2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells.

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells."

Transcription

1 Immunology The immune system has specificity and memory. It specifically recognizes different antigens and has memory for these same antigens the next time they are encountered. The Cellular Components of the Immune System are: 1) Lymphocytes a) B cells function to secrete antibodies b) Cytotoxic T cells function to kill virus-infected cells and cancerous cells c) T Helper cells function to help other immune cells by secreting interleukins. Interleukins stimulate cellular proliferation and cellular differentiation 2) Macrophages function to engulf and present antigen to other immune cells. Antibodies and Antigens Substances that invade the body, be they living pathogens or inanimate chemicals, "look" different, at the molecular level, as compared to the structures of the body itself. The structures of the invader that look foreign will induce an immune response designed to eliminate the invader. These foreign structures are collectively called antigens (Ag). We can formally define an antigen as any substance that elicits an immune response against itself. Antibodies One of the most powerful defenses against foreign invaders is the activity of antibodies. Antibodies help to eliminate foreign antigens from the body. When antibodies bind to their specific antigens they mark those antigens for destruction by macrophages. Macrophages recognize, engulf and digest antigens only when bound to antibodies. This is the most potent means by which antibodies clear antigens from the body. Characteristics of antibodies they are protein molecules composed of 4 polypeptide chains ( 2 light chains, 2 heavy chains) each antibody has a constant region and a variable region all antibodies have a similar constant region, but each has a unique variable region the antigen binding site is part of the variable region each antibody has 2 antigen binding sites, it is called bivalent each antibody specifically binds to one type of antigen the specificity of antigen-antibody binding is due to shape complementarity (lock and key) once an antibody is bound to an antigen then the constant region signals macrophages to engulf and destroy the antigen. 1

2 Antibody-Mediated Immunity Antibodies are produced by B lymphocytes (B cells). Each B cell produces a uniquely shaped antibody capable of recognizing a particular antigen. Each individual has millions of unique B cells. B cells only become activated when they bind to antigen. Antigen binding occurs on B cell receptors, which are simply membrane-bound antibodies. Activated B cells produce tremendous amounts of their specific antibody and secrete the antibodies into the blood stream. Circulating antibodies bind antigen and initiate antigen clearance. Clonal Selection Theory The best explanation for the acquisition of immunity is provided by clonal selection theory. This theory, for which there is much evidence, suggests that B cells that encounter their specific antigen undergo rapid cell division to produce a large clonal population of identical cells (clonal expansion). Furthermore, this population differentiates into two distinct cell types; one type, called plasma cells, acts to immediately eradicate the antigen by secreting antibodies, and another type, called memory cells, remain quiescent (inactive) until the antigen is encountered again in the future. The Steps of Clonal Selection: 1. Activation B cell binds antigen (Ag) B cell is stimulated by growth factors (interleukins) 2. Proliferation B cells divide rapidly (clonal expansion) 3. Differentiation Half the B cell population becomes plasma cells that secrete soluble antibodies into the blood and the lymph Half become memory cells, which wait until the next encounter with the antigen to become activated 2

3 Immunologic Memory - The Primary and Secondary Responses When naive lymphocytes are exposed to specific antigens for the first time they become activated and then differentiate into effector and memory cells. This is called the primary response. The primary response is relatively weak and slow due to the fact that there are few lymphocytes capable of recognizing the antigen and it takes time for them to proliferate into a population large enough to eradicate the foreign antigen. The second time the body is exposed to the same antigen, the immune system mounts a much larger and faster response. This is called the secondary response. Memory cells are long-lived and thus represent a large population of lymphocytes capable of specifically recognizing the original antigen. If this antigen is encountered again, the secondary response is strong and rapid due to the large population of memory cells that recognize the antigen. Mechanism of Antibody Activity We have now talked about antibody specificity and the means by which antibodies are produced, but we have yet to discuss the mechanisms by which antibodies combat pathogens and other foreign invaders. Antibodies, secreted by B cells, enter the blood stream and the lymph sustem and travel throughout the body in search of the pathogen. Antibodies do not directly destroy pathogens, rather they bind to antigens on the surface of the pathogen and, in doing so, tag the pathogen for destruction by macrophages. Upon binding of antibodies to antigen the Fc region of the antibody changes it shape such that it becomes recognizable by macrophages. Macrophages have receptors on their cell membrane that bind the Fc region of antibodies attached to antigens. Macrophages "see" structures decorated with antibodies as foreign, bind to them, engulf them by phagocytosis, and destroy them with lysosomal enzymes. This mechanism, by which antibodies tag antigens for destruction by macrophages, is called opsonization. 3

4 Cell-Mediated Immunity Cytotoxic T cells (Killer T cells) recognize and destroy virus-infected cells. When a cell becomes infected with virus, some of the viral proteins are complexed (combined) with Class I MHC proteins. This antigen-mhc complex is then presented on the surface of the infected cell, bound to the plasma membrane. In this way the infected cell informs the immune system that it has been infected by virus. Cytotoxic T cells have receptors that recognize and bind to antigen-mhc complexes. A given cytotoxic T cell has only one type of receptor. However, each person has millions of unique cytotoxic T cells that differ from one another in the nature of their receptors. For any given antigen-mhc complex there will exist, in the immune system, some cytotoxic T cells capable of recognizing that particular complex. Binding of a cytotoxic T cell to an antigen-mhc complex leads to activation of the T cell. When activated, cytotoxic T cells secrete chemicals (such as perforins) that kill the virus-infected cell, thus limiting the spread of infection. Cytotoxic cells are also capable of recognizing and destroying cancerous cells. Immune surveillance of the body is thought to be an important mechanism for limiting the growth of cancers Similar to B cells, cytotoxic T cells undergo clonal expansion and differentiation when they become activated. Activation requires the binding of the cytotoxic T cell receptor to the MHC/Ag complex and further stimulation by IL-2 (secreted by T helper cells). The expanded cytotoxic T cell population differentiates into effector cells that engage and destroy virus-infected cells, and memory cells that remain quiescent until the next encounter with the antigen. 4

5 T Helper Cell Activation T Helper cells secrete IL-2 (and many other cytokines) and thus help to stimulate both antibodymediated and cell mediated immunity. Helper T cells secrete IL-2 only after being activated. Activation of T helper cells is mediated by antigen-presenting cells such as B cells and macrophages. Macrophages recognize and engulf foreign antigen (for example, a virus). Proteins from this antigen are then complexed with Class II MHC molecules. This antigen-mhc complex is then presented on the surface of the cell, bound to the plasma membrane. In this way, the macrophage informs the immune system that it has captured a foreign antigen and shows the immune system s T helper cells what the antigen looks like. Helper T cells have receptors that recognize and bind to antigen-mhc complexes. A given helper T cell has only one type of receptor. However, each person has millions of unique helper T cells that differ from one another in the nature of their receptors. For any given antigen-mhc complex there will exist, in the immune system, some helper T cells capable of recognizing that particular complex. Binding of a helper T cell to an antigen-mhc complex leads to activation of the T cell. When activated, helper T cells secrete IL-2 (and other cytokines). IL-2 helps to activate both B cells and Cytotoxic T cells. 5

6 Lymph System The lymph system plays a major role in the production and activity of immune system cells. The lymph system is divided into primary and secondary lymph organs. Primary Lymph Organs a) Bone marrow. All immune system cells originate from the bone marrow. b) Thymus. The T cells are derived from the bone marrow, but complete their maturation in the thymus. Secondary Lymph Organs a) Lymph nodes, which are packed with B cells, T cells and macrophages, screen the lymph fluid for the presence of foreign antigen. b) The spleen also contains immune system cells and functions to screen the blood for the presence of foreign antigen. c) Tonsils are packed with lymphocytes and macrophages. They are exposed to inspired air and ingested food via open channels (crypts) to the throat. They function to screen inspired air and ingested food for the presence of foreign antigen. 6

7 Vaccines Vaccines are designed to provide active immunity against virulent (disease causing) pathogens. A vaccine is typically a killed or weakened form of the pathogen itself. A vaccine provides immunity because it looks like the pathogen, but it does not cause disease because it has lost its virulence. History of Small Pox Vaccination Small Pox can be very virulent, up to 50% of infected people die depending on the strain. Survivors are scarred, but become immune to further disease. In 12 century China, risk takers would seek out mild cases and sniff powdered sores. In 17 century Europe, risk takers would soak thread in sores and poke the thread into their skin. In 1796, Edward Jenner observed that infection with cow-pox resulted in immunity to small pow. He carried out the following experiment : The French mockingly called Jenner s procedure Vaccination, which meant encowment. A small pox vaccination program was started in the 1960s by the world health organization. This program has successfully eradicated small pox virus from the planet. 7

8 Types of Vaccines 1) Killed The virus or bacterium is killed with heat or chemicals, but retains its overall conformation and immunogenicity. Advantage: can t mutate into a virulent pathogen because its dead Disadvantage: It must be injected because the stomach would destroy it. You need large amounts because it can t replicate in the body example: Salk vaccine for polio 2) Live-attenuated Live virus that does not cause disease, but looks like disease-causing strain, thus provides immunity. Advantage: Can be taken orally. Need small amount because it replicates. Disadvantage: It could mutate to become virulent example: Sabin vaccine for polio, or the new chicken pox vaccine 3) Subunit vaccine This is typically a surface protein derived from the pathogen (thus is only part of the pathogen). Advantage: It can t mutate to be virulent. It s the last resort vaccine for pathogens that can t be cultured in the lab Disadvantage: It must be injected because the stomach would destroy it. You need large amounts because it can t replicate in the body. It s a single protein so immune response is limited. example: hepatitis B vaccine 4) Recombinant vaccines This futuristic vaccine could immunize a person against as many as 10 pathogens with a single dose. It would be a live virus capable of expressing antigens from several other pathogens. 8

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic

Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic Bio 100 Guide 22 Antigens have specific regions where antibodies bind to them Antigens are usually molecules on the surface of viruses or foreign cells Antigenic determinants are the specific regions on

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Introduction Immune system the body s defenses against pathogens that produce disease 2 types of immunity Nonspecific immune mechanisms (Innate immunity) Provide

More information

Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses

Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Chapter 39 - The Body Defenses Immunity - refers to the body s ability to resist or eliminate potentially harmful foreign material s or abnormal cells Mechanisms include: 1. Defense against invading pathogens

More information

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins

specific B cells Humoral immunity lymphocytes antibodies B cells bone marrow Cell-mediated immunity: T cells antibodies proteins Adaptive Immunity Chapter 17: Adaptive (specific) Immunity Bio 139 Dr. Amy Rogers Host defenses that are specific to a particular infectious agent Can be innate or genetic for humans as a group: most microbes

More information

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points)

Name (print) Name (signature) Period. (Total 30 points) AP Biology Worksheet Chapter 43 The Immune System Lambdin April 4, 2011 Due Date: Thurs. April 7, 2011 You may use the following: Text Notes Power point Internet One other person in class "On my honor,

More information

Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I

Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I Chapter 17A: Adaptive Immunity Part I 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity 2. T and B Cell Production 3. Antigens & Antigen Presentation 4. Helper T cells 1. Overview of Adaptive Immunity The Nature of Adaptive

More information

Introduction. Skin. The Immune System. Chapter 51

Introduction. Skin. The Immune System. Chapter 51 The Immune System Chapter 51 Introduction Vertebrates have three levels of defenses -1. The Integumentary System -Skin and mucous membranes provide first line of defense -2. Nonspecific (innate) Immune

More information

Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope;

Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope; Immunity The immune system Vaccination Learning Objective Recognise phagocytes and lymphocytes under the light microscope; The following micrographs show as to how different types of phagocytes and lymphocytes

More information

The Lymphatic System

The Lymphatic System The Lymphatic System Transports escaped fluids back to the blood Plays essential roles in body defense and resistance to disease Lymph excess tissue fluid carried by lymphatic vessels Properties of lymphatic

More information

Lymphatic System - Structures

Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic System - Structures Lymphatic vessels Lymphatic tissues and organs 1 Lymphatic System - Functions Returns leaked plasma to blood vessels Cleanses lymph of bacteria & other foreign matter Provides

More information

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific

11/20/2011. Outline. Immune System Function. Terminology. Two Types of Immune Defense. Innate Immunity = Non Specific Chapter 43 Immune System Outline I. Nonspecific Defenses A. Barrier B. Protective proteins C. Phagocytes D. Natural killer cells E. Inflammatory reaction II. Specific Defenses A. B cells Antibody mediated

More information

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM

IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59 IMMUNOLOGY STRUCTURE AND FUNCTION OF IMMUNE SYSTEM 59.1 INTRODUCTION The immune system is engaged in a constant surveillance of the body for pathogens or tumors. Whether disease develops depends on

More information

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24

The Body s Defenses CHAPTER 24 CHAPTER 24 The Body s Defenses PowerPoint Lectures for Essential Biology, Third Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece, and Eric Simon Essential Biology with Physiology, Second Edition Neil Campbell, Jane Reece,

More information

Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins.

Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins. Lymphatic and Immune Systems Homeostatic role of defense against pathogens, injury, diseased body cells, and toxins Requires both lymph and immune systems to be effective Three levels of defense 1.Skin,

More information

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense

The Immune System. 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms. Lines of Defense. Line of Defense. Lines of Defense The Immune System 2 Types of Defense Mechanisms Immune System the system that fights infection by producing cells to inactivate foreign substances to avoid infection and disease. Immunity the body s ability

More information

Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT

Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT Fogarty-IBRO School Nairobi-KENYA May 22 nd 25 th 2007 Fundamental Immunology (Introduction to the Immune System) By Ahmed El-Gohary, M.D. Faculty of Medicine, Suez canal University, Ismailia EGYPT The

More information

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells.

10. T and B cells are types of a. endocrine cells. c. lymphocytes. b. platelets. d. complement cells. Virus and Immune System Review Directions: Write your answers on a separate piece of paper. 1. Why does a cut in the skin threaten the body s nonspecific defenses against disease? a. If a cut bleeds, disease-fighting

More information

The Adaptive Immune System

The Adaptive Immune System Chapter 17 Functional Anatomy of Prokaryotic and Eukaryotic Cells Lectures prepared by Christine L. Case The Adaptive Immune System Learning Objectives 17-1 Differentiate innate from adaptive immunity.

More information

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II

Immune System. Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II Immune System Daryl Beatty Brazosport College Anatomy & Physiology II 21 The Immune System: Innate and Adaptive Body Defenses Which of the following best describes the immune system? a. the set of organs

More information

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21)

Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Test 4 Immune System (Chapters 20 & 21) Name: Date: 1) The is the largest lymphoid organ. 1) A. lymph node B. spleen C. thymus D. tonsil 2) Tonsils promote memory of pathogens by. 2) A. secreting antibodies

More information

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders

Human Immunity. How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders Human Immunity How our body s cells defend against microbial and viral invaders What is Immunity? The word immunity comes from the Latin immunus meaning free of burden. Thus; it is a body s general ability

More information

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: Lymphatic System and Immunity I. Lymphatic System A. Functions of the Lymphatic System - list and describe: 1. 2. 3. B. Lymphatic Vessels 1. What are lymphatic capillaries? 2. Lymphatic capillaries differ from blood capillaries in

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION

Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION TORTORA FUNKE CASE Microbiology AN INTRODUCTION EIGHTH EDITION Differentiate between innate and acquired immunity. Chapter 17 Specific Defenses of the Host: The Immune Response B.E Pruitt & Jane J. Stein

More information

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity

The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity The Humoral Immune system Structure and Diversity Discussion: Introduction Our immune system protects our bodies from the harmful affects of a dizzying array of disease causing pathogens. Although our

More information

The Immune System: A Tutorial

The Immune System: A Tutorial The Immune System: A Tutorial Modeling and Simulation of Biological Systems 21-366B Shlomo Ta asan Images taken from http://rex.nci.nih.gov/behindthenews/uis/uisframe.htm http://copewithcytokines.de/ The

More information

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B)

AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) AP BIOLOGY 2007 SCORING GUIDELINES (Form B) Question 2 The defenses of the human body to the entry and establishment of a pathogen (disease-causing organism) can be divided into nonspecific responses and

More information

Chapter 3. Immunity and how vaccines work

Chapter 3. Immunity and how vaccines work Chapter 3 Immunity and how vaccines work 3.1 Objectives: To understand and describe the immune system and how vaccines produce immunity To understand the differences between Passive and Active immunity

More information

B Cells and Antibodies

B Cells and Antibodies B Cells and Antibodies Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School Lecture outline Functions of antibodies B cell activation; the role of helper T cells in antibody production

More information

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1

ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES. Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 AP BIOLOGY ANIMALS FORM & FUNCTION ACTIVITY #4 NAME DATE HOUR BODY DEFENSES NONSPECIFIC DEFENSES PHYSICAL BARRIERS PHAGOCYTES Animals Form & Function Activity #4 page 1 INFLAMMATORY RESPONSE ANTIMICROBIAL

More information

Pathogens and the immune system

Pathogens and the immune system Review of lecture 7 Pathogens and the immune system Veronica Leautaud, Ph.D. vl2@ rice.edu BRC 511 / 530-lab Lecture 8 BIOE 301-Bioengineering and World Health Science Science is the human activity of

More information

The Adaptive Immune Response. B-cells

The Adaptive Immune Response. B-cells The Adaptive Immune Response B-cells FUNCTIONS OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM: Recognize, destroy and clear a diversity of pathogens. Initiate tissue and wound healing processes. Recognize and clear damaged self

More information

Pathogens and the immune system

Pathogens and the immune system Pathogens and the immune system Veronica Leautaud, Ph.D. vl2@ rice.edu BRC 511 / 530-lab Lecture 8 BIOE 301-Bioengineering and World Health Review of lecture 7 Science Science is the human activity of

More information

Lymph Transport and Immunity

Lymph Transport and Immunity Lymph Transport and Immunity Outline The Lymphatic System Lymph Vessels Lymphoid Organs Nonspecific Defenses Barriers Inflammatory Response Specific Defenses Antibodies T Cells Induced Immunity Active

More information

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs

ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM THE IMMUNE SYSTEM. ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM Thymus glandular organ near the heart where T cells learn their jobs THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 1 ANATOMY OF THE IMMUNE SYSTEM 2 We all get sick sometimes...but then we get better. What happens when we get sick? Why do we get better? The immune system is localized in several parts

More information

Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity

Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity Specific Defense: Adaptive Immunity CHAPTER SUMMARY Elements of Specific Immunity (pp. 462-472) The body augments the mechanisms of nonspecific defense with another line of defense that destroys invaders

More information

Immune System and Disease

Immune System and Disease Immune System and Disease Homeostasis Q: How does the body fight against invading organisms that may disrupt homeostasis? WHAT I KNOW WHAT I LEARNED 35.1 How do people catch infectious diseases? SAMPLE

More information

Immune System A&P II

Immune System A&P II Immune System A&P II Lymphatic Outline Lymphatic System Defense Systems Innate Immune System Adaptive Defense System Immunodeficiencies Immune Responses Lymphatic System: Overview Figure 21.1a, b Lymphatic

More information

Immunity. Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity

Immunity. Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity Immunity Humans have three types of immunity innate, adaptive, and passive: Innate Immunity Everyone is born with innate (or natural) immunity, a type of general protection. Many of the germs that affect

More information

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types:

One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: Immune system. One of the more complex systems we re looking at. An immune response (a response to a pathogen) can be of two types: (pathogen - disease causing organism) 1) Non specific. Anything foreign

More information

MICROBIOLOGY - IMMUNOLOGY MODULE Dr Ronnie Russell

MICROBIOLOGY - IMMUNOLOGY MODULE Dr Ronnie Russell The Specific/Adaptive Immune Response The Third Line of Defence Is called specific immunity The body s ability to recognize and defend itself against distinct invaders and their products Is a smart system

More information

HUMORAL IMMUNE RE- SPONSES: ACTIVATION OF B CELLS AND ANTIBODIES JASON CYSTER SECTION 13

HUMORAL IMMUNE RE- SPONSES: ACTIVATION OF B CELLS AND ANTIBODIES JASON CYSTER SECTION 13 SECTION 13 HUMORAL IMMUNE RE- SPONSES: ACTIVATION OF B CELLS AND ANTIBODIES CONTACT INFORMATION Jason Cyster, PhD (Email) READING Basic Immunology: Functions and Disorders of the Immune System. Abbas,

More information

Immune System. Chapter 24

Immune System. Chapter 24 Immune System Chapter 24 Chapter Outline Immunology Lymphatic System Non-specific defense a. Defense at body surface b. Inflammation c. Phagocytosis macrophages, neutrophils d. Opsonins Ig and C 3 b e.

More information

T h. Immunity. Why? Model 1 Cell Mediated Response. How does our immune system protect us from disease?

T h. Immunity. Why? Model 1 Cell Mediated Response. How does our immune system protect us from disease? Why? Immunity How does our immune system protect us from disease? One way in which organisms maintain homeostasis is by detecting foreign cells and particles like pathogens and cancer cells. Once the pathogen

More information

Lecture 7 Immunology

Lecture 7 Immunology Slide 1 Lecture 7 Immunology Structure Components Leukocytes Lymphoid tissue Recognition of self Innate Immunity Physical and chemical barriers Phagocytosis Inflammation Adaptive immunity Humoral responses

More information

Psychoneuroimmunology. Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002

Psychoneuroimmunology. Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002 Psychoneuroimmunology Josée L. Jarry, Ph.D. Health Psychology, psy333 Department of Psychology University of Toronto September 30, 2002 Psychoneuroimmunology - Definition The study of the link between

More information

Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education. Su et al.

Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education. Su et al. Supplemental Material CBE Life Sciences Education Su et al. APPENDIX Human Body's Immune System Test This test consists of 31 questions, with only 1 answer to be selected for each question. Please select

More information

Immune system. Nonspecific response: inflammation. Inflammation : the beginning. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive immunity

Immune system. Nonspecific response: inflammation. Inflammation : the beginning. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive immunity Immune system Body must resist disease in order to function Defends against pathogens, identifies and destroys abnormal cells. The primary pathogens are bacteria and viruses. Nonspecific immunity vs. Adaptive

More information

Immunology. Lecture- 3

Immunology. Lecture- 3 Immunology Lecture- 3 Complement System complement system is a part of the immune system that helps or complements the ability of antibodies and phagocytic cells to destroy and clear pathogens and viruses.

More information

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 22: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Bio40C schedule Lecture: Immune system Lecture exam 2 postponed to Tu Feb 23 covers Ch 22, 26, 27 Multiple choice and short answer Study guides posted on website Extra credit total of 15 pts Work sheets

More information

The Human Immune System

The Human Immune System The Human Immune System What is the immune system? The body s defense against disease causing organisms, malfunctioning cells, and foreign particles The First Line of Defense Skin The dead, outer layer

More information

Use the information in the passage and your own knowledge to answer the following questions.

Use the information in the passage and your own knowledge to answer the following questions. Q1. The human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) leads to the development of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Eventually, people with AIDS die because they are unable to produce an immune response

More information

Chapter 43: The Immune System

Chapter 43: The Immune System Name Period Our students consider this chapter to be a particularly challenging and important one. Expect to work your way slowly through the first three concepts. Take particular care with Concepts 43.2

More information

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein

Lymph capillaries, Lymphatic collecting vessels, Valves, Lymph Duct, Lymph node, Vein WLHS/A&P/Oppelt Name Lymphatic System Practice 1. Figure 12-1 provides an overview of the lymphatic vessels. First color code the following structures. Color code in Figure 12-1 Heart Veins Lymphatic vessels/lymph

More information

22. Immune System and the Body s Defense

22. Immune System and the Body s Defense 22. Immune System and the Body s Defense I. Overview of Diseases Caused by Infectious Agents Disease can be caused by a variety of factors, some have causes within our bodies (e.g., genetic disorders and

More information

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work

Core Topic 2. The immune system and how vaccines work Core Topic 2 The immune system and how vaccines work Learning outcome To be able to describe in outline the immune system and how vaccines work in individuals and populations Learning objectives Explain

More information

Amphibian Immunology. Vertebrate Immunology. Lymphoid Organs 3/4/14

Amphibian Immunology. Vertebrate Immunology. Lymphoid Organs 3/4/14 Amphibian Immunology Heather Williamson University of Tennessee Department of Microbiology March 4, 2014 Vertebrate Immunology Lymphoid Organs 1 3/4/14 Immunity First Line of Defense 2 Innate Immunity:

More information

Assignment. Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity

Assignment. Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity Assignment Write a two page essay describing the differences between specific and non- specific immunity 1 The Immune System 2 I. Immunity A. defense against invading parasites and abnormal cells B. Types:

More information

Cells and Tissues of the Immune System HST.035 Spring 2003

Cells and Tissues of the Immune System HST.035 Spring 2003 Harvard-MIT Division of Health Sciences and Technology HST.035: Principle and Practice of Human Pathology Dr. Badizadegan Cells and Tissues of the Immune System HST.035 Spring 2003 Edward Jenner http://www.nlm.nih.gov/exhibition/ephemera/pubhealt.html

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses o The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses Lymphatic system Anatomy Non specific defenses o The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic

More information

Acting Out the Immune Response An Activity for the Middle School Life Science Classroom

Acting Out the Immune Response An Activity for the Middle School Life Science Classroom Acting Out the Immune Response An Activity for the Middle School Life Science Classroom by Lindsay E. Porter Pollard Middle School 200 Harris Avenue Needham, MA 02492 lindsay_porter@needham.k12.ma.us Table

More information

Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer

Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Bio 20 Chapter 11 Workbook Blood and the Immune System Ms. Nyboer Name: Part A: Components of Blood 1. List the 3 plasma proteins and describe the function of each Albumins osmotic balance Globulins antibodies,

More information

Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System

Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Immune System Part II: The Innate Immune System Devastation Caused by Pathogens Influenza epidemic 1918-1919 Killed 22 million people in 18 months. Three million people will die from malaria this year.

More information

Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com).

Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com). Innate Host Defenses Graphics are used with permission of Pearson Education Inc., publishing as Benjamin Cummings (http://www.aw-bc.com). Page 1: Introduction Surface barriers (the skin, mucous membranes,

More information

Immunity and how vaccines work

Immunity and how vaccines work 1 Introduction Immunity is the ability of the human body to protect itself from infectious disease. The defence mechanisms of the body are complex and include innate (non-specific, non-adaptive) mechanisms

More information

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6

CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 CHAPTER 35 HUMAN IMMUNE SYSTEM STANDARDS:SC.912.L.14.52 & SC.912.L.14.6 SECTION 1 - Infectious Disease 1.Identify the causes of infectious disease. 2.Explain how infectious diseases are spread. Causes

More information

and Antigen Presentation

and Antigen Presentation 1 Innate Immunity and Antigen Presentation Andrew Lichtman, MD PhD Brigham and Women's Hospital Harvard Medical School 2 Lecture outline Innate immunity Receptors and mechanisms Roles in disease Antigen

More information

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity

Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity I M M U N I T Y Innate (inborn) Immunity does not distinguish one pathogen from another Figure 14.2 Overview of Innate and Adaptive Immunity Our first line of defense includes physical and chemical barriers

More information

Innate immunity: Definition and Importance. Updated: July 2015

Innate immunity: Definition and Importance. Updated: July 2015 Innate immunity: Definition and Importance Updated: July 2015 1 Contents INNATE IMMUNITY... 3 DEFINITION AND IMPORTANCE... 3 Overview of innate immunity in animals... 3 The innate immune system acts early

More information

CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES

CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES CHAPTER 14 CELL SURFACE MARKERS OF T-CELLS, B-CELLS AND MACROPHAGES An understanding of the distinct families of molecules present on different cells of the immune system provides the tools for distinguishing

More information

2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal

2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal The Immune System: Innate Host Defenses 1. Name the two major categories of innate (nonspecific) defenses: 2. Surface barriers include the and of the respiratory, gastrointestinal and genitourinary tracts.

More information

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1

BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1 BIOLOGICAL SCIENCE CONCEPTS: BIO113 1 There are 4 portions of this review a list of objectives, a table of diseases, sample multiple choice questions, and general questions. Your notes are the most important

More information

Immune System Memory Game

Immune System Memory Game Immune System Memory Game Recommended Age: 12 years old Time: 45 minutes Everyday our bodies come in contact with millions of tiny organisms and particles that could potentially make us sick. Despite this,

More information

Activation and effector functions of HMI

Activation and effector functions of HMI Activation and effector functions of HMI Hathairat Thananchai, DPhil Department of Microbiology Faculty of Medicine Chiang Mai University 25 August 2015 ว ตถ ประสงค หล งจากช วโมงบรรยายน แล วน กศ กษาสามารถ

More information

Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014)

Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014) Immunology Ambassador Guide (updated 2014) Immunity and Disease We will talk today about the immune system and how it protects us from disease. Also, we ll learn some unique ways that our immune system

More information

The Immune System and Disease

The Immune System and Disease Chapter 40 The Immune System and Disease Section 40 1 Infectious Disease (pages 1029 1033) This section describes the causes of disease and explains how infectious diseases are transmitted Introduction

More information

GRADE 8 STUDY PACKET IMMUNE SYSTEM SC.6.L.14.5 AA

GRADE 8 STUDY PACKET IMMUNE SYSTEM SC.6.L.14.5 AA GRADE 8 STUDY PACKET IMMUNE SYSTEM SC.6.L.14.5 AA SC.6.L.14.5 AA Identify and investigate the general functions of the major systems of the human body (digestive, respiratory, circulatory, reproductive,

More information

Chapter 43: Immune System

Chapter 43: Immune System AP Biology Reading Guide Fred and Theresa Holtzclaw Julia Keller 12d Chapter 43: Immune System 1. Briefly explain the six steps to ingestion and destruction of a microbe by a phagocytic cell. First, pseudopodia

More information

Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity

Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Chapter 14: The Lymphatic System and Immunity Major function of the Lymphatic System o Network of vessels that collect and carry excess fluid from interstitial spaces back to blood circulation o Organs

More information

How the Vaccine is Made. Vaccine Protects. Similar Pathogen. Toxoid Vaccine. Heat Killed Vaccine. Naked DNA Vaccine.

How the Vaccine is Made. Vaccine Protects. Similar Pathogen. Toxoid Vaccine. Heat Killed Vaccine. Naked DNA Vaccine. Name: Date: Period: Making Background: A vaccine against a disease works by generating an immune response in the body against some kind of pathogen a virus, bacterium or some other agent that causes the

More information

AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY. Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital

AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY. Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital AN INTRODUCTION TO IMMUNOLOGY Paul Thomas Unit 1 Department of Immunology St. Jude Children s Research Hospital CATEGORIES OF PATHOGENS Viruses (~0.2 microns) Bacteria (1-2 microns) Parasites (Millimeters)

More information

Lymphatic/Immune System Vocabulary Key

Lymphatic/Immune System Vocabulary Key Term Acquired Immunity Adenoids Antibody Antigen Axillary nodes B cell (B lymphocyte) Cervical nodes Complement system Cytokines Cytotoxic T cell Dendritic cell Helper T cell Immunity Immunoglobulins Immunotherapy

More information

Immune system. B cells and T cells. B cells and T cells. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins (antibodies) stem cell

Immune system. B cells and T cells. B cells and T cells. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins. Immunoglobulins (antibodies) stem cell Immune system - many different types of cells mediate the to destroy bacteria and viruses as well as pre-cancerous cells - all cells in the immune system, as well as all the red blood cells, arise from

More information

B cell activation and Humoral Immunity

B cell activation and Humoral Immunity B cell activation and Humoral Immunity Humoral immunity is mediated by secreted antibodies and its physiological function is defense against extracellular microbes (including viruses) and microbial exotoxins.

More information

(A) Plasma. Consists of 90% water Plasma contains: proteins antibodies nutrients enzymes hormones clotting factors

(A) Plasma. Consists of 90% water Plasma contains: proteins antibodies nutrients enzymes hormones clotting factors hapter 17 Blood (I) Blood Is the liquid tissue of transport in humans Average human has 5-6 liters of blood Blood is composed of: red blood cells white blood cells platelets plasma (A) Plasma Consists

More information

MISSION DEBRIEFING: Teacher Guide

MISSION DEBRIEFING: Teacher Guide Activity on the IMMUNE SYSTEM: The Body Fights Back In this activity, the students will use a hands-on approach to learn about the immune system and how it fights off pathogens that invade the body. They

More information

The Lymphatic System and Immunity

The Lymphatic System and Immunity 14 The Lymphatic System and Immunity FOCUS: The lymphatic system includes lymph, lymphocytes, lymphatic vessels, lymph nodes, tonsils, the spleen and the thymus gland. The lymphatic system helps maintain

More information

Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1

Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1 Oregon State University BEEF043 Beef Cattle Library Beef Cattle Sciences Overview of the Cattle Immune System 1 Reinaldo F. Cooke 2 Introduction On average, the U.S. cattle industry loses more than $1

More information

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003

Microbiology 532 Immunology Examination KEY October 30, 2003 KEY October 30, 2003 All questions have equal point value. You may keep the test questions. Multiple Choice (choose the best answer) 1. Receptors associated with innate immunity recognize microbes by detecting:

More information

ELISA BIO 110 Lab 1. Immunity and Disease

ELISA BIO 110 Lab 1. Immunity and Disease ELISA BIO 110 Lab 1 Immunity and Disease Introduction The principal role of the mammalian immune response is to contain infectious disease agents. This response is mediated by several cellular and molecular

More information

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions

Types of Hypersensitivity. Type I: Allergic Reactions. more on Allergic Reactions Chapter 19: Disorders of the Immune System 1. Hypersensitivity 2. Autoimmunity 3. Transplant Rejection 1. Hypersensitivity What is Hypersensitivity? Hypersensitivity is an immunological state in which

More information

SYSTEM Teacher Pages THE IMMUNE. Your students will learn:

SYSTEM Teacher Pages THE IMMUNE. Your students will learn: Grade Level 3-5 Sergeant Cell s Immune System Defense Team Webquest Activity Summary Comparing immune cells with a police team, the webquest activity guides students to research the immune system online.

More information

The role of IBV proteins in protection: cellular immune responses. COST meeting WG2 + WG3 Budapest, Hungary, 2015

The role of IBV proteins in protection: cellular immune responses. COST meeting WG2 + WG3 Budapest, Hungary, 2015 The role of IBV proteins in protection: cellular immune responses COST meeting WG2 + WG3 Budapest, Hungary, 2015 1 Presentation include: Laboratory results Literature summary Role of T cells in response

More information

Primer on the Immune System

Primer on the Immune System Primer on the Immune System Martin J. Spiering, Ph.D., ELS Martin J. Spiering, Ph.D., ELS, is a senior staff member with CSR, Incorporated, and contributing editor to Alcohol Research: Current Reviews.

More information

Why use passive immunity?

Why use passive immunity? Vaccines Active vs Passive Immunization Active is longer acting and makes memory and effector cells Passive is shorter acting, no memory and no effector cells Both can be obtained through natural processes:

More information

Immune response is a response by your immune system to some type of pathogen. A pathogen is a disease causing organism.

Immune response is a response by your immune system to some type of pathogen. A pathogen is a disease causing organism. Immune system. This is one of the more complex systems we re looking at, mostly because we need to look at the cellular level to really understand what's going on. First some definitions: Immune response

More information

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs

The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs The Lymphatic System and Body Defenses The Lymphatic System Consists of two semi-independent parts Lymphatic vessels Lymphoid tissues and organs Lymphatic system functions Transports escaped fluids back

More information

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS

BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS BLOOD GROUPS AND IMMUNOGENETICS Knowledge of human blood types is necessary for successful transfusions. Recognition that blood types have relatively simple inheritance patterns led to their use in paternity

More information

Immune System and how Vaccines Work

Immune System and how Vaccines Work Immune System and how Vaccines Work Kevin Connolly Waterford, August 30 th, 2012 Causes of death, 1811, Boston The Battle Between Us and the Bugs: What we can do We recognize them as something different

More information

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna

Biochemistry of the immune system. Jana Novotna Biochemistry of the immune system Jana Novotna Immunity = protection The immune system integrated body system of organs, tissues, cells, and products that interact with many different pathogens. Specificity

More information