate using electrical and chemical signals. Class time required: Approximately 2 forty minute class periods Teacher Provides: For each student

More information

Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue

Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Chapter 17 Nervous Tissue Introduction The nervous system and the endocrine system are the body s major control and integrating centers. Neurology is the study of the normal functioning and disorders of

More information

Nerve Cell Communication

Nerve Cell Communication Nerve Cell Communication Part 1: What are the parts of a nerve cell? 1. Read the information in the Biology Brief: Neurons. As you read, circle the names of the structures (parts) of the neuron. 2. Obtain

More information

Nervous System: Nervous Tissue! (Chapter 12)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus!

Nervous System: Nervous Tissue! (Chapter 12)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus! Nervous System: Nervous Tissue! (Chapter 12)! Lecture Materials! for! Amy Warenda Czura, Ph.D.! Suffolk County Community College! Eastern Campus! Neural Tissue! -3% of body mass! -cellular, ~20% extracellular

More information

1. For normal neurons, understand structure and function of axons, dendrites and cell bodies.

1. For normal neurons, understand structure and function of axons, dendrites and cell bodies. Objectives: 1. For normal neurons, understand structure and function of axons, dendrites and cell bodies. 2. Understand the basic events of synaptic transmission and characteristics of the major neurotransmitters.

More information