2 The Structure of Atoms

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1 CHAPTER 4 2 The Structure of Atoms SECTION Atoms KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What do atoms of the same element have in common? What are isotopes? How is an element s average atomic mass calculated? How is Avogadro s number used? What Is Inside an Atom? Democritus and John Dalton thought that atoms could not be divided into smaller parts. J. J. Thomson and Ernest Rutherford discovered that atoms are not indivisible, but contain electrons and nuclei. Later, other scientists discovered that the nucleus of an atom contains smaller particles called protons and neutrons. Each of these subatomic particles protons, neutrons, and electrons has different properties, as shown in the table below. Particle Charge Mass (kg) Location Proton inside the nucleus Neutron inside the nucleus Electron outside the nucleus As you can see from the table, the nucleus of an atom contains protons and neutrons. Protons have a positive charge. Neutrons do not have a charge. Protons and neutrons are almost identical in size and mass. Outside the nucleus is a cloud of negatively charged electrons. Electrons have a negative charge. The mass of an electron is much smaller than the mass of a proton or a neutron. What Do Atoms of the Same Element Have in Common? All of the atoms of a given element have one thing in common: they have the same number of protons. In fact, you can use the number of protons in an atom to determine which element the atom comes from. For example, all atoms with one proton are atoms of the element hydrogen. Atoms with two protons are helium atoms, as shown in the figure at the top of the next page. READING TOOLBOX Compare After you read this section, make a chart comparing atomic number, mass number, atomic mass, and average atomic mass. 1. Identify Which two types of subatomic particles are located in the nucleus? 2. Compare How does the mass of an electron compare with the mass of a proton? Interactive Reader 73 Atoms

2 Proton Electron 3. Infer The nucleus of a helium atom contains four subatomic particles. How many neutrons does the helium atom have? Neutron All helium atoms contain two protons. 4. Describe Why are atoms neutral? BALANCING CHARGE WITH ELECTRONS Protons and electrons have electric charges. However, atoms are neutral that is, they do not have an electric charge. The reason for this is that atoms have the same number of electrons as protons. The negative charges of the electrons cancel out the positive charges of the protons. (Remember that neutrons, which are also found in atoms, have no electric charge.) For example, a helium atom contains two protons in its nucleus. Therefore, the nucleus of a helium atom has a charge of 2. However, a helium atom also has two electrons. The electrons have a charge of 2. The 2 charge of the electrons balances out the 2 charge of the nucleus. As a result, the helium atom is neutral. Sometimes, atoms can gain or lose electrons. When this happens, an ion forms. An ion is an atom that has gained or lost electrons and thus has an electric charge. 5. Identify What force holds atoms together? THE ELECTRIC FORCE Positive and negative charges attract each other with a force called the electric force. The negatively charged electrons and the positively charged protons in an atom attract each other with the electric force. In fact, this force is what holds atoms together. What Is an Atomic Number? All atoms of an element have the same number of protons. This number is called the atomic number (Z) of the element. Neutral atoms have the same number of electrons as protons. Therefore, the atomic number of an element equals the number of electrons in an atom of the element. Interactive Reader 74 Atoms

3 ATOMIC NUMBER AND PROTONS Each element has a unique number of protons. Therefore, each element has its own unique atomic number. All atoms of a given element have the same atomic number. For example, hydrogen only has one proton, so its atomic number is 1. Uranium has 92 protons. Therefore, its atomic number is 92. The number of protons in an atom is equal to the atom s atomic number. 6. Apply Concepts Aluminum has an atomic number of 13. How many protons does an atom of aluminum have? How many electrons does it have? MASS NUMBER The nuclei of most atoms contain both protons and neutrons. The mass number (A) of an element equals the number of protons plus the number of neutrons. All atoms of an element have the same number of protons. However, atoms of the same element can have different numbers of neutrons. Therefore, atoms of the same element always have the same atomic number, but can have different mass numbers. ISOTOPES Atoms of a single element can have different numbers of neutrons. Atoms of an element with different numbers of neutrons are called isotopes. Isotopes contain the same number of protons as all atoms of an element. Therefore, they have the same atomic number. However, because isotopes have different numbers of neutrons, they have different mass numbers. Look at the figure below. The figure shows three isotopes of hydrogen. Each hydrogen isotope has an atomic number of 1 because it contains one proton. However, each isotope has a different number of neutrons. Therefore, each isotope has a different mass number. 7. Explain How can atoms of the same element have different mass numbers? Electron Isotopes of Hydrogen Proton Protium A = 1 Z = 1 Neutron Deuterium A = 2 Z = 1 Tritium A = 3 Z = 1 Each isotope of hydrogen has a different number of neutrons. However, all isotopes of hydrogen have the same number of protons. 8. Identify How many electrons do all isotopes of hydrogen have? Interactive Reader 75 Atoms

4 9. Apply Concepts What is the atomic number of most atoms of oxygen? What is the mass number of most atoms of oxygen? How Common Are Different Isotopes? Some isotopes of an element are more common than others. For example, more than 99% of the oxygen atoms on Earth contain 8 protons and 8 neutrons. Only about 0.2% of the oxygen atoms on Earth contain 8 protons and 10 neutrons. Some isotopes are unstable. These isotopes decay, or break down, over time. Sometimes, when an isotope decays, it forms a different isotope of the same element. How Can You Show an Atom s Atomic and Mass Numbers? You can use chemical symbols to represent atoms of different elements. For example, the symbol Cl represents an atom of the element chlorine. The chemical symbols for all the elements are in the periodic table at the back of this book. Scientists use numbers placed before the symbol of an element to show an atom s mass number and atomic number. The mass number is always written above the atomic number, as shown below. 10. Identify How many protons are in the nucleus of an atom of chlorine? 11. Calculate How many neutrons does an atom of chlorine-35 have? (Hint: Use the figure for reference.) Mass number Cl Atomic number This symbol represents an atom of an isotope of chlorine. This isotope of chlorine has a mass number of 35. Mass number Cl Atomic number This symbol represents an isotope of chlorine with a mass number of 37. You can also identify an isotope of an element in words. For example, the isotope of uranium with a mass number of 235 can be written uranium-235. You can calculate the number of neutrons in an atom by subtracting the atom s atomic number from its mass number. For example, an atom of uranium-235 has a mass number of 235. Like all atoms of uranium, it has an atomic number of 92. Therefore, an atom of uranium-235 has = 143 neutrons. Interactive Reader 76 Atoms

5 ATOMIC MASS The mass of a single atom is very small. For example, an atom of fluorine has a mass of less than one trillionth of one billionth of one gram. Therefore, scientists use a special unit to describe the masses of atoms. This unit is called a unified atomic mass unit. A unified atomic mass unit (u) is equal to one-twelfth the mass of a carbon-12 atom. This is about the same as the mass of a proton or a neutron. It can be easy to confuse atomic mass and mass number. Atomic mass is the mass of a single atom of an element. Atomic mass is measured in unified atomic mass units or in grams. Mass number is the sum of the number of protons and neutrons in an atom. Mass number does not have any units, and it is always a whole number. 12. Identify What unit do scientists use to measure the masses of atoms? AVERAGE ATOMIC MASS The figure below shows the entry in the periodic table for chlorine. The number written above the chemical symbol is the atomic number of chlorine, 17. The number below the chemical symbol is the average atomic mass of chlorine. This number is related to the atomic masses of chlorine atoms. 17 Cl Chlorine About 76% of chlorine atoms are chlorine-35 atoms, with atomic masses of about 35 u. About 24% of chlorine atoms are chlorine-37 atoms, with atomic masses of about 37 u. The weighted average of these two numbers gives the average atomic mass of chlorine, u. 13. Identify What is the average atomic mass of chlorine? There are two isotopes of chlorine: chlorine-35 and chlorine-37. However, both isotopes are not equally common in nature. If you could collect 100 atoms of chlorine, about 24 of them would be chlorine-37 atoms, and about 76 of them would be chlorine-35 atoms. In other words, about 24% of the chlorine atoms on Earth are chlorine-37 atoms. The other 76% are chlorine-35 atoms. The average atomic mass of chlorine represents the average mass of all the chlorine atoms on Earth. It is a weighted average. That is, because most chlorine atoms are chlorine-35 atoms, the average atomic mass of chlorine is closer to 35 u than to 37 u. Interactive Reader 77 Atoms

6 14. Define What is a mole? How Can You Convert Atomic Masses to Grams? Scientists use unified atomic mass units to describe the masses of single atoms. However, in most cases, chemists deal with huge numbers of atoms. For example, 1 g of table sugar contains about molecules of sugar. It is much easier to use grams to describe the masses of such large numbers of particles. Chemists use a special unit called a mole to represent large numbers of particles. A mole (mol) is the basic unit used to measure the amount of a substance. One mole is equal to a very large number of particles: 1 mol = 602,213,670,000,000,000,000,000 particles This number, which is called Avogadro s number, is usually written as The number is named after the Italian scientist Amedeo Avogadro. Why is the number of particles in one mole? Chemists have defined a mole as the number of atoms in g of carbon-12. From experiments, we know that there are atoms in g of carbon Apply Concepts The molar mass of sodium chloride is 58 g/mol. How many grams of sodium chloride are in 0.5 mol of sodium chloride? MOLAR MASS The mass of one mole of a substance is called its molar mass. For example, 1 mol of carbon-12 atoms has a mass of 12 grams. Therefore, the molar mass of carbon-12 is g/mol. One mole of table sugar has a mass of g. Therefore, the molar mass of table sugar is g/mol. You can use the mole to convert the average atomic masses on the periodic table into grams. The mass in grams of one mole of any element equals the element s average atomic mass in unified atomic mass units. An example is shown in the figure below. 16. Identify What is the molar mass of magnesium? Give your answer with three significant figures. The mass of one mole of magnesium atoms, in grams, equals the average atomic mass of magnesium in unified atomic mass units. The magnesium on the scale contains one mole of atoms. 12 Mg Magnesium Interactive Reader 78 Atoms

7 CONVERTING MOLES TO GRAMS Let s look at an example of how to convert between moles and grams. What is the mass in grams of 5.50 mol of iron? Remember that the average atomic mass of each element is listed in the periodic table at the back of this book. Step 1: List the given and unknown values. Step 2: Write the conversion factor. The numerator should have the units you are trying to find. The denominator should have the units you are trying to cancel. Step 3: Multiply by the conversion factor to solve. Given: amount of iron = 5.50 mol molar mass of iron = g/mol conversion factor: g Fe 1 mol Fe Unknown: mass of iron 5.50 mol Fe g Fe = 307 g Fe 1 mol Fe Math Skills 17. Calculate What is the mass in grams of 3.20 mol of copper (Cu)? Show your work. MOLAR MASSES OF COMPOUNDS Remember that compounds are made of atoms joined together in specific ratios. Because compounds have fixed compositions, they also have molar masses. To find a compound s molar mass, add the masses of all the atoms in one molecule of the compound. For example, suppose you wanted to find the molar mass of water (H 2 O). Follow these steps: 1. Look in the periodic table to find the molar masses of the elements in the compound. Water contains oxygen and hydrogen. Oxygen s molar mass is g/mol. (For problems in this book, round all masses in the periodic table to the hundredths place.) Hydrogen s molar mass is 1.01 g/mol. 2. Use the chemical formula of water to determine how many atoms of each element are in the compound. The chemical formula H 2 O tells you that each molecule of water contains two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom. 3. Add up the masses of all the atoms in the molecule. (2) (1.01 g/mol) (1) (16.00 g/mol) g/mol So, the molar mass of water is g/mol. 18. Calculate What is the molar mass of methane, CH 4? Show your work. Interactive Reader 79 Atoms

8 Section 2 Review SECTION VOCABULARY atomic number the smallest unit of an element that maintains the chemical properties of that element isotope an atom that has the same number of protons (or the same atomic number) as other atoms of the same element do but that has a different number of neutrons (and thus a different atomic mass) mass number the sum of the numbers of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom mole the SI base unit used to measure the amount of a substance whose number of particles is the same as the number of atoms of carbon in exactly 12 g of carbon-12 neutron a subatomic particle that has no charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom proton a subatomic particle that has a positive charge and that is located in the nucleus of an atom; the number of protons in the nucleus is the atomic number, which determines the identity of an element unified atomic mass unit a unit of mass that describes the mass of an atom or molecule; it is exactly 1/12 of the mass of a carbon atom with mass number Compare What is the difference between mass number and atomic mass? 2. Apply Concepts Fill in the blank spaces in the table below. Then, use the information in the table to answer questions 3 and 4. Atom Atomic number Mass number Number of neutrons A 7 14 B 15 8 C D E Identify Which two atoms in the table are isotopes of the same element? Explain your answer. 4. Describe How many electrons does atom D contain? Explain your answer. 5. Calculate How many moles of glucose, C 6 H 12 O 6, are in 300 g of glucose? Show your work. Interactive Reader 80 Atoms

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