Atomic Theory: History of the Atom

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Atomic Theory: History of the Atom"

Transcription

1 Atomic Theory: History of the Atom Atomic Theory: experimental observations that led scientists to postulate the existence of the atom (smallest bit of an element). 1. Law of Conservation of Mass -During a chemical reaction, mass is conserved. (A. Lavoisier ) Ex g iron oxide decomposed to 55.8 g iron and 16.0 g oxygen. 2. Law of Definite Proportions - In a given compound, the elements are always combined in the same ratio by mass. (Joseph Proust ) Ex g molybdenum disulfide decomposed to g Mo and g S. Mass Ratio Mo/S = g molybdenum disulfide decomposed to g Mo and g S. Mass Ratio Mo/S = Dalton s Atomic Theory of Matter John Dalton ( ) proposed this theory to explain the experimental observations given by the laws of conservation of mass and definite proportions. Postulates: Matter consists of tiny particles called atoms. Atoms are indestructible. In chemical reactions, the atoms are rearranged but they do not themselves break apart. Atoms of the same element are identical in mass and other properties. Atoms of different elements differ in mass and other properties. Chemical combination of elements to form compounds occurs. However, in a given compound the atoms of each element are present in a fixed number ratio. 1

2 Law of Multiple Proportions When two elements can form more than one compound, the mass ratios of the elements in the two compounds occur in small whole number ratios. Example: Consider two different compounds of iron and sulfur. A. Iron(II) disulfide (pyrite or fool s gold ): 5.00 g pyrite decomposed to 2.67 g S and 2.33 g Fe. Mass Ratio S/Fe = B. Iron(II) sulfide: 5.00 g iron(ii) sulfide decomposed to 1.82 g S and 3.18 g Fe. Mass Ratio S/Fe = C. Law of Multiple Proportions: Mass Ratio S/Fe in pyrite:iron(ii) disulfide = In that Dalton s Atomic Theory predicted the law of multiple proportions, this helped to give validity and force acceptance of the theory. Atomic Mass: mass of one atom of an element Atoms are too light to weigh individually. However, scientists could determine the relative mass of one atom of an element to another (i.e. relative atomic mass). Relative Atomic Mass: A g molybdenum disulfide decomposes to g Mo and g S. Thus, mass ratio Mo/S = B. Also known that in each molybdenum disulfide unit there is one atom of Mo to two atoms of S (MoS 2 ). Thus, atom ratio of Mo/S = C. From mass ratio and atom ratio can find relative atomic mass of Mo:S. 2

3 Carbon-12 ( 12 C) Atomic Mass Scale Relative atomic masses were not useful until a standard reference point was established. Atomic masses of all elements were referenced to the atomic mass of the most abundant isotope of carbon ( 12 C). Atomic Mass Reference: Carbon-12 or 12 C 1 atom 12 C = 12 amu (exactly) OR 1 amu = 1/12 the mass of an atom of 12 C Designation was arbitrary but gave atomic masses close to whole numbers for most elements. Example: If the relative mass of Mo: 12 C is 7.995, what is the atomic mass of Mo on the 12 C atomic mass scale? Example: If the relative mass of Fe:S is 1.74 and the relative mass of Fe: 12 C is 4.65, what is the atomic mass of S? Example: The relative mass of an unknown element to Zn is 0.245, while the relative mass of Zn: 12 C is What is the atomic mass of the unknown element and what is the identity of the unknown element? Atomic masses on 12 C atomic mass scale are shown as non-integer numbers below the elements on the periodic table. But.. Why is atomic mass of carbon given as amu instead of as 12 amu? Atomic masses shown on periodic table are average atomic masses taking into account the different isotopes of each element and their percent abundances. Isotopes are atoms of the same element but with a different mass. These isotopes occur in different percentages in nature (percent abundances or isotopic abundances). Thus, the third postulate of Dalton s Atomic Theory (Atoms of the same element are identical in mass) is NOT strictly true. 3

4 Calculation of Average Atomic Masses Example: It is found that carbon consists of two naturally occurring isotopes ( 12 C and 13 C) with atomic masses and % abundances given below. Calculate the average atomic mass of carbon. Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance 12 C 12 amu 98.89% 13 C amu 1.11% Example: Naturally occurring boron consists of two isotopes, boron-10 and boron-11. Given the data shown below, calculate the average atomic mass of boron. Isotope Atomic Mass % Abundance 10 B amu 19.8% 11 B amu Calculation of % Abundances From Average Atomic Mass Example: A sample of naturally occurring gallium has an average atomic mass of 69.7 and consists of two isotopes, gallium-69 and gallium-71. Given the information shown below, calculate the % isotopic abundances of the two isotopes. Isotope Atomic Mass 69 Ga 68.9 amu 71 Ga 70.9 amu 4

5 Subatomic Particles: Particles Within the Atom Three key experiments helped to elucidate the structure of the atom and the nature of the subatomic particles. J.J. Thomson s Experiments with Cathode Ray Tubes (1897) Voltage applied across metal plates. Cathode ray obtained independent of metal used to make plates. Cathode ray traveled from negative to positive. Magnet deflected cathode ray. Used amount of deflection and magnetic field strength to calculate charge to mass ratio of cathode ray. Atom consists of parts one of which is the electron. Electron is negatively charged. Charge to mass ratio of e-=1.76x10 8 C/g. R. Milliken s Experiments with Oil Droplets (1909) Milliken watched how fast oil droplets fell: calculated mass of oil droplets. Placed negative charge on oil droplets using X-rays. Applied voltage to plates and suspended oil droplets in midair. From mass of oil droplets and voltage needed to suspend, calculated charge on each oil droplet. Charge always some whole # multiple of 1.60x10-19 C. Fundamental charge on electron: 1.60x10-19 C. From e- charge and Thomson s charge to mass ratio found mass of electron: 9.09x10-28 g. 5

6 Rutherford s Experiments w/alpha Particles (positive and 7000xheavier than e-) Most of alpha particles went straight through metal foil. 1/20,000 alpha particle deflected at large angles (repelled by something positive). 1/20,000 alpha particle deflected straight back toward source (hitting something massive). Most of atom is empty space. In center of atom there is a massive, positively charged core called the nucleus. Overall Picture of the Atom Atom consists of mostly empty space (wherein reside the electrons) with a small, dense, positively charged core at the center called the nucleus. Ex. Place a pea at center of astrodome (gives relative size of the nucleus to that of the atom). Three Subatomic Particles Particle Rel. Charge Mass Electron x10-28 g (5.486x10-4 amu) Proton x10-24 g (1.007 amu) Neutron x10-24 g (1.009 amu) Protons and neutrons (nucleons) reside within the nucleus. In neutral atom, # protons = # electrons. Isotopes: atoms of the same element but with different mass same # protons (and same atomic number) different # neutrons 6

7 Subatomic Numbers 1. Atomic Number (Z): gives the # protons in the nucleus a. Given as integer # above the element on periodic table. Ex. C Z=? Ca Z=? b. It is the # protons (or atomic #) that specifies the element. Ex. An element has 15 protons in the nucleus. What element is present? 2. Mass Number (A): gives the # nucleons (#protons plus neutrons) in the nucleus. a. Not given on the periodic table. b. Mass number can be calculated once # neutrons is known. A = # p + #n or. A = Z + #n or.. #n = A Z 3. Examples: Find # of subatomic particles present in boron-10 and boron-11. Ions: Cations and Anions Ions are charged species and are formed by gain or loss of electrons. Cations: positively charged ions formed by loss of electrons # protons > # electrons In ionic compounds, metals tend to form cations. Anions: negatively charged ions Formed by gain of electrons. # electrons > # protons In ionic compounds, non-metals tend to form anions. Example: How many of each type of subatomic particle (# e-, # p, and # n) are present in the following? 27 Al S Cs +1 An element with A=14, Z=6, and charge=-4. 7

8 Periodic Table (Mendeleev 1869) Arranged such that elements with similar properties fall within the same group. Periodic Table Terminology Groups: elements that lie within the same column (labeled IA, IIIB, etc.) Periods: elements that lie within the same row (Period 1 7) Metals: all elements to lower left of dividing line (not including H).» Have similar properties: conduct heat & electricity, have luster, are malleable & ductile, and most are solids at RT. Non-metals: elements to upper right of dividing line (includes H).» Have similar properties: poor conductors of heat & electricity, not malleable or ductile (are brittle), and can be s, l, or g at RT. Metalloids: elements bordering dividing line (B, Si, Ge, As, Sb, Te, Po, At)» Have intermediate properties: conduct electricity but not as well as metals. Representative/Main Group Elements: elements in A-Groups Transition Elements: elements in B-Groups Inner Transition Elements: elements in lanthanide and actinide series (elements in rows below main body of periodic table). 8

9 Alkali Metals: metals in Group IA (Li, Na, K, Rb, Cs)» Have similar properties: form +1 cations in ionic cmpds. & oxides are strongly basic. Alkaline Earth Metals: metals in Group IIA (Be, Mg, Ca, Sr, Ba)» Have similar properties: form +2 cations & oxides are strongly basic but less soluble. Halogens: non-metals in Group VIIA (F, Cl, Br, I, At)» Have similar properties: form -1 anions, exist as diatomic molecules in elemental form at RT (F 2, Cl 2, Br 2, I 2 ), & chlorides have a salty taste. Noble Gases:non-metals in Group VIIIA (He, Ne, Ar, Kr, Xe, Rn)» Have similar properties: not very reactive and do not readily form compounds, & exist as monatomic gases at RT (He(g), Ne(g), Ar(g), etc.) 9

ATOMS: ATOMIC STRUCTURE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS

ATOMS: ATOMIC STRUCTURE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS ATOMS: ATOMIC STRUCTURE QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS QUESTION ONE: MODELS OF THE ATOM (2011;1) At different times scientists have proposed various descriptions or models of the atom to match experimental evidence

More information

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent

Bonding in Elements and Compounds. Covalent Bonding in Elements and Compounds Structure of solids, liquids and gases Types of bonding between atoms and molecules Ionic Covalent Metallic Many compounds between metals & nonmetals (salts), e.g. Na,

More information

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter

Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter Chapter 1 The Atomic Nature of Matter 6. Substances that cannot be decomposed into two or more simpler substances by chemical means are called a. pure substances. b. compounds. c. molecules. d. elements.

More information

Candidate Style Answer

Candidate Style Answer Candidate Style Answer Chemistry A Unit F321 Atoms, Bonds and Groups High banded response This Support Material booklet is designed to accompany the OCR GCE Chemistry A Specimen Paper F321 for teaching

More information

4.1 Studying Atom. Early evidence used to develop models of atoms.

4.1 Studying Atom. Early evidence used to develop models of atoms. 4.1 Studying Atom Early evidence used to develop models of atoms. Democritus said that all matter consisted of extremely small particles that could NOT be divided called these particles atoms from the

More information

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST

P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST P. Table & E Configuration Practice TEST Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. A line spectrum is produced when an electron moves from one energy

More information

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion

(1) e.g. H hydrogen that has lost 1 electron c. anion - negatively charged atoms that gain electrons 16-2. (1) e.g. HCO 3 bicarbonate anion GS106 Chemical Bonds and Chemistry of Water c:wou:gs106:sp2002:chem.wpd I. Introduction A. Hierarchy of chemical substances 1. atoms of elements - smallest particles of matter with unique physical and

More information

Cathode Rays Figure 1: Figure 2:

Cathode Rays Figure 1: Figure 2: Cathode Rays The first ideas about electrons came from experiments with cathode-ray tubes. A forerunner of neon signs, fluorescent lights, and TV picture tubes, a typical cathode-ray tube is a partially

More information

We begin this chapter with a brief survey of early chemical discoveries, Atomic Theory CONTENTS

We begin this chapter with a brief survey of early chemical discoveries, Atomic Theory CONTENTS 2 Atoms CONTENTS and the Atomic Theory 2-1 Early Chemical Discoveries and the Atomic Theory 2-2 Electrons and Other Discoveries in Atomic Physics 2-3 The Nuclear Atom 2-4 Chemical Elements 2-5 Atomic Mass

More information

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts

Bonds. Bond Length. Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy. Chapter 8. Bonding: General Concepts Bonds hapter 8 Bonding: General oncepts Forces that hold groups of atoms together and make them function as a unit. Bond Energy Bond Length It is the energy required to break a bond. The distance where

More information

Ch. 9 - Electron Organization. The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7]

Ch. 9 - Electron Organization. The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7] Ch. 9 - Electron Organization The Bohr Model [9.4] Orbitals [9.5, 9.6] Counting Electrons, configurations [9.7] Predicting ion charges from electron configurations. CHEM 100 F07 1 Organization of Electrons

More information

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g)

1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) 3 (s) + H 2 (g) 1. When the following equation is balanced, the coefficient of Al is. Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) A) 1 B) 2 C) 4 D) 5 E) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH) (s) + H 2 (g) Al (s) + H 2 O (l)? Al(OH)

More information

Metalloids will also react with oxygen. Upon reaction with oxygen silicon forms silicon dioxide, the main component of sand.

Metalloids will also react with oxygen. Upon reaction with oxygen silicon forms silicon dioxide, the main component of sand. The Preparation and Properties of xygen Reading assignment: Chang, Chemistry 10 th edition, pp. 135-141. Goals We will observe the thermal decomposition of several oxygen-containing compounds called oxides.

More information

Chapter 3. The Structure of Matter and. Review Skills

Chapter 3. The Structure of Matter and. Review Skills Chapter 3 The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements One doesn t discover new lands without consenting to lose sight of the shore for a very long time. Andre Gide French Novelist and Essayist n

More information

SCHAUM S Easy OUTLINES BEGINNING CHEMISTRY

SCHAUM S Easy OUTLINES BEGINNING CHEMISTRY SCHAUM S Easy OUTLINES BEGINNING CHEMISTRY Other Books in Schaum s Easy Outlines Series Include: Schaum s Easy Outline: Calculus Schaum s Easy Outline: College Algebra Schaum s Easy Outline: College Mathematics

More information

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry

Chapter 3 Stoichiometry Chapter 3 Stoichiometry 3-1 Chapter 3 Stoichiometry In This Chapter As you have learned in previous chapters, much of chemistry involves using macroscopic measurements to deduce what happens between atoms

More information

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases

Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases John E. McMurry www.cengage.com/chemistry/mcmurry Chapter 2 Polar Covalent Bonds: Acids and Bases Modified by Dr. Daniela R. Radu Why This Chapter? Description of basic ways chemists account for chemical

More information

Unit 12 Practice Test

Unit 12 Practice Test Name: Class: Date: ID: A Unit 12 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) A solid has a very high melting point, great hardness, and

More information

Chapter 2. The Structure of Matter and. Review Skills

Chapter 2. The Structure of Matter and. Review Skills Chapter 2 The Structure of Matter and the Chemical Elements One doesn t discover new lands without consenting to lose sight of the shore for a very long time. Andre Gide French Novelist and Essayist n

More information

Type of Chemical Bonds

Type of Chemical Bonds Type of Chemical Bonds Covalent bond Polar Covalent bond Ionic bond Hydrogen bond Metallic bond Van der Waals bonds. Covalent Bonds Covalent bond: bond in which one or more pairs of electrons are shared

More information

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790.

7. 1.00 atm = 760 torr = 760 mm Hg = 101.325 kpa = 14.70 psi. = 0.446 atm. = 0.993 atm. = 107 kpa 760 torr 1 atm 760 mm Hg = 790. CHATER 3. The atmosphere is a homogeneous mixture (a solution) of gases.. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. have volumes that depend on their conditions,

More information

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds

Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds Lab 11 Sugar or Salt? Ionic and Covalent Bonds TN Standard 2.1: The student will investigate chemical bonding. Have you ever accidentally used salt instead of sugar? D rinking tea that has been sweetened

More information

Periodic Table Bingo

Periodic Table Bingo Periodic Table Bingo Materials: Periodic Table Bingo Card Periodic Table of Elements Colored pieces of paper or plastic discs Instructions: Print the Periodic Table Bingo Cards (pages 5-44). There are

More information

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part.

Part B 2. Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. Part B 2 Allow a total of 15 credits for this part. The student must answer all questions in this part. 51 [1] Allow 1 credit for 3 Mg(s) N 2 (g) Mg 3 N 2 (s). Allow credit even if the coefficient 1 is

More information

NaCl Lattice Science Activities

NaCl Lattice Science Activities NaCl Lattice Science Activities STEM: The Science of Salt Using a Salt Lattice Model Teacher Notes Science Activities A Guided-Inquiry Approach Using the 3D Molecular Designs NaCl Lattice Model Classroom

More information

Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks

Forensic Science Standards and Benchmarks Forensic Science Standards and Standard 1: Understands and applies principles of scientific inquiry Power : Identifies questions and concepts that guide science investigations Uses technology and mathematics

More information

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS

Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Chapter 13 - LIQUIDS AND SOLIDS Problems to try at end of chapter: Answers in Appendix I: 1,3,5,7b,9b,15,17,23,25,29,31,33,45,49,51,53,61 13.1 Properties of Liquids 1. Liquids take the shape of their container,

More information

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life.

A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. Introduction to Biology and Chemistry Outline I. Introduction to biology A. Definition of biology - Biology is the study of life. B. Characteristics of Life 1. Form and size are characteristic. e.g. A

More information

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds

ATOMS AND BONDS. Bonds ATOMS AND BONDS Atoms of elements are the simplest units of organization in the natural world. Atoms consist of protons (positive charge), neutrons (neutral charge) and electrons (negative charge). The

More information

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm

= 1.038 atm. 760 mm Hg. = 0.989 atm. d. 767 torr = 767 mm Hg. = 1.01 atm Chapter 13 Gases 1. Solids and liquids have essentially fixed volumes and are not able to be compressed easily. Gases have volumes that depend on their conditions, and can be compressed or expanded by

More information

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission

Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission Coimisiún na Scrúduithe Stáit State Examinations Commission LEAVING CERTIFICATE EXAMINATION, 2007 CHEMISTRY - ORDINARY LEVEL TUESDAY, 19 JUNE AFTERNOON 2.00 TO 5.00 400 MARKS Answer eight questions in

More information

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F.

B I N G O B I N G O. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr. I Fl Fr Mo Si. Ho Bi Ce Eu Ac. Md Co P Pa Tc. Uut Rh K N. Sb At Md H. Bh Cm H Bi Es. Mo Uus Lu P F. Hf Cd Na Nb Lr Ho Bi Ce u Ac I Fl Fr Mo i Md Co P Pa Tc Uut Rh K N Dy Cl N Am b At Md H Y Bh Cm H Bi s Mo Uus Lu P F Cu Ar Ag Mg K Thomas Jefferson National Accelerator Facility - Office of cience ducation

More information

Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram

Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram Stellar Evolution: a Journey through the H-R Diagram Mike Montgomery 21 Apr, 2001 0-0 The Herztsprung-Russell Diagram (HRD) was independently invented by Herztsprung (1911) and Russell (1913) They plotted

More information

5s Solubility & Conductivity

5s Solubility & Conductivity 5s Solubility & Conductivity OBJECTIVES To explore the relationship between the structures of common household substances and the kinds of solvents in which they dissolve. To demonstrate the ionic nature

More information

Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction

Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction Role of Hydrogen Bonding on Protein Secondary Structure Introduction The function and chemical properties of proteins are determined by its three-dimensional structure. The final architecture of the protein

More information

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam

Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Name: Class: Date: Chapter 13 & 14 Practice Exam Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. Acids generally release H 2 gas when they react with a.

More information

Elements from Another Universe: Understanding the Beauty of the Periodic Table

Elements from Another Universe: Understanding the Beauty of the Periodic Table Elements from Another Universe: Understanding the Beauty of the Periodic Table Learning Objectives: The students will examine the properties of make believe elements, arrange these elements so as to create

More information

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq)

Name: Class: Date: 2 4 (aq) Name: Class: Date: Unit 4 Practice Test Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) The balanced molecular equation for complete neutralization of

More information

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS

I N V E S T I C E D O R O Z V O J E V Z D Ě L Á V Á N Í CHEMICAL REACTIONS Chemical reaction = process during which original substances change to new substances, reactants turn to... The bonds of reactants... and new bonds are... The classification of reactions: 1. Classification

More information

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I

STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I STATE UNIVERSITY OF NEW YORK COLLEGE OF TECHNOLOGY CANTON, NEW YORK COURSE OUTLINE CHEM 150 - COLLEGE CHEMISTRY I PREPARED BY: NICOLE HELDT SCHOOL OF SCIENCE, HEALTH, AND PROFESSIONAL STUDIES SCIENCE DEPARTMENT

More information

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.

CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10. CHAPTER 10: INTERMOLECULAR FORCES: THE UNIQUENESS OF WATER Problems: 10.2, 10.6,10.15-10.33, 10.35-10.40, 10.56-10.60, 10.101-10.102 10.1 INTERACTIONS BETWEEN IONS Ion-ion Interactions and Lattice Energy

More information

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES

INTERMOLECULAR FORCES INTERMOLECULAR FORCES Intermolecular forces- forces of attraction and repulsion between molecules that hold molecules, ions, and atoms together. Intramolecular - forces of chemical bonds within a molecule

More information

LATENT FINGERPRINT ENHANCEMENT II: FUMIGATION TECHNIQUES

LATENT FINGERPRINT ENHANCEMENT II: FUMIGATION TECHNIQUES LATENT FINGERPRINT ENHANCEMENT II: FUMIGATION TECHNIQUES CRYANOACRYLATE FUMIGATION Cryanoacrylate is simply a very strong glue known commercially as Krazy Glue or Super Glue. Cryanoacrylate sticks to the

More information

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq)

Sketch the model representation of the first step in the dissociation of water. H 2. O (l) H + (aq) + OH- (aq) + H 2. OH - (aq) + H 3 O+ (aq) Lesson Objectives Students will: Create a physical representation of the autoionization of water using the water kit. Describe and produce a physical representation of the dissociation of a strong acid

More information

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry)

Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) Balancing chemical reaction equations (stoichiometry) This worksheet and all related files are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, version 1.0. To view a copy of this license, visit

More information

1.3 Radioactivity and the age of the solar system

1.3 Radioactivity and the age of the solar system 1.3. RADIOACTIVITY AND THE AGE OF THE SOLAR SYSTEM 57 1.3 Radioactivity and the age of the solar system Most of you are familiar with the phenomenon of radioactive decay: Certain elements have isotopes

More information

AP Chemistry 2006 Free-Response Questions

AP Chemistry 2006 Free-Response Questions AP Chemistry 006 Free-Response Questions The College Board: Connecting Students to College Success The College Board is a not-for-profit membership association whose mission is to connect students to college

More information

a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units

a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler units Chemical Bonds 1. Which of the following is NOT a true compound? a. pure substance b. composed of combinations of atoms c. held together by chemical bonds d. substance that cannot be broken down into simpler

More information

WASTE STREAM 2F35 Excellox-Type Transport Flasks and French-Design Dry Flasks

WASTE STREAM 2F35 Excellox-Type Transport Flasks and French-Design Dry Flasks SITE SITE OWR WASTE CUSTODIAN WASTE TYPE Sellafield Nuclear Decommissioning Authority Sellafield Limited LLW WASTE VOLUMES Stocks: At 1.4.2013... Future arisings - Total future arisings: 45.4 m³ Comment

More information

Millikan Oil Drop. Introduction

Millikan Oil Drop. Introduction Millikan Oil Drop Introduction Towards the end of the 19th century a clear picture of the atom was only beginning to emerge. An important aspect of this developing picture was the microscopic nature of

More information

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules

EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules EXPERIMENT 9 Dot Structures and Geometries of Molecules INTRODUCTION Lewis dot structures are our first tier in drawing molecules and representing bonds between the atoms. The method was first published

More information

AP Chemistry 2015 Free-Response Questions

AP Chemistry 2015 Free-Response Questions AP Chemistry 2015 Free-Response Questions College Board, Advanced Placement Program, AP, AP Central, and the acorn logo are registered trademarks of the College Board. AP Central is the official online

More information

The Free High School Science Texts: A Textbook for High School Students Studying Chemistry.

The Free High School Science Texts: A Textbook for High School Students Studying Chemistry. The Free High School Science Texts: A Textbook for High School Students Studying Chemistry. FHSST Authors 1 June 12, 2005 1 See http://savannah.nongnu.org/projects/fhsst Copyright c 2003 Free High School

More information

Standard Operation Procedure. Elemental Analysis of Solution samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry

Standard Operation Procedure. Elemental Analysis of Solution samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Standard Operation Procedure Elemental Analysis of Solution samples with Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry Soil & Plant Analysis Laboratory University of Wisconsin Madison http://uwlab.soils.wisc.edu

More information

Chemistry Final Study Guide

Chemistry Final Study Guide Name: Class: Date: Chemistry Final Study Guide Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1. The electrons involved in the formation of a covalent bond

More information

ASH 2012. Hazard evaluation for. having complex chemical form. materials and by-products MMXII

ASH 2012. Hazard evaluation for. having complex chemical form. materials and by-products MMXII MMXII ASH 2012 Hazard evaluation for inorganic oxide materials having complex chemical form with emphasis on waste, recycled materials and by-products Rolf Sjöblom, Division of Waste Science and Technology,

More information

Yarışma Sınavı. 5 Which one is related with red blood cells?

Yarışma Sınavı. 5 Which one is related with red blood cells? 1 Which one is a genetic disease in which a person's blood does not clot properly? sickle cell anaemia anaemia thalesshemia haemophilia colourblindness 5 Which one is related with red blood cells? destroy

More information

STN. Screen Dictionary for Structure Searching 3 rd Edition. Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society All rights reserved

STN. Screen Dictionary for Structure Searching 3 rd Edition. Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society All rights reserved STN Screen Dictionary for Structure Searching 3 rd Edition Copyright 2011 American Chemical Society All rights reserved Table of Contents STN Screen Dictionary for Structure Searching...3 Types of Screens...8

More information

ION EXCHANGE RESINS INTRODUCTION

ION EXCHANGE RESINS INTRODUCTION ION EXANGE RESINS Ion exchange resins are polymers that are capable of exchanging particular ions within the polymer with ions in a solution that is passed through them. This ability is also seen in various

More information

Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15

Electrochemistry Revised 04/29/15 INTRODUCTION TO ELECTROCHEMISTRY: CURRENT, VOLTAGE, BATTERIES, & THE NERNST EQUATION Experiment partially adapted from J. Chem. Educ., 2008, 85 (8), p 1116 Introduction Electrochemical cell In this experiment,

More information

Credits Copyright, Utah State Office of Education, 2015.

Credits Copyright, Utah State Office of Education, 2015. Credits Copyright, Utah State Office of Education, 2015. Unless otherwise noted, the contents of this book are licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution NonCommercial ShareAlike license. Detailed

More information

ONLINE CHEMISTRY 1110 / GENERAL CHEMISTRY I. Term CRN #

ONLINE CHEMISTRY 1110 / GENERAL CHEMISTRY I. Term CRN # ONLINE CHEMISTRY 1110 / GENERAL CHEMISTRY I Term CRN # Professor: Office Hours: Office Phone: E-mail: Credit Hours: 4 Prerequisites: Exemption from or completion of ENGL 0810, READ 0810 and MATH 0810.

More information

Solubility of Salts - Ksp. Ksp Solubility

Solubility of Salts - Ksp. Ksp Solubility Solubility of Salts - Ksp We now focus on another aqueous equilibrium system, slightly soluble salts. These salts have a Solubility Product Constant, K sp. (We saw this in 1B with the sodium tetraborate

More information

English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1.

English already has many collective nouns for fixed, given numbers of objects. Some of the more common collective nouns are shown in Table 7.1. 96 Chapter 7: Calculations with Chemical Formulas and Chemical Reactions Chemical reactions are written showing a few individual atoms or molecules reacting to form a few atoms or molecules of products.

More information

Instructional Notes/Strategies. GLEs. Evidence / Assessments of learning Knowledge/Synthesis. Resources # SI-1 (E)

Instructional Notes/Strategies. GLEs. Evidence / Assessments of learning Knowledge/Synthesis. Resources # SI-1 (E) Lafayette Parish School System Curriculum Map Honors Chemistry (Pearson) Unit 1: Introduction to Chemistry Time Frame 1 week August 15 August 21, 2011 Unit Description - This unit focuses on Why It Is

More information

Analyses on copper samples from Micans

Analyses on copper samples from Micans PDF rendering: DokumentID 1473479, Version 1., Status Godkänt, Sekretessklass Öppen Analyses on copper samples from Micans P. Berastegui, M. Hahlin, M. Ottosson, M. Korvela, Y. Andersson, R. Berger and

More information

Chapter 16. 16.1 The Nucleus and Radioactivity. 16.2 Uses of Radioactive Substances. 16.3 Nuclear Energy

Chapter 16. 16.1 The Nucleus and Radioactivity. 16.2 Uses of Radioactive Substances. 16.3 Nuclear Energy Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry tan is going to visit his son Fred at the radiology department of a local research hospital, where Fred has been recording the brain activity of kids with learning differences

More information

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End!

Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! Anatomy and Physiology Placement Exam 2 Practice with Answers at End! General Chemical Principles 1. bonds are characterized by the sharing of electrons between the participating atoms. a. hydrogen b.

More information

Chemical Sputtering. von Kohlenstoff durch Wasserstoff. W. Jacob

Chemical Sputtering. von Kohlenstoff durch Wasserstoff. W. Jacob Chemical Sputtering von Kohlenstoff durch Wasserstoff W. Jacob Centre for Interdisciplinary Plasma Science Max-Planck-Institut für Plasmaphysik, 85748 Garching Content: Definitions: Chemical erosion, physical

More information

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy

Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet. Evaluation copy Determining the Quantity of Iron in a Vitamin Tablet Computer 34 As biochemical research becomes more sophisticated, we are learning more about the role of metallic elements in the human body. For example,

More information

A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices

A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices A Practical Guide to Free Energy Devices Electrolysis Patents No 14: Last updated: 28th January 2006 Author: Patrick J. Kelly Please note that this is a re-worded excerpt from this patent. If the content

More information

University of Pittsburgh Safety Manual Subject: COMBUSTIBLE METALS. EH&S Guideline Number: 02-005. Effective Date 09/10/13.

University of Pittsburgh Safety Manual Subject: COMBUSTIBLE METALS. EH&S Guideline Number: 02-005. Effective Date 09/10/13. Page 1 of 7 These guidelines provide requirements for all University faculty, staff, and students using, handling, or storing combustible metals. These requirements are established to ensure faculty, staff

More information

Cathode Ray Tube. Introduction. Functional principle

Cathode Ray Tube. Introduction. Functional principle Introduction The Cathode Ray Tube or Braun s Tube was invented by the German physicist Karl Ferdinand Braun in 897 and is today used in computer monitors, TV sets and oscilloscope tubes. The path of the

More information

Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry

Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry Southeastern Louisiana University Dual Enrollment Program--Chemistry The Southeastern Dual Enrollment Chemistry Program is a program whereby high school students are given the opportunity to take college

More information

Elemental Analyses by ICP-AES

Elemental Analyses by ICP-AES Elemental Analyses by ICP-AES Henry Gong, Senior Analytical Chemist September 10, 2008 ICP-AES inductively coupled plasma atomic emission spectrophotometry Electrons of an atom absorb energy and jump to

More information

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R

The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C. = 2(sphere volume) = 2 = V C = 4R 3.5 Show that the atomic packing factor for BCC is 0.68. The atomic packing factor is defined as the ratio of sphere volume to the total unit cell volume, or APF = V S V C Since there are two spheres associated

More information

BIOMEDICAL ADMISSIONS TEST (BMAT) TEST SPECIFICATION

BIOMEDICAL ADMISSIONS TEST (BMAT) TEST SPECIFICATION BIOMEDICAL ADMISSIONS TEST (BMAT) TEST SPECIFICATION July 2015 BioMedical Admissions Test (BMAT) test specification Purpose of the test The purpose of the BioMedical Admissions Test is solely to provide

More information

Solutions and Dilutions

Solutions and Dilutions Learning Objectives Students should be able to: Content Design a procedure for making a particular solution and assess the advantages of different approaches. Choose the appropriate glassware to ensure

More information

SOFIA UNIVERSITY ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI Faculty:...Chemistry and Pharmacy... Subject area: (code and name) C H L 3 8 2 4 1 3

SOFIA UNIVERSITY ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI Faculty:...Chemistry and Pharmacy... Subject area: (code and name) C H L 3 8 2 4 1 3 Approved by:.. Dean Date... SOFIA UNIVERSITY ST. KLIMENT OHRIDSKI Faculty:...Chemistry and Pharmacy... Subject area: (code and name) C H L 3 8 3...Pharmacy... M.Sc. Program: (code and name) C H L 3 8 3...Pharmacy...

More information

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases

Chapter 6. Solution, Acids and Bases Chapter 6 Solution, Acids and Bases Mixtures Two or more substances Heterogeneous- different from place to place Types of heterogeneous mixtures Suspensions- Large particles that eventually settle out

More information

SCIENCE 10 Program of Studies 2005 (Updated 2014)

SCIENCE 10 Program of Studies 2005 (Updated 2014) Updates Minor revisions were made in 2014 and are described in 2014 Summary of Updates. SCIENCE 10 Program of Studies 2005 (Updated 2014) PROGRAM RATIONALE AND PHILOSOPHY Students graduating from Alberta

More information

CHEMISTRY. Course and Exam Description. Revised edition Effective Fall 2014

CHEMISTRY. Course and Exam Description. Revised edition Effective Fall 2014 AP CHEMISTRY Course and Exam Description Revised edition Effective Fall 2014 AP CHEMISTRY Course and Exam Description Revised Edition Effective Fall 2014 The College Board New York, NY About the College

More information

http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri

http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri http://faculty.sau.edu.sa/h.alshehri Definition: Proteins are macromolecules with a backbone formed by polymerization of amino acids. Proteins carry out a number of functions in living organisms: - They

More information

Stoichiometry CHAPTER 12

Stoichiometry CHAPTER 12 CHAPTER 1 Stoichiometry What You ll Learn You will write mole ratios from balanced chemical equations. You will calculate the number of moles and the mass of a reactant or product when given the number

More information

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer.

Multiple Choice For questions 1-10, circle only one answer. Test Bank - Chapter 1 The questions in the test bank cover the concepts from the lessons in Chapter 1. Select questions from any of the categories that match the content you covered with students. The

More information

- - 1 Dr. Shulamit Levin, Analytical Consulting, Medtechnica

- - 1 Dr. Shulamit Levin, Analytical Consulting, Medtechnica Ion xchange Chromatography Chromatographic rocess BA Mobile phase tationary hase A Dr. hulamit Levin Medtechnica B Distribution: K = C s/cm B A lution through the Column Chromatogram Ion xchange Theory

More information

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science

5.111 Principles of Chemical Science MIT OpenCourseWare http://ocw.mit.edu 5.111 Principles of Chemical Science Fall 2008 For information about citing these materials or our Terms of Use, visit: http://ocw.mit.edu/terms. 26.1 5.111 Lecture

More information

Objectives. Capacitors 262 CHAPTER 5 ENERGY

Objectives. Capacitors 262 CHAPTER 5 ENERGY Objectives Describe a capacitor. Explain how a capacitor stores energy. Define capacitance. Calculate the electrical energy stored in a capacitor. Describe an inductor. Explain how an inductor stores energy.

More information

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions

Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Acid-Base (Proton-Transfer) Reactions Chapter 17 An example of equilibrium: Acid base chemistry What are acids and bases? Every day descriptions Chemical description of acidic and basic solutions by Arrhenius

More information

Ch 15: Acids and Bases

Ch 15: Acids and Bases Ch 15: Acids and Bases A c i d s a n d B a s e s C h 1 5 P a g e 1 Homework: Read Chapter 15 Work out sample/practice exercises in the sections, Bonus problems: 39, 41, 49, 63, 67, 83, 91, 95, 99, 107,

More information

ARIZONA Science Standards High School Chemistry: Matter and Change 2005

ARIZONA Science Standards High School Chemistry: Matter and Change 2005 ARIZONA Science Standards High School Chemistry: Matter and Change 2005 OBJECTIVES Strand 1: Inquiry Process Concept 1: Observations, Questions, and Hypotheses Formulate predictions, questions, or hypotheses

More information

What is ICP-MS? and more importantly, what can it do?

What is ICP-MS? and more importantly, what can it do? What is ICP-MS? and more importantly, what can it do? Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry or ICP-MS is an analytical technique used for elemental determinations. The technique was commercially

More information

Modern inorganic chemistry

Modern inorganic chemistry Modern inorganic chemistry AN INTERMEDIATE TEXT C. CHAMBERS, B.Sc., Ph.D., A.R.I.C. Senior Chemistry Master, Bolton School A. K. HOLLIDAY, Ph.D., D.Sc., F.R.I.C. Professor of Inorganic Chemistry, The University

More information

Chapter 13 - Solutions

Chapter 13 - Solutions Chapter 13 - Solutions 13-1 Types of Mixtures I. Solutions A. Soluble 1. Capable of being dissolved B. Solution 1. A homogeneous mixture of two or more substances in a single phase C. Solvent 1. The dissolving

More information

(b) find the force of repulsion between a proton at the surface of a 12. 6 C nucleus and the remaining five protons.

(b) find the force of repulsion between a proton at the surface of a 12. 6 C nucleus and the remaining five protons. Chapter 13 Nuclear Structure. Home Work s 13.1 Problem 13.10 (a) find the radius of the 12 6 C nucleus. (b) find the force of repulsion between a proton at the surface of a 12 6 C nucleus and the remaining

More information

New and improved slagging and corrosion control techniques for biomass firing. Martti Aho IV Liekkipäivä 23.01.2008

New and improved slagging and corrosion control techniques for biomass firing. Martti Aho IV Liekkipäivä 23.01.2008 New and improved slagging and corrosion control techniques for biomass firing IV Liekkipäivä 23.01.2008 Organisation of the research project t Research organisations:vtt (Co ordinaator) Åbo Akademi University

More information

Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Unit 11 Practice. Name: Class: Date: Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. Name: Class: Date: Unit 11 Practice Multiple Choice Identify the choice that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) Crystalline solids. A) have their particles arranged randomly B) have

More information

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 5: Choosing the best fertilizer

Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 5: Choosing the best fertilizer Understanding ph management and plant nutrition Part 5: Choosing the best fertilizer Bill Argo, Ph.D. Blackmore Company, Tel: 800-874-8660, Int l 734-483-8661, E-mail: bargo@blackmoreco.com Originally

More information

EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR ANALYTICAL PURPOSES. L. Csedreki 1. Abstract. I. Introduction

EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR ANALYTICAL PURPOSES. L. Csedreki 1. Abstract. I. Introduction ACTA PHYSICA DEBRECINA XLVI, 25 (2012) EXPERIMENTAL CONDITIONS FOR CROSS SECTION MEASUREMENTS FOR ANALYTICAL PURPOSES L. Csedreki 1 1 Institute of Nuclear Research of the Hungarian Academy of Sciences,

More information