PSK171 STRESS MANAGEMENT

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1 PSK171 STRESS MANAGEMENT Chapter 2 Systems that control stress arousal Controlling Stress & Tension Girdano, Dusek & Everly

2 Ligands Ligands (amino acid molecules) Biochemicals that carry information Neurohormones The smallest molecules (norepinephrine, acetylcholine) Steroids Sex hormones, cortisol Peptides The largest group of ligands (95 %) and involved in all life processes

3 Receptors Located on the surface membrane When a specific ligand communicates with the receptor, a message is sent to interior of the cell This message may iniate or halt production of an enzyme, cause cell to more or less permeable, or initiate one of the functions of that cell

4 Neuroplasticity Ability of brain to continually change as a result of experiences A violinist - areas of brain that control movement of fingers grow in size Meditation more practice produces stronger changes

5 Basic systems Central Nervous System (CNS) Brain, brain stem and spinal cord Autonomic Nervous System (ANS) Somatic Nervous System (SNS) Voluntary actions Endocrine system Pituitary gland (hipofiz bezi) Adrenal glands (böbreküstü bezleri) Immune system

6 Autonomic Nervous System Autonomic functions Heart rate, body temperature, respiration Sympathetic NS Alarm response and energyzing body Fight-or-flight Epinephrine, norepinephrine and dopamin This response facilitated by hormones of endocrine system, CNS and various peptides Parasympathetic NS Revert the systems to normal, calm down the body

7 Autonomic Nervous System The lower-brain structures of ANS respond to physical world and are reflexive Spinal cord (omurilik) Cerebellum (muscle coordination) Medulla oblangata (heart rate, circulation of blood, respiration, coughing, sneezing) Pons (a network that sends nerve impulses to various parts of brain) Thalamus (sends incoming signals to related brain areas) Hypothalamus and reticular formation

8

9 Hypothalamus Integrator of body s regulatory systems Hunger, thirst, blood pressure, heart rate, temperature, sex drive Receives physical messages and responds on a physcial level New or threatening messages > alarm reaction When threat abates of new stimulus is integrated > calming mesages are sent through parasympathetic NS

10 The Limbic System Pleasure and unpleasure centers Reward and punishment Integrates cognitive appraisal (from prefrontal cortex) with emotions Amygdala and hippocampus Emotion Amygdala > detection and experience of fear Hippocampus > regulates emotional responses for context

11 Cerebral Cortex Also called neocortex or forebrain Responsible for higher-order functions Analytical skills Writing skills Verbal communication Fine motor control Problem solving Learning Decision making Judgement

12 Cerebral Cortex Frontal lobe is very important in higher-order functions Blood flow in these areas regulated by emotional peptides which signal receptors on blood wessel walls to constrict or dilate and influence nourishment of cells If emotions are bolcked? Blood flow can become restricted Deprivation in nourishment of frontal cortex The time between strong emotions and recovery from them Therefore, strong emotions can leave a person out of touch with reality and diminish ability to make rational decisions. A long-term result > repeating old patterns and not responsing to outer world in a rational manner

13 The Reward System Major reward areas are located at the limbic system and hypothalamus Avoiding from adversity and approaching to pleasure/reward The reward systems regulate the basic drives related to Pleasure Pain Emotional comfort Sexual satisfaction Hunger Satiety Thirst Endorphin

14 The Reticular Formation Carries information from body to brain and brain to body Allows us to be prepared after detection of new stimuli Under prolonged stress Reticular Activating System stays aroused

15 Endocrine System Consists of glands and hormones Endocrine siystems is connected to Amygdala Hippocampus Frontal lobes Limbic system activates the hypothalic-pituitaryadrenal axis Which causes secretion of neurohormones epinephrine and norepinephrine and cortisol from adrenal glands

16 The Pituitary Gland Strongly related to activity of hypothalamus If parts of hypothalamus are stumulated, it stimulates pituitary gland Hypothalamus produces hormon-releasing factors These factors are released and stimulate pituitary gland and hormones are released Thoughts, anticipitations and nervous system responses can cause hormonal activity

17 The Adrenal Glands Responsible for the most of the physical manifestation of stress arousal such as increased heart rate and respiration Two adrenal glands located over each kidney Adrenal medulla Adrenal cortex

18 The Adrenal Glands Hypothalamus releases hormone-releasing factor Pituitary gland releases Adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH) Adrenal cortex secretes hormones into the blood such as cortisol and aldosterone

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