# Warm Up. Shorthand notation. Protons Neutrons Electrons Atom /cat/a n Atomic mass. Atomic # Pd P

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1 Chapter 4 Annotated

2 Warm Up Shorthand notation Atomic mass Pd Atomic # Protons Neutrons Electrons Atom /cat/a n P

3 Today s Agenda QOTD: Why are the masses on the periodic table not whole # s and how do we know about isotopes? Average Atomic Mass calcs Determining relative abundance Mass Spectrometry HW:

4 Atomic Mass = Average of Isotopes Weighted average mass mass of each isotope contributes to total mass according to how much of that isotope exists. Three isotopes = 39 K 40 K 41 K K Potassium Percent Composition: 93.26% 0.01% 6.73%

5 Calculate the Atomic Mass of K 1. Use % composition and convert to relative abundance (divide by 100) 93.26% composition =.9326 relative abundance 2. Amu = ((Mass of Isotope 1 )x(relative Abundance 1 )) + ((Mass of Isotope 2 )x(relative Abundance 2 )) ((0.9326)x(39)) + ((0.0001)x(40)) + ((0.0673)x(41)) = amu

6 Amu = (R.A.)x(Mass) + ((R.A.)x(Mass)) What element is this? Isotope Mass of Isotope Percent abundance 6 X amu 7.59% 7 X amu 92.41% Find the atomic mass What element is this? (Use the Periodic Table) Boron has two isotopes: Boron-10 (% abundance 19.8%, mass = amu) and Boron-11 (% abundance 80.2%, mass amu). Calculate the atomic mass of Boron.

7 Bromine has two isotopes with the first having a mass of amu and occupying 50.69% and the second isotope having a mass of amu and occupying 49.31%. What is the average atomic mass of bromine? Verify the atomic mass of Magnesium: 24 Mg = amu and percent abundance of 78.99%, 25 Mg = amu and percent abundance of 10.00%, 26 Mg = amu and percent abundance of 11.01%.

8 One more Copper has two naturally occurring isotopes, Cu-63 and Cu-65. The atomic mass of Cu is amu. Calculate the percent abundances of the two isotopes.

9 You try Braintrium has two isotopes Bt-143 and Bt The average isotopic mass is amu. What is the percent abundance of each?

10 How do we know about isotopes? Mass Spectrometry: Separates atoms based on mass! Since masses of isotopes are different, when a sample of a pure compound is analyzed, we detect multiple masses and can determine the mass and the percent abundance!

11 What can we DO with isotopes? Radioactive Dating All sorts of COOL spectrometry for chemists to study molecules that are important for us Medicine: MRI s, medical imaging, biochemical studies on DNA, Also, agricultural studies, studies on alternative fuel sources.

12 Warm Up! Boron has two isotopes: Boron-10 (% abundance 19.8%) and Boron-11 (% abundance 80.2%). Calculate the atomic mass of Boron. Identify the element! Isotope Mass of Isotope % abundance X amu 7.59% X amu 92.41% Find the atomic mass What element is this?

13 Today s Agenda Review for Quiz TOMORROW In class Review Review sheet Finish up Beanium lab from Tues. HW finish review sheet for Friday! Lab books due today!

14 Warm Up 1. Create your own table: Fill in only a few values and then switch with a neighbor to complete each other s tables! Shorthand notation Atomic mass Atomic # Protons Neutrons Electrons Atom/ cat/an 2. Why do the # of neutrons increase as the mass gets larger?

15 Grab your notebook! (up front) Lab Today!! Statement of Problem: Given a model of an element, Beanium, with several isotopes, determine the average atomic mass using beans, cups, and the analytical balance. Background info: Summarize paragraphs (include equation) in handout. How do you find a percent??

16 Today s Agenda QOTD: What is a nuclear reaction? Radioactive Decay Balancing nuclear equations HW due tomorrow, quiz Friday!

17 Radioactivity emit radiation Nuclear reactions change an element into a new element!! Lots of energy involved! Unlike a chemical reaction because we are doing more than rearranging we CHANGE the identity. UNSTABLE nuclei are unhappy and lose energy by emitting radiation radioactive decay. They form STABLE atoms of a different element.

18 In the Nucleus Radioactive decay transmutation Atomic # is altered = identity of element changed Nucleons Strong nuclear force between all nucleons. Repulsive force between 2 protons (electrostatic). Neutron attraction have to overcome the repulsive forces as atomic # increases we need more neutrons to stabilize the nucleus!!!

19 Radioisotopes Isotopes of atoms with unstable nuclei. Undergo radioactive decay to attain stability. Emit 3 types of radiation alpha, a beta, b gamma, g

20 Warm Up What are the two opposing forces in the nucleus? Why do you need to add more neutrons to the nucleus as the mass gets larger and larger? When the nucleus becomes unstable, how does the atom solve the problem?

21 Today s Agenda Question of the Day: How do you balance a nuclear equation and how fast do atoms decay? Balancing nuclear equations (a and b decay) Calculating half life HW: due Wednesday pg 894 # evens

22 What are the charges on radioactive particles?

23 Types of Radiation Alpha radiation (remember the gold foil experiment?!?!) made up of POSITIVE alpha particles. 2 protons and two neutrons (no electrons!) 4 He 2+ or a 2

24 Alpha decay U He Th Ra He Rn Cm He Pu

25 Types of Radiation Beta radiation negatively charged beta particles Unstable neutron turns into a proton and ejects 1 electron e - or b

26 b Decay practice C b Co b

27 Types of Radiation Gamma radiation emits gamma rays, high energy photon that has no mass nor charge. Gamma rays almost always accompany alpha and beta radiation and account for the energy lost in the nucleus. g Usually omitted from nuclear equations U 2 He 90 Th g

29 Penetrating Power Least Alpha particles most mass and charge. Isotopic mass 4 2 He 2+ Beta particles less mass (only the mass of an electron) and a neg charge. Most Gamma rays have no mass and no charge.

30 Low atomic # s have a 1:1 neutron to proton ratio 4 He 2 High atomic # s are stabilized by a 1.5:1 ratio 200 Hg 80 If atom is not in band (belt) of stability it undergoes radioactive decay to get there!

31 Decay Practice a decay 238 Pu 94 4 He U 92 Thorium-229 is used to increase the lifetime of fluorescent bulbs. What type of decay occurs when thorium-229 decays to form radium-225? Write out the nuclear equation. Write a balanced nuclear equation for the decay shown on the right. Identify A and B 212 Bi Tl 81 4 He 2 b 229 Th Tl A Pb B 82 4 He 2 Bismuth Ra 88 A a B b

32 Warm Up!! What is the band of stability and how does it relate to the proton to neutron ratio? How does the neutron to proton ratio change when polonium-210 decays into lead-206? What type of decay does polonium-210 undergo? (Low atomic # elements are happy with a 1:1 ratio of neutrons to protons. Heavier elements need a 1.5:1 ratio and all elements above 82 are radioactive.)

33 Half Life Time required for one half of the nuclei to decay into its products. Strontium-90 half life is 29 years. If you had 10 g now, in 29 years you would have 5g.

34

35 Half Life Calculations N = N 0 (½) n N remaining amount of element N 0 initial amount of element n number of half lives that have passed Kr-85 has a half life of 11 years. Kr is used in indicator lights of appliances. If a refrigerator light contains 2.0 mg of Kr-85, after 33 years, how much is left? N =? N 0 = 2 mg n = 33 years/11 years (years that have passed/half life)

36 Kr-85 has a half life of 11 years. Kr is used in indicator lights of appliances. If a refrigerator light contains 2.0 mg of Kr-85, after 33 years, how much is left? N = 2.0 mg (½) (33/11) N = 2.0 mg (½) 3 N = 2.0 mg (⅛) N = 0.25 mg left after 33 years

37 Warm Up! Write the following nuclear reactions: Alpha emission of Cm-244 Beta decay to produce Sb-116 Cobalt-60 has a half life of approx. 5 years. It is commonly used in cancer treatments. If a hospital purchases 30.0 g, how much would be left after 15 years?

38 Today s Agenda QOTD: Do we understand half life problems? Go over worksheet from yesterday Half life problems Nuclear reactors HW due Fri: pg 895 # s 55-56, odds, 80, 82, 86, 88

39 Half Life Practice The half life of Ra-222 is 3.8 days. How much is left of a 10 mg sample after 15.2 days? N = N 0 (½) n N = 10mg (½) (15.2/3.8) N = 10mg (½) 4 N = 10mg (1/16) N = 0.625mg

40 Half Life Practice Bandages can be sterilized by exposure to gamma radiation from cobalt-60, which has a half life of 5.27 years. How much of a 10 mg sample of cobalt-60 is left over after years? After four half lives? N = N 0 (½) n N = 10 mg (½) 10.54/5.27 N = 10 mg (½) 4

41 Half Life Calculations Do the problem intuitively Think about how many half lives have passed and just do the division Two half lives (10 mg/2)/2 = 2.5 mg Four half lives 10 mg/2/2/2/2 = mg

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