PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY

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1 UNIVERSITY OF CALICUT SCHOOL OF DISTANCE EDUCATION B Sc COUNSELLING PSYCHOLOGY (2011 Admission Onwards) I Semester Complementary Course PHYSIOLOGICAL PSYCHOLOGY QUESTION BANK 1. are the basic units of communication in the nervous system. a. Cells b. Neurons c. Axons d. Dendrites 2. help neurons by providing nutrition, removing waste products, and enhancing the speed of communication between neurons. a. Axons b. Dendrites c. Glial cells d. Cell body 3. The three basic components of the neurons are, and. a. Cell body, Glial cells and Axon b. Dendrites, Axon and Glial cells c. Axon, Cell body and Synapse d. Cell body, Axon and Dendrites 4. The is a white, fatty covering made up of glial cells that increases the rate at which neural messages are sent. a. Glial cell b. Endocrine c. Axon terminal d. Myelin sheath 5. Within the neuron, information is communicated in the form of brief electrical messages called. a. Myelin sheath b. Synapse c. Action potential d. Neurotransmitter Physiological Psychology 1

2 6. The is the minimum level of stimulation required to activate a particular neuron. a. Stimulus threshold b. Action potential c. Synaptic transmission d. Neurotransmission 7. At the end of the axon are several small branches called. a. Action potential b. Dendrites c. Axon terminals d. Cell body 8. The synaptic vesicles contain chemicals called. a. Synaptic gap b. Neurotransmitter c. Interneurons d. Myelin sheath 9. is the process by which neurotransmitter molecules detach from a postsynaptic neuron and are reabsorbed by the presynaptic neuron so they can be recycled and used again. a. Inhibitory b. Excitatory c. Action potential d. Reuptake 10. Our ability to perceive, feel, think, move, act and react depends on the delicate balance of in the nervous system. a. Neurotransmitter b. Nervous cell c. Neurons d. Brain 11. stimulates muscle contractions and is involved in memory functions. a. Acetylcholine b. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine d. Serotonin 12. is involved in a number of functions, including movement, attention and learning and abnormal levels are involved in some mental disorders. a. Acetylcholine b. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine d. Serotonin 13. is involved in sleep, moods and emotional states, including depression. a. Acetylcholine b. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine d. Serotonin 14. has been implicated in some mental disorders and is involved in activation of neurons throughout the brain and in the process of learning and memory retrieval. a. Acetylcholine b. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine d. Serotonin Physiological Psychology 2

3 15. usually communicates inhibitory messages to other neurons and helps balance and offset excitatory messages. a. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) b. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine d. Serotonin 16. are neurotransmitters that regulate pain perception and are involved in the positive emotions associated with aerobic exercise. a. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) b. Norepinephrine c. Endorphins d. Serotonin 17. Prozac works by inhibiting the reuptake of, increasing the availability of this neurotransmitter in the brain. a. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) b. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine d. Serotonin 18. is a highly specialized cell that communicates information in electrical and chemical form. a. Neuron b. Nerve cell c. Chromosome d. Nervous 19. is the primary internal communication network of the body; divided into the central nervous system and the peripheral nervous system. a. Nervous system b. Endocrine c. Brain d. Neuron 20. is a type of neuron that signals muscles to contract or relax. a. Interneurons b. Sensory neurons c. Motor neurons d. Excitatory 21. is the part of a neuron that contains the nucleus. a. Axons b. Dendrites c. Glial cells d. Cell body 22. is a brief electrical impulse by which information is transmitted along the axon of a neuron. a. Myelin sheath b. Synapse c. Action potential d. Neurotransmitter 23. is a chemical messenger manufactured by a neuron. a. Myelin sheath b. Synapse c. Action potential d. Neurotransmitter Physiological Psychology 3

4 24. is the long, fluid-filled tube that carries a neuron's messages to other body areas. a. Axon b. Dendrite c. Glial cell d. Cell body 25. is the point of communication between two neurons. a. Myelin sheath b. Synapse c. Action potential d. Neurotransmitter 26. are the tiny pouches or sacs in the axon terminals that contain chemicals called neurotransmitters. a. Synapses b. Synaptic vesicles c. Synaptic gaps d. Postsynaptics 27. is a neurotransmitter that is involved in the regulation of bodily movements and thought processes. a. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) b. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine d. Serotonin 28. is the neurotransmitter that inhibits brain activity. a. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) b. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine d. Serotonin 29. neurons communicate information from one neuron to the next. a. Interneurons b. Sensory neurons c. Motor neurons d. Excitatory 30. The is a tiny space between the axon terminal of one neuron and the dendrite of an adjoining neuron. a. Synapse b. Synaptic vesicle c. Synaptic gap d. Postsynaptic 31. are made up of large bundles of neuron axons. a. Neurons b. Nerves c. Chromosomes d. Cell bodies 32. refer to simple, automatic behaviors that are produced by the spinal cord and occur without involvement of the brain. a. Spinal reflexes b. Presynaptic c. Action potential d. Resting potential Physiological Psychology 4

5 33. A chemical substance that mimics the action of a neurotransmitter at a receptor site is. a. Endorphins b. Antagonist c. Agonist d. Serotonin 34. is a chemical substance that inhibits the effect normally produced by a neurotransmitter at a receptor site. a. Endorphins b. Antagonist c. Agonist d. Serotonin 35. Some evidence suggests that the severe memory loss characteristic of person suffering from Alzheimer's disease results from a degeneration of cells that produce. a. Acetylcholine b. Norepinephrine c. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) d. Serotonin 36. Additional evidence indicates that also serve to intensify positive sensations- for example, the "runner's high" many people experience after vigorous exercise. a. Endorphins b. Antagonist c. Agonist d. Serotonin 37. Abnormal levels of have been implicated in sleep and eating disorders. a. Serotonin b. Norepinephrine c. Gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA) d. Endorphins 38. Degeneration of producing neurons has been linked to Parkinson's disease. a. Serotonin b. Norepinephrine c. Dopamine d. Endorphins 39. Dopamine produced by neurons located in a region of the brain called the. a. Suprachiasmatic nucleus b. Substantia nigra c. Corpus callosum d. Cerebral cortex 40. When an action potential reaches the axon terminal, synaptic vesicles move toward the. a. Cell body b. Cell membrane c. Nucleus d. Dendrites Physiological Psychology 5

6 41. Within the axons of the neuron are, which are held in storage-like vesicles until they are released when the neuron is stimulated. a. Neurotransmitters b. Synaptic vesicles c. Dendrites d. Cellbodies 42. The is the most basic signal in the nervous system which consists of a rapidly moving wave of depolarization that travels along the membrane of the individual neuron. a. Myelin sheath b. Synapse c. Action potential d. Neurotransmitter 43. are the small gaps in the myelin sheath surrounding the axons of many neurons. a. Neurotransmitters b. Synaptic vesicles c. Nodes of Ranvier d. Glial cells 44. carry information toward the cell body. a. Cells b. Neurons c. Axons d. Dendrites 45. carry information away from the cell body. a. Cells b. Neurons c. Axons d. Dendrites 46. In many neurons the axon is covered by a sheath of fatty material known as. a. Myelin b. Neurons c. Glial cells d. Vesicles 47. help form a barrier that prevents certain substances in the bloodstream from reaching the brain. a. Axons b. Dendrites c. Glial cells d. Cell body 48. Speeds along myelinated axons can reach miles per hour. a. 280 b. 270 c. 260 d Stimulation, either directly or by chemical messages from other neurons, produces, a basic type of signal within neurons. a. Spinal reflexes b. Graded potentials c. Action potentials d. Resting potentials 50. Damage to the surrounding axons can seriously affect synaptic transmission. a. Glial cell b. Endocrine c. Nodes of Ranvier d. Myelin sheath Physiological Psychology 6

7 51. In diseases such as multiple sclerosis (MS), progressive deterioration of the leads to jerky, uncoordinated movements in the affected person. a. Myelin sheath b. Neurotransmitter c. Nodes of Ranvier d. Synapse 52. The best-known imaging technique, and the first one developed for wide spread use, is an x-ray scanning procedure called. a. MRI scan b. PET c. CT scan d. functional MRI 53. The pseudoscience associated with the study of the skull and personality became known as. a. Neuroscience b. Neuropsychology c. Bioscience d. Phrenology b. 54. The of an organism is the full sequence of genes found on the chromosomes with the associated DNA. a. X chromosome b. Y chromosome c. Genome d. Genetics 55. Researchers in the field of human behavior genetics unite and psychology to explore the causal link between inheritance and behavior. a. Chromosome b. Behavior c. Genome d. Genetics 56. Researchers in the field of provide evolutionary explanations for the social behavior and social systems of humans and other animal species. a. Sociobiology b. Evolutionary psychology c. Phrenology d. Anthropology 57. may play an active role in neural communication by affecting the concentrations of ions that allow for the transmission of nerve impulses. a. Myelin b. Glia c. Interneurons d. Soma 58. For every in the body there are as many as 5,000 interneurons in the great intermediate network that forms the computational system of the brain. a. Sensory neuron b. Terminal buttons c. Motor neuron d. Nodes of Ranvier 59. The reticular formation has long tracts of fibers that run to the, which channels incoming sensory information to the appropriate area of the cerebral cortex, where that information is processed. a. Hypothalamus b. Pons c. Medulla d. Thalamus Physiological Psychology 7

8 60. The, which is the largest of the limbic system structures, plays an important role in the acquisition of memories. a. Hippocampus b. Thalamus c. Amygdala d. Pons 61. The area where the axon connects to the soma is. a. Axon hillock b. Terminal buttons c. Myelin sheath d. Nodes of Ranvier 62. When the is too large to be jumped by the neural impulse, the signal/information must be passed using chemicals as neurotransmitters instead of electrical currents. a. Spinal reflex b. Presynaptic c. Action potential d. Synaptic cleft 63. is the DNA segments that serve as the key functional units in hereditary transmission. a. Chromosome b. Genotype c. Phenotype d. Gene 64. is the expression of your genetic makeup (eye color, height, hair color, etc). a. Chromosome b. Genotype c. Phenotype d. Gene 65. are the thread-like strands of DNA molecules that form the DNA segments. a. Chromosomes b. Genotypes c. Phenotypes d. Genes 66. In the brain and spinal cord, areas that are mostly axons are called which is possible to differentiate pathways or tracts of these axons. a. White matter b. Gray matter c. Ganglia d. Nerve 67. Areas that include large number of cell bodies are called. a. White matter b. Gray matter c. Ganglia d. Nerve 68. When the action potential reaches the axon ending, it causes tiny bubbles of chemicals called to release their contents into the synaptic gap. a. Spinal reflex b. Presynaptic c. Synaptic vesicles d. Synaptic cleft Physiological Psychology 8

9 69. The surface of the axon contains hundreds of thousands of miniscule mechanisms called. a. Synapses b. Ion channels c. Synaptic gaps d. Postsynaptics 70. The actions of the body s voluntary muscles are controlled by the, located just in front of the central sulcus in the frontal lobes. a. Somatosensory cortex b. Motor cortex c. Cerebral cortex d. Amygdala 71. The hypothalamus maintains the body s internal equilibrium, or. a. Plasticity b. Excitatory c. Homeostasis d. Resonance 72. The production of new brain cells from naturally occurring stem cells are called. a. Agenesis b. Neurogenesis c. Plastic surgery d. Brain imaging 73. are unspecialized cells that, under appropriate conditions, can be prompted to function as new neurons. a. Ganglion b. Genome c. Stem cells d. Nerve cells 74. Researchers refer to changes in the performance of the brain as. a. Plasticity b. Excitatory c. Spontaneity d. Resonance 75. The is often called the master gland. a. Thyroid gland b. Pituitary gland c. Adrenal gland d. Pancreas 76. In females, a pituitary hormone stimulates production of, which is essential to the hormonal chain reaction that triggers the release of ova from a woman s ovaries, making her fertile. a. Androgen b. Testosterone c. Progesterone d. Estrogen 77. initiate, maintain and stop development of secondary sexual characteristics, influence levels of arousal and awareness, serve as the basis for mood changes, and regulate metabolism. a. Genomes b. DNA c. Endocrine d. Hormones Physiological Psychology 9

10 78. The tends to be more analytical; processes information bit by bit. a. Right hemisphere b. Left hemisphere c. Occipital lobe d. Temporal lobe 79. The tends to be more holistic; processes information with respect to global patterns. a. Right hemisphere b. Left hemisphere c. Occipital lobe d. Temporal lobe 80. One groove called the, divides each hemisphere vertically. a. Cortex b. Lateral fissure c. Central sulcus d. Brain stem 81. One groove called the, divides each hemisphere horizontally. a. Cortex b. Lateral fissure c. Central sulcus d. Brain stem 82. In humans, the dwarfs the rest of the brain, occupying two thirds of its total mass. a. Hypothalamus b. Medulla c. Cerebrum d. Thalamus 83. Damage to some areas of the also impairs the ability to recognize the emotional content of facial expressions. a. Hippocampus b. Amygdala c. Pons d. Cerebrum 84. When the body temperature drops, the causes blood-vessel constriction or minute involuntary movements, commonly refer to as the shivers. a. Hippocampus b. Amygdala c. Hypothalamus d. Thalamus 85. The is the largest of the limbic system structures, plays an important role in the acquisition of memories. a. Hippocampus b. Amygdala c. Hypothalamus d. Thalamus 86. The is a dense network of nerve cells that serves as the brain s sentinel. a. Medulla b. Association area c. Reticular formation d. Limbic system Physiological Psychology 10

11 87. The contains structures that collectively regulate the internal state of the body. a. Stem cells b. Brain stem c. Endocrine system d. Limbic system 88. has pioneered the use of electrical stimulation to probe structures deep in the brain. a. Walter Hess b. Broca c. Wernicke d. Roger Sperry 89. A is any substance that modifies or modulates the activities of the postsynaptic neuron. a. Neurotransmitter b. Neuromodulator c. Acetylcholine d. Serotonin 90. often found in food that has been preserved incorrectly, poisons an individual by preventing release of acetylcholine in the respiratory system. a. Botulinum toxin b. Curare c. Xanax d. Prozac 91. is an antidepressanr drug that enhances the action of serotonin by preventing it from being removed from the synaptic cleft. a. Valium b. Curare c. Xanax d. Prozac 92. Anxiety disorders are often treated with benzodiazepine drugs, such as, that increase GABA activity. a. Valium b. Curare c. Xanax d. Prozac 93. Multiple sclerosis (MS) is a devastating disorder caused by deterioration of the. a. Nodes of Ranvier b. Ganglia c. Substantia niagra d. Myelin sheath 94. During the, the neuron will fire only in response to a stimulus stronger than what is ordinarily necessary. a. Absolute refractory period b. Relative refractory period c. Depolarization d. Excitatory period 95. To complete synaptic transmission, the neurotransmitters attach to receptor molecules embedded in the. a. Presynaptic membrane b. Postsynaptic membrane c. Cell membrane d. Synaptic vesicles Physiological Psychology 11

12 96. An action potential begins when the excitatory inputs are sufficiently strong with respect to inhibitory inputs to depolarize the cell from millivolts. a. -70 to -60 b. -75 to -65 c. -70 to -55 d. -75 to have been called the keys to paradise because of their pleasurepain controlling properties. a. Dopamines b. Serotonin c. GABA d. Endorphins 98. is a poison that paralyzes lung muscles by occupying critical acetylcholine receptors, preventing the normal activity of the transmitter. a. Valium b. Curare c. Xanax d. Prozac 99. carries sensory information via afferent nerve fibers from receptors throughout the body to the brain and conducts information via efferent nerve fibers from the brain to muscles and glands. a. Spinal cord b. Nodes of Ranvier c. Hippocampus d. Cell body 100. in the spinal cord that carry information from the brain to muscles and glands throughout the body. a. Afferent nerve fibers b. Efferent nerve fibers c. Hormones d. Endocrine Physiological Psychology 12

13 ANSWER KEY 1. B 2. C 3. D 4. D 5. C 6. A 7. C 8. B 9. D 10. A 11. A 12. C 13. D 14. B 15. A 16. C 17. D 18. A 19. A 20. C 21. D 22. C 23. D 24. A 25. B 26. B 27. C 28. A 29. A 30. C 31. B 32. A 33. C 34. B 35. A 36. A 37. C 38. C 39. B 40. B 41. A 42. C 43. C 44. D 45. C 46. A 47. C 48. B 49. B 50. D 51. A 52. C 53. D 54. C 55. D 56. A 57. B 58. C 59. D 60. A 61. A 62. D 63. D 64. C 65. A 66. A 67. B 68. C 69. B 70. B 71. C 72. B 73. C 74. A 75. B 76. D 77. D 78. B 79. A 80. C 81. B 82. C 83. B 84. C 85. A 86. C 87. B 88. A 89. B 90. A 91. D 92. A 93. D 94. B 95. B 96. C 97. D 98. B 99. A 100. B Physiological Psychology 13

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