Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer

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1 Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Name:

2 Part A: Components of Blood 1. List the 3 plasma proteins and describe the function of each Albumins osmotic balance Globulins antibodies, immunity Fibrinogens blood clotting 2. What is the function of hemoglobin? Carries heme, which has iron. This increases the amount of oxygen it can bind at once 70 fold. 3. What factors initiate red blood cell formation? Need to replace old RBC Need for more oxygen/gas exchanged Decreased iron, etc 4. What is anemia? Reduction of oxygen in the blood due to low levels of iron (hemoglobin) or poor RBC production 5. What is the role of platelets? Initiates blood clotting 6. State 2 situations that result in the deficiency of hemoglobin. Lack of iron Hemmorrhage 7. How do leukocytes differ from erythrocytes? Leukocytes have a nucleus when mature, erythrocytes do not. Leukyocytes are less numerous that erythrocytes. Erythrocytes carry oxygen, leukocytes are important for the immune system 8. State 2 major functions of leukocytes? Leukocytes destroy invading microbes and form antibodies, which interfere with invadingmicrobes and toxins.

3 9. How do platelets contribute to the formation of blood clots? Form a plug to stop bleeding and release substances to catch more platelets and cause clotting proteins to form 10. What is the difference between an embolus and thrombus? A thrombus is a blood clot that blocks a blood vessel, whereas an embolus is a dislodged blood clot that travels to a different part of the body. 11. List the advantages and disadvantages of taking artificial blood. Advantages: can be stored for a long time, no need to match blood type, carries no viruses Disadvantages: has no clotting or immunity function 12. How does Rh+ blood differ from Rh- blood? Rh+ blood contains red blood cells with a Rhesus antigen. 13. Why is type O blood considered the universal donor? Why is type AB the universal recipient? Type O blood cells do not have A or B antigens, so type O blood will not cause agglutination when infused into an individual with any other blood type. Type AB blood cells carry both A and B antigens, so type AB blood can receive any blood type because it will not form any antibodies 14. Why does a fetus with erythroblastosis fetalis develop anemia? Anti-Rh antibodies introduced from the mother attach to the Rh antigen on the red blood cells of the fetus, destroying them and causing anemia.

4 Part B: Fill in the chart (to be done in class) Blood Group Antigens Antibodies Can give to AB+ Can receive from AB- A+ A- B+ B- O+ O-

5 Part C: Body s Line of Defence 1. Define when/how the First, Second, and Third lines of defence work. First: non-specific, external first things pathogens will encounter, try to keep things out Second: non-specific, internal includes inflammatory response, pus (WBC), fever Third: specific, internal the work of the B and T cells, macrophages, antibodies/antigens to kill specific invaders 2. Explain one way the respiratory tract provides a line of defence. Cilia, mucus 3. How does lysozyme help destroy invading microbes? Enzyme in tears, saliva, mucous, perspiration that breaks down microbes 4. Explain why swelling and pus at the site of an injury are signs that the immune system is function. What is another full body response to invaders? Swelling is a sign of the inflammatory response, which brings blood to the infection site; the blood carries disease-fighting cells such as macrophages and other leukocytes. Pus is made up of protein fragments, dead white blood cells, and digested microbes its presence means that phagocytosis is occurring. 5. Once a pathogen has entered the body, there is a second line of defence that involved leukocytes. What leukocytes are involved in the second line of defence? Through what process do they destroy pathogens (name and describe)? Macrophages: phagocytosis (engulfs invader) Neutrophils: use chemitaxis to get to side of microbe due to chemicals being released 6. Define and contrast these terms: An antigen is a substance, usually a protein, that stimulates the formation of antibodies. An antibody is a protein formed within the blood that inactivates or destroys antigens.

6 T cell lymphocytes are manufactured in the bone marrow and processed by the thymus gland. They identify foreign substances. B cell lymphocytes are manufactured in the bone marrow. They produce antibodies. Macrophages are white blood cells found in the lymph nodes, blood, spleen, or liver. They are involved in the second line of defence. They destroy foreign invaders by phagocytosis; the invader is engulfed and destroyed by enzymes within the macrophage. Lymphocytes are specialized white blood cells involved in the third line of defence, including the production of antibodies. 5. Explain how the following cells give immunity T cells strengthen the immune response of B cells and they also directly attack infected host cells. Helper T cells identify invaders by the antigen markers on their membrane. Once the T cell has identified the invader, it passes this information on to the B cell via lymphokine. The B cells divide into clones. A second message is sent from the helper T cells, which triggers the production of antibodies in the B cell. The most important function of the B cells is to produce antibodies that bind to antigens to fight infections. A B cell also provides immunity by turning into a memory cell that can remember a foreign invader. These memory cells can quickly attack if that same invader ever comes back. Killer T cells are also activated by helper T cells. Killer T cells hunt for the invading microbe and puncture the cell membrane of the invader. Killer T cells also hunt for cells that have been infected by a virus. The killer T cells destroy these infected cells, thereby preventing the virus from reproducing. 6. How to antibodies defeat antigens? Describe FOUR contributions that antibodies make to the immune system. Antibodies are complementary to a specific antigen. By binding to it, they create larger antibody antigen complexes that leukocytes can see much more easily. The complex can be more easily phagocytosed and cleared away. Four contributions are (1) binding to antigens on bacteria, killing them; (2) binding to poisons/toxins to prevent them from binding to cells; (3) providing recognition for millions of possible antigens that the body might encounter; and (4) binding to viruses to prevent them from entering host cells.

7 Use the graph to answer the next three questions. 7. Explain what is happening in the graph. First exposure, B cells are making antibodies for the first time so the response is slow and weak. Second exposure, the memory B cells remembered the invader, and instructed the B cell to make more antibodies at a faster rate for a faster, stronger response. 8. Compare how long the body took to produce antibodies after the first exposure to how long it took after the second exposure. (see above) 9. Compare the quantity of antibodies from the first exposure to the second exposure. (see above) 10. What are allergies? An allergy is a mistake by the immune system in which a harmless agent is identified as being harmful. The immune system s overreaction becomes dangerous. 11. What causes an autoimmune disease? The immune system attacks cells of the body as if they were foreign invaders. Many researchers believe that most people have mutated T cells

8 and B cells that are capable of attacking the body; however, the renegade cells are usually held in check. The suppressor T cells play an important role in recognizing and intercepting the renegade T and B cells. One theory suggests that the suppressors secrete a substance that tells the macrophages to engulf the renegade cells.

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