Unit 2 - Subcortical systems, neurochemistry and brain function

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Unit 2 - Subcortical systems, neurochemistry and brain function"

Transcription

1 Unit 2 - Subcortical systems, neurochemistry and brain function Subcortical anatomy: Most of the five major subdivisions of the brain are subcortical. I. Telencephalon (cortical - part of forebrain) - also contains and, which are subcortical II. Diencephalon (, - part of forebrain) III. Brainstem - mesencephalon ( ) - metencephalon (, - part of hindbrain) - myelencephalon ( - part of hindbrain) 1

2 I. Subcortical telencephalon: basal ganglia - corpus striatum (caudate nucleus and putamen) - globus pallidus (together with putamen - called ) - nucleus accumbens (ventral part of striatum) - Caudate nucleus 2

3 I. Subcortical telencephalon: basal ganglia (continued) - putamen Corpus callosum Lateral ventricle Putamen - Globus pallidus Corpus callosum Caudate Thalamus Globus pallidus Anterior commissure Putamen Basal ganglia generally involved in. 3

4 I. Subcortical telencephalon: basal ganglia (continued) - nucleus accumbens (ventral striatum - involved in ) Thalamus Hypothalamus Caudate Putamen Globus pallidus 4

5 I. Subcortical telencephalon: limbic system

6 I. Subcortical telencephalon: limbic system (continued) - hippocampus and amygdala (with fornix) Corpus callosum fornix Hippocampus Amygdala Anterior commissure - cingulate gyrus 6

7 I. Subcortical telencephalon: limbic system (continued) Cingulate gyrus fornix putamen caudate ic cc GP Amygdala Mammillary body Hippocampus Limbic structures generally involved in the regulation of motivated behaviors (feeding, fleeing, fighting, sexual behaviors) and learning/ memory. - amygdala associated with - hippocampus associated with. - septal nuclei associated with. - fornix connects septal nuclei and hippocampal formation (fimbria-fornix) - fornix also provides hippocampal output to hypothalamus (mammillary bodies). 7

8 II. Diencephalon composed of and Thalamus: major relay station between sensory inputs to the brain and neocortex (for most sensory systems) - layer VI of neocortex provides significant feedback to thalamus Massa intermedia Cross-section through thalamus shows massa intermedia, a major thalamic fiber decussation system across third ventricle. 8

9 II. Diencephalon (continued) Hypothalamus: important in the control of - note the proximity of the pituitary gland, connected to the hypothalamus via the 9

10 III. Brainstem: Thalamus Midbrain - midbrain (mesencephalon) contains (below and above aqueduct, respectively) -Colliculi: -PAG ( ) -Reticular formation: -Red nucleus: -Substantia nigra: 10

11 III. Brainstem: Pons and cerebellum - pons contain nuclei for several - divided into a ventral portion (basis pontis) and a dorsal aspect (tegmentum) - basis pontis a major relay of - tegmentum contains reticular formation, tracts, and cranial nuclei Tegmentum Basis pontis 11

12 III. Brainstem: Medulla oblongata: contains several tracts, nuclei of reticular formation and several cranial nerves, much like pons. - Example: Hypoglossal nerve (XIIth cranial nerve): origin of neurons innervating muscles of the tongue. - Example: pyramids - begins in precentral gyrus, enters internal capsule to join cerebral peduncle, forms pyramids, decussates and enters spinal cord as corticospinal tract (lateral funiculus) 12

13 Basic chemistry and biochemistry - building blocks of biology Remember Star Trek? We are carbon-based creatures, as compared to other extraterrestrial races (if any exist)!!! The chemical elements (periodic table) in nature combine in various ways to form molecules (compounds). - most common elements in biochemical compounds are: C - O - H - N - - other less common by very important ones are: S - P - Most of the cellular components in our body are made of carbon containing molecules. Atoms: smallest particle (unit) of an element that maintains the properties of that element. What are atoms made of? Molecules are formed when 2 or more atoms combine. Examples: When more than one compound are mixed together, these are called mixtures; these are most often found in nature, including our body. Examples: What are ions? 13

14 Three (3) basic types of complex molecules that are important for cellular structure and function: lipids, proteins, and nucleic acids Each of these complex molecules is made up of essentially a long chain of a simpler molecule. 1. Lipids: made up of. - stored in fat cells (adipose cells) which serve as. - also very important in the formation of. - normally made up of a charged and the. - there are 3 different types of membrane lipids: phospholipids, glycolipids, and cholesterol. What are phospholipids (phosphoglycerides)? carbon chains glycerol phosphate Lipids can interact in different ways depending on the medium around them: - aqueous (polar) solvents (such as water) - non-aqueous (organic) solvents (such as chloroform) 14

15 micelle bilayer inverted micelle In aqueous solvent In organic solvent Normally, phospholipids aggregate as shown in top center to form cell membranes ( ). 2. Proteins: made up of long chains of (called residues). - proteins play a role in nearly every biological function known ( ) different amino acids serve as the building blocks of proteins. - each amino acid is made up of, a, and a, which differentiates amino acids. - amino acids can be combined in any order (variety of proteins). - short chains are called:. - long chains are called:. amino group carboxyl group side chain 15

16 Examples of different amino acids; notice the different side chains Proteins are said to have structures: - primary structure: - secondary structure: - tertiary structure: - quaternary structure: Also, proteins are said to have different domains (examples: extracellular domain, intracellular domain, transmembrane domain, binding domain). 16

17 Examples of secondary structures based on á-helix and â-sheet á-helix â-sheet Many proteins are associated with the cell membrane: - integral proteins have peptide domains that insert, once or several times. 17

18 3. Nucleic acids (DNA, RNA): - the blueprint of life. - as with amino acids, nucleotides combine in any order. - only four different types of nucleotides (slightly different for DNA and RNA). - single nucleotides made of three components: a. b. c. Base Phosphates Deoxyribose The 4 bases of DNA 18

19 Protein synthesis Where are proteins produced in our body? How does a cell know how to make a particular protein? - It needs to begin with a code which tells the cell which amino acids to string together to make a particular protein. - That code is provided by a gene (blueprint of life). - It is believed that the genome contains approximately 60,000 genes (Human Genome Project). - Question: Do all cells in our body have the same genes (i.e. genetic code)? - Question: Are all stretches on DNA part of genes? Major steps in protein synthesis: DNA fi mrna fi protein 1. : make an mrna copy of a specific gene (in nucleus) 2. mrna transported to cytoplasm (outside of nucleus) 3. : use code from mrna to build a protein (successive triplets (3 nucleotides) code for one of 20 amino acids to be linked. 19

20 Illustrated steps of protein synthesis Puzzle: What makes a liver cell different from a neuron? Protein synthesis is an ongoing dynamic process. 20

Unit 2 - Subcortical systems, neurochemistry and brain function

Unit 2 - Subcortical systems, neurochemistry and brain function Unit 2 - Subcortical systems, neurochemistry and brain function Subcortical anatomy : Most of the five major subdivisions of the brain are subcortical. I. Telencephalon(cortical - part of forebrain) -

More information

Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System

Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System Chapter 3 The Anatomy of the Nervous System Systems, Structures, and Cells That Make Up Your Nervous System 1 General Layout of the Nervous System Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain (in the skull) Spinal

More information

Mini-atlas of the Marmoset Brain

Mini-atlas of the Marmoset Brain Mini-atlas of the Marmoset Brain http://marmoset-brain.org Aya Senoo Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology Hironobu Tokuno Tokyo Metropolitan Institute of Medical Science Charles Watson Curtin

More information

DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD

DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD DEVELOPMENT OF HUMAN BRAIN AND SPINAL CORD LEARNING OBJECTIVES The student should understand the following The origins of nervous system Primary and secondary brain vesicles Development of spinal cord

More information

DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP'S BRAIN

DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP'S BRAIN DISSECTION OF THE SHEEP'S BRAIN Introduction The purpose of the sheep brain dissection is to familiarize you with the threedimensional structure of the brain and teach you one of the great methods of studying

More information

Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology by Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.)

Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology by Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.) BRAIN ANATOMY Adapted from Human Anatomy & Physiology by Marieb and Hoehn (9 th ed.) The anatomy of the brain is often discussed in terms of either the embryonic scheme or the medical scheme. The embryonic

More information

Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization

Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain Organization Jeanette J. Norden, Ph.D. Professor Emerita Vanderbilt University School of Medicine Course Outline Lecture 1: Vocabulary & General Concepts of Brain

More information

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology

2401 : Anatomy/Physiology Dr. Chris Doumen Week 7 2401 : Anatomy/Physiology The Brain Central Nervous System TextBook Readings Pages 431 through 435 and 463-467 Make use of the figures in your textbook ; a picture is worth a thousand

More information

2. Peripheral nervous system - all of the afferent and efferent nerves off of the spinal cord as well as the cranial nerves.

2. Peripheral nervous system - all of the afferent and efferent nerves off of the spinal cord as well as the cranial nerves. Nervous System The nervous system is divided into two parts: 1. Central nervous system - the brain and spinal cord 2. Peripheral nervous system - all of the afferent and efferent nerves off of the spinal

More information

Nervous System Organization. PNS and CNS. Nerves. Peripheral Nervous System. Peripheral Nervous System. Motor Component.

Nervous System Organization. PNS and CNS. Nerves. Peripheral Nervous System. Peripheral Nervous System. Motor Component. Nervous System Organization PNS and CNS Chapters 8 and 9 Peripheral Nervous System (PNS) connects CNS to sensory receptors, muscles and glands Central Nervous System (CNS) control/integrating center brain

More information

THE HUMAN BRAIN. An Introduction to Its Functional Anatomy

THE HUMAN BRAIN. An Introduction to Its Functional Anatomy THE HUMAN BRAIN An Introduction to Its Functional Anatomy Sixth Edition JOHN NOLTE, PhD Professor of Cell Biology and Anatomy The University of Arizona College of Medicine Tucson, Arizona THREE-DIMENSIONAL

More information

Brain Tutorial. Gross Anatomy Lab #21. Fall 2015 Modified from Dr. Len White Brain and Behavior Many images from Neurosciences, 5 th edihon.

Brain Tutorial. Gross Anatomy Lab #21. Fall 2015 Modified from Dr. Len White Brain and Behavior Many images from Neurosciences, 5 th edihon. Brain Tutorial Gross Anatomy Lab #21 Fall 2015 Modified from Dr. Len White Brain and Behavior Many images from Neurosciences, 5 th edihon. GA Brain Tutorial 2015 For the Brain lab and this tutorial your

More information

CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling. Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy

CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling. Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling CSE511 Brain & Memory Modeling Lect02: BOSS Discrete Event Simulator Lect04: Brain & Spine Neuroanatomy Appendix of Purves et al., 4e Larry Wittie Computer Science, StonyBrook

More information

BRAIN BRAINSTEM. It displays the following surface features:

BRAIN BRAINSTEM. It displays the following surface features: Primal Pictures Ltd. 2014 BRAIN The brain is the control center of the nervous system and, along with the spinal cord, forms the central nervous system. It occupies the cranial cavity and can be divided

More information

Introduction anterior posterior ventral Dorsal lateral medial

Introduction anterior posterior ventral Dorsal lateral medial Contents Introduction... 1 The Ventral Surface... 2 The Mid-Sagittal Cut... 10 The Hippocampal Dissection... 13 Coronal Cuts... 21 Horizontal Cuts... 30 Introduction Welcome to the laboratory component

More information

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3

Lesson Overview. Carbon Compounds. Lesson Overview 2.3 Lesson Overview 2.3 The Chemistry of Carbon Carbon atoms can form strong covalent bonds with many other elements. Molecules containing carbon are called organic. Living organisms are composed of molecules

More information

Central Nervous System (CNS) CNS composed of the brain and spinal cord Cephalization

Central Nervous System (CNS) CNS composed of the brain and spinal cord Cephalization Central Nervous System (CNS) CNS composed of the brain and spinal cord Cephalization Elaboration of the anterior portion of the CNS Increase in number of neurons in the head Highest level is reached in

More information

MITOCW MIT9_14S09_lec33-mp3

MITOCW MIT9_14S09_lec33-mp3 MITOCW MIT9_14S09_lec33-mp3 The following content is provided under a Creative Commons License. Your support will help MIT OpenCourseWare continue to offer high quality educational resources for free.

More information

One of the main arteries supplying the back of the brain.

One of the main arteries supplying the back of the brain. Glossary Anterior cerebral artery Arachnoid (mater) Arachnoid granulations (arachnoid villae) Basal ganglia (basal nuclei) Basilar artery Brainstem Brocca s area CSF CNS Carotid arteries Caudate nucleus

More information

BIO130 Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves Lecture Outline

BIO130 Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves Lecture Outline BIO130 Chapter 14 The Brain and Cranial Nerves Lecture Outline Brain structure 1. Cerebrum Hemispheres: left & right Cerebral cortex Gyri Sulci Fissures Longitudinal fissure Corpus callosum Lobes Central

More information

BRAIN ANATOMY (Adapted from Johnson, Weipz and Savage Lab Book)

BRAIN ANATOMY (Adapted from Johnson, Weipz and Savage Lab Book) CJ Shuster Lab Addenum Brain Anatomy & Dissection Guide 1 BRAIN ANATOMY (Adapted from Johnson, Weipz and Savage Lab Book) Introduction The brain is the largest and most complex part of the nervous system.

More information

Laboratory 7 Brain Anatomy

Laboratory 7 Brain Anatomy Laboratory 7 Brain Anatomy Goals: Describe the organization & function of the three meningeal layers. Explain where cerebrospinal fluid is found in the central nervous system Identify the major structures

More information

First. The Nervous System is Composed of Two Parts. Peripheral Nervous System. Somatic System. Overview of the Nervous System

First. The Nervous System is Composed of Two Parts. Peripheral Nervous System. Somatic System. Overview of the Nervous System First Overview of the Nervous System The Brain and Behavior All parts are interrelated. Thus, you need all parts to function normally. Neurons = Nerve cells The Nervous System is Composed of Two Parts

More information

3) Cerebral Cortex & Functions of the 4 LOBES. 5) Cranial Nerves (Nerves In the Cranium, i.e., Head)

3) Cerebral Cortex & Functions of the 4 LOBES. 5) Cranial Nerves (Nerves In the Cranium, i.e., Head) Lecture 5 (Oct 8 th ): ANATOMY and FUNCTION OF THE NERVOUS SYSTEM Lecture Outline 1) Basic Divisions (CNS vs. PNS, Somatic vs. Autonomic) and Directional Terms 2) The Brain (Hindbrain/ Midbrain/ Forebrain)

More information

FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY The Internal Environment

FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY The Internal Environment FUNCTIONAL ORGANIZATION OF THE HUMAN BODY The Internal Environment Physiology is the study of function in living matter; it attempts to explain the physical and chemical factors that are responsible for

More information

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sensory Pathway (PNS) OVERVIEW OF SPINAL CORD ANATOMY OF THE SPINAL CORD FUNCTIONS OF THE SPINAL CORD

CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM. Sensory Pathway (PNS) OVERVIEW OF SPINAL CORD ANATOMY OF THE SPINAL CORD FUNCTIONS OF THE SPINAL CORD CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM Central nervous system (CNS) brain and spinal cord enclosed in bony coverings Functions of the spinal cord spinal cord reflexes integration ti (summation of inhibitory and excitatory)

More information

2007 7.013 Problem Set 1 KEY

2007 7.013 Problem Set 1 KEY 2007 7.013 Problem Set 1 KEY Due before 5 PM on FRIDAY, February 16, 2007. Turn answers in to the box outside of 68-120. PLEASE WRITE YOUR ANSWERS ON THIS PRINTOUT. 1. Where in a eukaryotic cell do you

More information

Nervous System sensor input integration motor output sensory organs central nervous system

Nervous System sensor input integration motor output sensory organs central nervous system Nervous System Nervous system performs three overlapping functions of sensor input, integration, and motor output. This process is generally the same even at a very primitive level of nervous system, but

More information

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose

4. Which carbohydrate would you find as part of a molecule of RNA? a. Galactose b. Deoxyribose c. Ribose d. Glucose 1. How is a polymer formed from multiple monomers? a. From the growth of the chain of carbon atoms b. By the removal of an OH group and a hydrogen atom c. By the addition of an OH group and a hydrogen

More information

The Human Nervous System

The Human Nervous System The Human Nervous System S tructure and Function S ixth Ed ition The Human Nervous System Structure and Function S ixth Edition Charles R. Noback, PhD Professor Emeritus Department of Anatomy and Cell

More information

THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES

THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES THE BRAIN AND CRANIAL NERVES The Brain - made up of a trillion neurons - weighs about 3 lbs - has four principle parts 1. Brain stem - medulla oblongata, pons, midbrain (mesencephalon) 2. Diencephalon

More information

An Introduction To Human Neuroanatomy

An Introduction To Human Neuroanatomy An Introduction To Human Neuroanatomy Harvard Brain Tissue Resource Center, McLean Hospital, Belmont, MA 02478, 1-800-BRAIN BANK. Created by Tim Wheelock, Assistant Director of Neuropathology/Instructor

More information

Parts of the Brain. Chapter 1

Parts of the Brain. Chapter 1 Chapter 1 Parts of the Brain Living creatures are made up of cells. Groups of cells, similar in appearance and with the same function, form tissue. The brain is a soft mass of supportive tissues and nerve

More information

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s

Chapter 5. The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Chapter 5 The Structure and Function of Macromolecule s Most Macromolecules are polymers: Polymer: (poly: many; mer: part) Large molecules consisting of many identical or similar subunits connected together.

More information

Chapter 12. Motor Nervous System

Chapter 12. Motor Nervous System Chapter 12 Central Nervous System The Nervous System is a control system that regulates body functions along with the endocrine system. It is divided into the Central Nervous System (CNS) and the Peripheral

More information

Biology Content Standards

Biology Content Standards Biology Content Standards 1. The Chemistry of Life Broad Concept: Chemical elements form organic molecules that interact to perform the basic functions of life. 1.1 Recognize that biological organisms

More information

Rosen Educational Services materials copyright 2011 Rosen Educational Services, LLC. All rights reserved.

Rosen Educational Services materials copyright 2011 Rosen Educational Services, LLC. All rights reserved. Published in 2011 by Britannica Educational Publishing (a trademark of Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc.) in association with Rosen Educational Services, LLC 29 East 21st Street, New York, NY 10010. Copyright

More information

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water

Lecture Overview. Hydrogen Bonds. Special Properties of Water Molecules. Universal Solvent. ph Scale Illustrated. special properties of water Lecture Overview special properties of water > water as a solvent > ph molecules of the cell > properties of carbon > carbohydrates > lipids > proteins > nucleic acids Hydrogen Bonds polarity of water

More information

Biochemistry of Cells

Biochemistry of Cells Biochemistry of Cells 1 Carbon-based Molecules Although a cell is mostly water, the rest of the cell consists mostly of carbon-based molecules Organic chemistry is the study of carbon compounds Carbon

More information

1 Gross Anatomy of the Brain

1 Gross Anatomy of the Brain 1 Gross Anatomy of the Brain Subdivisions of the Brain Cerebrum Brainstem: Midbrain, Pons, and Medulla The average human brain weighs about 1500 g (3 lbs) or approximately 2% of the body weight of a 150-1b

More information

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules

WEEK ONE VOCABULARY. Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules WEEK ONE VOCABULARY Acid- hydrogen donors; acids increase the hydrogen ion concentration in solution Adhesion- the attraction between water molecules and other molecules Alpha (α) helix- secondary protein

More information

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry

(Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry (Almost) Everything You NEED in Chemistry An atom consists of a central portion, the NUCLEUS (made up of Protons and Neutrons) and Electrons which are found outside the nucleus. An uncharged atom has an

More information

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis

I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers. Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis I. Polymers & Macromolecules Figure 1: Polymers Polymer: Macromolecule: Figure 2: Dehydration Synthesis 1 Dehydration Synthesis: Figure 3: Hydrolysis Hydrolysis: II. Organic Macromolecules Class I: Carbohydrates:

More information

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules

Chapter 5: The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules Name Period Concept 5.1 Macromolecules are polymers, built from monomers 1. The large molecules of all living things fall into just four main classes. Name them. 2. Circle the three classes that are called

More information

Carbon-organic Compounds

Carbon-organic Compounds Elements in Cells The living substance of cells is made up of cytoplasm and the structures within it. About 96% of cytoplasm and its included structures are composed of the elements carbon, hydrogen, oxygen,

More information

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Hour: Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds

More information

Chapter 9 - Nervous System

Chapter 9 - Nervous System Chapter 9 - Nervous System 9.1 Introduction (p. 215; Fig. 9.1) A. The nervous system is composed of neurons and neuroglia. 1. Neurons transmit nerve impulses along nerve fibers to other neurons. 2. Nerves

More information

Biological molecules:

Biological molecules: Biological molecules: All are organic (based on carbon). Monomers vs. polymers: Monomers refer to the subunits that, when polymerized, make up a larger polymer. Monomers may function on their own in some

More information

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure.

Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Atoms Atom smallest part of an element that has the characteristics of that element. Each element has a distinct atom based on structure. Nucleus- positively charged contains protons (p+), neutrons(n0),

More information

Essay Question for exam 3

Essay Question for exam 3 Essay Question for exam 3 Describe how action potentials are generated and propagated along neurons. Include in your description how intracellular voltage changes during the action potential by labeling

More information

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman

The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman The Structure and Function of Large Biological Molecules by Dr. Ty C.M. Hoffman Slide 1 All of the biological macromolecules are built from smaller subunits. Each subunit features - H and - OH substituents

More information

Transcription and Translation of DNA

Transcription and Translation of DNA Transcription and Translation of DNA Genotype our genetic constitution ( makeup) is determined (controlled) by the sequence of bases in its genes Phenotype determined by the proteins synthesised when genes

More information

NEUROANATOMY 6 Limbic System

NEUROANATOMY 6 Limbic System NEUROANATOMY 6 Limbic System The Limbic System The part of the brain involved with learning, memory and emotion. It is affected in many neuropsychiatric diseases including schizophrenia, Alzheimer s disease

More information

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES

CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES CHAPTER 3 THE CHEMISTRY OF ORGANIC MOLECULES 3.1 Organic Molecules The chemistry of carbon accounts for the diversity of organic molecules found in living things. Carbon has six electrons, four of which

More information

OUTCOMES. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation OVERVIEW ANIMATION CONTEXT RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA)

OUTCOMES. PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation OVERVIEW ANIMATION CONTEXT RIBONUCLEIC ACID (RNA) OUTCOMES PROTEIN SYNTHESIS IB Biology Core Topic 3.5 Transcription and Translation 3.5.1 Compare the structure of RNA and DNA. 3.5.2 Outline DNA transcription in terms of the formation of an RNA strand

More information

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2

Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Carbohydrates, Lipids, and Proteins 3.2 Organic vs. Inorganic compounds Organic compounds contain carbon and are found in living organisms Exceptions: hydrocarbonates, carbonates, oxides of carbon. Inorganic

More information

Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Central Nervous System

Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Central Nervous System CHAPTER 3 Introduction to the Structure and Function of the Central Nervous System GENERAL TERMINOLOGY AN OVERVIEW OF THE CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM The Central and Peripheral Nervous Systems Major Divisions

More information

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane

Basic Characteristics of Cells. Cell Structure and Function. Each Cell Has Three Primary Regions. Basic Characteristics of Cells. The Plasma Membrane Basic Characteristics of Cells Cell Structure and Function Chapter 3 Smallest living subdivision of the human body Diverse in structure and function Small Basic Characteristics of Cells Each Cell Has Three

More information

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage.

A disaccharide is formed when a dehydration reaction joins two monosaccharides. This covalent bond is called a glycosidic linkage. CH 5 Structure & Function of Large Molecules: Macromolecules Molecules of Life All living things are made up of four classes of large biological molecules: carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, and nucleic

More information

Sheep Brain Dissection

Sheep Brain Dissection Sheep Brain Dissection http://www.carolina.com/product/preserved+organisms/preserved+animals+%28mammal s%29/sheep+organs/preserved+sheep+dissection.do Michigan State University Neuroscience Program Brain

More information

Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1

Figure 2 Figure 3 Figure 1 The brain is organized into three tiers; a lower tier made up by the brainstem and cerebellum, a middle tier containing the thalamus, basal ganglia and many components of the limbic system and an upper

More information

Structural Classification of the Nervous System

Structural Classification of the Nervous System Structural Classification of the Nervous System Central nervous system (CNS) Brain and spinal cord Activates nerve responses Interprets sensations Peripheral nervous system (PNS) Composed of all the nerves

More information

Brain Matters: Brain Anatomy

Brain Matters: Brain Anatomy 1 : Brain Anatomy Lesson Overview Students share what they already know about brain structure and function, and then, guided by descriptions of brain regions explore the G2C Online 3-D Brain to learn more

More information

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2

Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Chemical Basis of Life Module A Anchor 2 Key Concepts: - Water is a polar molecule. Therefore, it is able to form multiple hydrogen bonds, which account for many of its special properties. - Water s polarity

More information

NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION

NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION NEURAL CONTROL AND COORDINATION THE HUMAN NERVOUS SYSTEM VIKASANA - VIGNANA PATHADEDEGE NIMMA NADIGE Bridge Course Program for SSLC Students who want to take up Science in I PUC in 2012 CONTENTS Introduction

More information

The Brain: Structure. Brain Structure. Brain Divisions 1/2/11

The Brain: Structure. Brain Structure. Brain Divisions 1/2/11 The Brain: Structure Brain structure evolved over millions of years Divided into sections Each section built upon the others Brain Structure Brain Divisions Hindbrain Midbrain Forebrain 1 Hindbrain Components

More information

CHAPTER 9 BODY ORGANIZATION

CHAPTER 9 BODY ORGANIZATION CHAPTER 9 BODY ORGANIZATION Objectives Identify the meaning of 10 or more terms relating to the organization of the body Describe the properties of life Describe the function for the structures of the

More information

1. Which of the following is NOT part of the diencephalon? a. Pineal gland b. Tectum c. Interthalamic adhesion d. Hypothalamus e.

1. Which of the following is NOT part of the diencephalon? a. Pineal gland b. Tectum c. Interthalamic adhesion d. Hypothalamus e. 1. Which of the following is NOT part of the diencephalon? a. Pineal gland b. Tectum c. Interthalamic adhesion d. Hypothalamus e. Thalamus 2. The is the primary relay station for sensory information coming

More information

Proteins and Nucleic Acids

Proteins and Nucleic Acids Proteins and Nucleic Acids Chapter 5 Macromolecules: Proteins Proteins Most structurally & functionally diverse group of biomolecules. : o Involved in almost everything o Enzymes o Structure (keratin,

More information

NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED

NO CALCULATORS OR CELL PHONES ALLOWED Biol 205 Exam 1 TEST FORM A Spring 2008 NAME Fill out both sides of the Scantron Sheet. On Side 2 be sure to indicate that you have TEST FORM A The answers to Part I should be placed on the SCANTRON SHEET.

More information

Gross Anatomy of the Brain

Gross Anatomy of the Brain CHAPTER 6 Gross Anatomy of the Brain CLINICAL CASE CEREBRUM DIENCEPHALON CEREBELLUM BRAINSTEM CLINICAL CONSIDERATIONS SYNONYMS AND EPONYMS FOLLOW-UP TO CLINICAL CASE QUESTIONS TO PONDER CLINICAL CASE A

More information

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties

- smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties Atom- - smallest particle of matter that has all its chemical properties -Atoms are made up of 3 smaller particles. These smaller particles are: protons particle with a positive charge located in the nucleus

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life.

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. Introduction to Biology and Chemistry Outline I. Introduction to biology A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. B. Characteristics of Life 1. Form and size are characteristic. e.g. A

More information

Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin

Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin Session Objectives. What you will cover Basic cell organelles Plasma membrane structure Basic function of membrane proteins Tissues Skin Cells, Membranes, Tissues and Skin Your objectives are List the

More information

Chapter 3 The Brain and Behavior

Chapter 3 The Brain and Behavior Chapter 3 The Brain and Behavior Learning Goals 1. Discuss the nature and basic functions of the nervous system. 2. Explain what neurons are and how they process information. 3. Identify the brain s levels

More information

Slide 4: Forebrain Structures. Slide 5: 4 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex. Slide 6: The Cerebral Hemispheres (L & R)

Slide 4: Forebrain Structures. Slide 5: 4 Lobes of the Cerebral Cortex. Slide 6: The Cerebral Hemispheres (L & R) Slide 1: [Film Clip: The Brain #2- Phineas Gage] Integrated Bodily Communications Within Brain (Hemispheres and structures) The remaining Nervous System Endocrine System (Hormonal communication) Our bodies-

More information

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total)

Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) AP Biology Biology, Campbell and Reece, 10th Edition Adapted from chapter reading guides originally created by Lynn Miriello Name: Unit 1: Chemistry of Life Guided Reading Questions (70 pts total) Chapter

More information

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular

Histology of Nervous Tissue Nervous system consists mostly of nervous tissue, which is highly cellular. Less than 20% of the CNS is extracellular The Nervous System Overview The nervous system is the master controlling and communicating system of the body. Every thought, action and emotion reflects its activity. Its cells communicate by electrical

More information

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport.

Disaccharides consist of two monosaccharide monomers covalently linked by a glycosidic bond. They function in sugar transport. 1. The fundamental life processes of plants and animals depend on a variety of chemical reactions that occur in specialized areas of the organism s cells. As a basis for understanding this concept: 1.

More information

PSK171 STRESS MANAGEMENT

PSK171 STRESS MANAGEMENT PSK171 STRESS MANAGEMENT Chapter 2 Systems that control stress arousal Controlling Stress & Tension Girdano, Dusek & Everly Ligands Ligands (amino acid molecules) Biochemicals that carry information Neurohormones

More information

The central nervous system (CNS) composed of the brain and the spinal cord

The central nervous system (CNS) composed of the brain and the spinal cord Overview Click here for a link to an online overview of brain anatomy The human brain is a very complex organ with a very high processing capacity unmatched by any computer system: it is able to receive

More information

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules

The molecules of life. The molecules that make up living things are really big They are called macromolecules Food Labels All living things use materials and energy Our food comes from living things The food labels we see show us what our food is made of The stuff we are studying today can be found on food labels

More information

The Molecules of Cells

The Molecules of Cells The Molecules of Cells I. Introduction A. Most of the world s population cannot digest milk-based foods. 1. These people are lactose intolerant because they lack the enzyme lactase. 2. This illustrates

More information

North Bergen School District Benchmarks

North Bergen School District Benchmarks Grade: 10,11, and 12 Subject: Anatomy and Physiology First Marking Period Define anatomy and physiology, and describe various subspecialties of each discipline. Describe the five basic functions of living

More information

Written and Illustrated by Eric R. Russell Photomicrography by Bruce J. Russell

Written and Illustrated by Eric R. Russell Photomicrography by Bruce J. Russell Intro to the Human Machine 1 BioMEDIA ASSOCIATES Learning Programs for Biology Education Visualizing Human Physiology: Introduction to the Human Machine Study Guide Supplement to Video Program All Text

More information

3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d.

3. The neuron has many branch-like extensions called that receive input from other neurons. a. glia b. dendrites c. axons d. Chapter Test 1. A cell that receives information and transmits it to other cells via an electrochemical process is called a(n) a. neuron b. hormone c. glia d. endorphin Answer: A difficulty: 1 factual

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Name: Date: Per: Table # Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells

Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Bio 100 Molecules of cells 1 Chapter 3 Molecules of Cells Compounds containing carbon are called organic compounds Molecules such as methane that are only composed of carbon and hydrogen are called hydrocarbons

More information

Human Neuroanatomy. Grades 9-12. Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today?

Human Neuroanatomy. Grades 9-12. Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today? Human Neuroanatomy Grades 9-12 Driving Question: How did the evolution of the human brain impact the structure and function it has today? Objectives: Students will be able to Describe the basic parts and

More information

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form.

Oxygen Hydrogen Nitrogen. Questions: 1. Name the 4 main elements that make up 95% of an organism. 2. Name the 4 types of bonds carbon can form. Biology 1 Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Name Date our Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight.

More information

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms

Elements & Macromolecules in Organisms Elements & Macromolecules in rganisms Most common elements in living things are carbon, hydrogen, nitrogen, and oxygen. These four elements constitute about 95% of your body weight. All compounds can be

More information

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation

The Steps. 1. Transcription. 2. Transferal. 3. Translation Protein Synthesis Protein synthesis is simply the "making of proteins." Although the term itself is easy to understand, the multiple steps that a cell in a plant or animal must go through are not. In order

More information

Elements in Biological Molecules

Elements in Biological Molecules Chapter 3: Biological Molecules 1. Carbohydrates 2. Lipids 3. Proteins 4. Nucleic Acids Elements in Biological Molecules Biological macromolecules are made almost entirely of just 6 elements: Carbon (C)

More information

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes

AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes AP Biology I. Nervous System Notes 1. General information: passage of information occurs in two ways: Nerves - process and send information fast (eg. stepping on a tack) Hormones - process and send information

More information

RNA & Protein Synthesis

RNA & Protein Synthesis RNA & Protein Synthesis Genes send messages to cellular machinery RNA Plays a major role in process Process has three phases (Genetic) Transcription (Genetic) Translation Protein Synthesis RNA Synthesis

More information

Brain Power. Counseling and Mental Health

Brain Power. Counseling and Mental Health Brain Power Counseling and Mental Health TEA COPYRIGHT Copyright Texas Education Agency, 2012. These Materials are copyrighted and trademarked as the property of the Texas Education Agency (TEA) and may

More information

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in

Name Date Period. 2. When a molecule of double-stranded DNA undergoes replication, it results in DNA, RNA, Protein Synthesis Keystone 1. During the process shown above, the two strands of one DNA molecule are unwound. Then, DNA polymerases add complementary nucleotides to each strand which results

More information

Nervous System: PNS and CNS

Nervous System: PNS and CNS Nervous System: PNS and CNS Biology 105 Lecture 10 Chapter 8 Outline I. Central Nervous System vs Peripheral Nervous System II. Peripheral Nervous System A. Somatic Nervous System B. Autonomic Nervous

More information

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category?

1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? DNA and Genetics 1. Which of the following correctly organizes genetic material from the broadest category to the most specific category? A. genome chromosome gene DNA molecule B. genome chromosome DNA

More information