( + and - ) ( - and - ) ( + and + ) Atoms are mostly empty space. = the # of protons in the nucleus. = the # of protons in the nucleus

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1 Atoms are mostly empty space Atomic Structure Two regions of every atom: Nucleus - is made of protons and neutrons - is small and dense Electron cloud -is a region where you might find an electron -is made up of many shells n p p np n n Atomic Number ( Z ) = the # of protons in the nucleus Name Subatomic particles; Relative Symbol Charge mass Proton p Neutron n Electron e Electrons weigh almost nothing at all! Opposite charges attract each other ( + and - ) Alike (similar) charges repel each other ( - and - ) ( + and + ) Atomic Number ( Z ) = the # of protons in the nucleus 1

2 Electrons can only be in certain, specific energy levels ( shells ) (distances from the nucleus) in the electron cloud 1 st 2 nd 3 rd Bohr Model Diagrams show energy levels (shells) and the electrons in them. The nucleus is not shown. electron shell ( = energy level ) - Shells fill in order - Inner shells fill first. - Each shell can hold a certain number of electrons: 1 st shell gets 2 e - 2 nd shell gets 8 e - Valence Shell: The outermost shell that contains electrons. Valence Electron: An electron in an atom s valence shell 3 rd shell gets 8 e - Negative electrons are found in shells = energy levels positive protons & neutral neutrons are found in the dense core (nucleus) of atoms. Modern View of the atom: Two regions Nucleus- protons and neutrons Electron cloudhas many shells (energy levels) 2

3 Counting Charge: Ions Ions: Mini-Lecture Atomic Number Z is the number of protons. determines what element an atom is. ( Z ) (# of e - ) = net charge of the atom Ion: An atom with a net charge Cation: positive ion Anion: negative ion Fe Counting Charge: Ions Ca S Mg If you see an element symbol alone, assume it has an equal number of p + and e -, and therefore no net charge. ( Z ) (# of e - ) = net charge of the atom Ti 3+ Cl 1- Fe 2+ O 2- Cations and anions are indicated by writing the net charge of the ions in superscript to the right of the element symbol. What is the Net charge Br 1- What is the Net charge Ca 2+ What is the Net charge O 2-3

4 Counting Nucleons; Isotopes Bohr Diagrams Atomic Number Z is the number of protons. determines what element an atom is. if the atom is neutral, Z = # of e - Mass Number the number of protons + neutrons. called the mass number, because p + and n 0 are what make up the mass of atoms; the mass of electrons is insignificant. Isotopes Atoms of the same element can have differing masses due to differing numbers of neutrons. Isotopes: Atoms that share the same atomic number (same element; same # of p + ) but have a different mass number. (different isotopes of that element: different # of n 0 ) Example: Carbon-12 ( 12 C ) Carbon-13 ( 13 C ) are isotopes of Carbon. 1.) Two ways of writing isotopes: Mass number Atomic number Contain the symbol of the element, the mass number and the atomic number: X K 2.) Put the mass number after the element s name: carbon- 12 carbon 14 uranium-235 Find the number of neutrons number of electrons Mass Number 19 9F Mass Number Atomic Number = # of Neutrons Find the number of neutrons Mass Number Br

5 if an element has an atomic number of 34 and a mass number of 78 what is the number of neutrons Complete symbol if an element has 91 protons and 140 neutrons what is the Mass number Complete symbol if an element has 78 electrons and 117 neutrons what is the Mass number Complete symbol Study Guide Measuring Atomic Mass When measuring the mass of atoms, we do not use grams because the numbers would be too small; instead we use the Atomic Mass Unit (amu) 1 amu = 1 / 12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom. ( official definition) = basically, it is the mass of one proton or one neutron Why use amu? Because an amu is basically defined as the mass of a proton or a neutron, The mass number of an atom is the mass of the atom in amu. A Carbon-12 atom has a mass of 12 amu. A Potassium-40 atom has a mass of 40 amu. A Uranium-235 atom has a mass of 235 amu. 5

6 Atomic Mass How heavy is an atom of oxygen? It depends on number of protons and neutrons: Remember: the mass of an electron is negligible. There are different isotopes of oxygen. So, we take an average based on how common each isotope of oxygen is and calculate the Average Atomic Mass: A Summary Definition: the weighted average of all naturally occurring isotopes of an element. Units of atomic mass are the amu. Average atomic masses are not whole numbers because they are averages. Sneak Preview: Average Atomic Mass The average atomic mass of an element (in amu) is also numerically equal to the mass of one mole of that element in grams. (More on this later ) 6

2. All of the atoms of argon have the same. 1. The atomic number of an atom is always equal to the total number of. A. mass number B.

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