Immunity Unit Test Z

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1 Immunity Unit Test Z Name MB Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Which of the pathogens in Figure 31.1 cause disease by taking over healthy cells and turning them into pathogen-producing factories? a. parasites b. bacteria c. viruses d. fungi 2. In a nonspecific immune response, what benefit is provided by a low fever? a. to stimulate white blood cells b. to increase the release of histamine c. to produce inflammation d. to attract phagocytes 3. Immunity provided by a vaccine is a type of immunity called a. genetic immunity. b. inherited immunity. c. passive immunity. d. acquired immunity. 4. Which of the following describes the result of Robert Koch's experiments? a. hypotheses that suggest germs are communicable b. procedures that describe how to isolate a pathogen c. conditions that prove a pathogen causes a disease d. techniques that prevent the transmission of pathogens 5. What distinguishes an allergen from other antigens? a. They lead to tissue rejection. b. They produce active immunity. c. They are found only on pollen. d. They do not cause disease.

2 6. What is the term for a substance that contains antigens and produces immunity in an individual? a. vector b. antigen c. vaccine d. interferon 7. A disease that can be transmitted through the air is spread by a. casual contact. b. indirect contact. c. distant contact. d. common contact. 8. A severe reaction when the immune system releases a large amount of histamine, causing airways to tighten is called a. thyroiditis. b. swelling. c. diabetes. d. anaphylaxis. 9. Which type of white blood cell defends the body by engulfing pathogens? a. B cell b. T cell c. basophil d. phagocyte 10. Which is the term that describes a disease that can be passed from one person to another? a. parasitic b. acquired c. infectious d. resistant 11. When the protective barrier of the skin is penetrated, as shown in Figure 31.2, what is the body's next line of defense? a. mucous membranes b. antigens c. white blood cells d. vaccines 12. Which scientist's experiments led to a theory that proposed microorganisms cause disease? a. Jonas Salk b. Louis Pasteur c. Robert Koch d. Joseph Lister

3 13. Which of the following causes pathogens to clump together, making them easier to destroy? a. antibiotics b. complement proteins c. interferons d. antibodies 14. A disease that is caused by the inability of the immune system to distinguish between healthy and unhealthy cells is called a(n) a. opportunistic disease. b. immune deficiency disease. c. autoimmune disease. d. tissue rejection disease. Short Answer Use the exhibit to answer the questions that follow. 15. During which years is the number of HIV cells increasing the fastest? 16. How does the graph represent the number of HIV? How does the graph represent the number of T cells? 17. What is the main reason for the decrease in the number of T cells over time? 18. What is the relationship between the number of HIV and the number of T cells?

4 19. Describe the function of memory cells in these processes. 20. Identify the process shown in Diagram 2 of Figure Which of the cells shown in Figure 31.3 responds to a pathogen against which you have been vaccinated? 22. What is the function of the activated B cell in the process shown in Diagram 2? 23. What is shown in Diagram 1 of Figure 31.3? Essay Answer 24 and 25 on a separate sheet of paper. 24. Explain how infection with HIV can lead to AIDS. Explain how a person infected with HIV or suffering from AIDS becomes vulnerable to opportunistic infection. In your answer: - define HIV, AIDS, and opportunistic infection - describe how HIV can lead to AIDS and opportunistic infection 25. A vaccine contains a pathogen, yet when people are vaccinated, they do not get the disease caused by the pathogen. Why? In your answer: - define a vaccine - explain what a vaccine does in the recipient s body - explain the difference between vaccination and infection by a virus

5 immunity_final_test Answer Section Z MULTIPLE CHOICE 1. C 2. A 3. D 4. C 5. D 6. C 7. B 8. D 9. D 10. C 11. C 12. B 13. D 14. C SHORT ANSWER 15. between years 2 and HIV: a dashed line. T cells: a solid line. 17. Sample answer: The HIV takes over the T cells and turns them into virus-making factories, eventually killing them. The body cannot make new T cells fast enough to compete with the increasing number of HIV. 18. The T cells decline steadily as HIV infects them. This happens both before and after a sharp increase in HIV cells. 19. Memory cells provide acquired immunity by recognizing antigens that invaded previously. 20. humoral immunity 21. memory B cells 22. Activated B cells produce pathogen-specific antibodies as they fight the infection. The antibodies can cause pathogens to clump, making them easier to engulf. 23. cellular immunity ESSAY 24. Allow a maximum of 2 credits: - 1 credit for defining HIV as human immunodeficiency virus, AIDS as acquired immune deficiency syndrome, and opportunistic infection as an infection caused by a pathogen that a healthy immune system would normally be able to fight off - 1 credit for describing how HIV turns T cells into HIV factories that produce more HIV cells and destroy T cells. Over time, the T cells cannot be replaced quickly enough, the immune system can no longer fight opportunistic infections, and the final stage of this condition is AIDS. 25. Allow a maximum of 3 credits: - 1 credit for explaining that a vaccine contains the antigen of a pathogen in a weakened form

6 - 1 credit for explaining that the vaccine causes the body to form memory cells that will recognize the real pathogen if it invades again and destroy it before it can cause a person to become sick - 1 credit for explaining that a vaccination consists of a weakened form of the pathogen that cannot reproduce

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