Chapter 17: Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry

Save this PDF as:
 WORD  PNG  TXT  JPG

Size: px
Start display at page:

Download "Chapter 17: Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry"

Transcription

1 Chapter 7: Radioactivity and Nuclear Chemistry Problems: -20, 24-30, 32-46, 49-70, 74-88, THE DISCOVERY OF RADIOACTIVITY In 896, a French physicist named Henri Becquerel discovered that uranium-containing crystals emitted rays that could expose and fog photographic plates. He found that these rays originated from changes within the atomic nuclei of the U atoms. He proposed that the uranium atoms were unstable. They emitted particles and/or energy to become more stable. These emissions he called uranic rays. One of the first women in France to do graduate work, Marie Sklodowska Curie carried out her doctoral work to determine if other substances emitted uranic rays. She discovered two elements, which she later named polonium (after her native Poland) and radium, which emitted high levels of radioactivity. Maric Curie changed the name of uranic rays to radioactivity (or radioactive decay). She shared the Nobel prize in physics with Becquerel and her husband, Pierre Curie, for discovering radioactivity. Except for H, every atom has protons and neutrons in its nucleus. Elements may exist as different isotopes. e.g. the three isotopes of hydrogen are H (hydrogen), 2 H (deuterium), and 3 H (tritium), which differ only in the number of neutrons (indicated by the mass number atomic number) Some isotopes are stable (e.g. H and 2 H ). Some isotopes are unstable and radioactive (e.g. 3 H). The unstable, radioactive isotopes are called radionuclides. Atomic Notation (or Nuclear Symbol): shorthand for keeping track of protons and neutrons in the nucleus # of protons + # of neutrons = mass number = A # of protons = atomic number = ZE=element symbol Atomic notation of common particles: electron: 0 e proton: p + neutron: 0 n CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page of 2

2 7.3 TYPES OF RADIOACTIVITY: ALPHA, BETA, AND GAMMA DECAY alpha (α) particle: a helium nucleus ( 24 α or 2 4 He) without electrons positively charged largest particle emitted by radioactive nuclei, has the highest charge beta (β) particle: a beta particle ( 0 β or 0 e ) is an electron emitted from an atomic nucleus positron: the antiparticle of an electron/beta particle, 0 β or 0 e The same size as an electron but with a positive charge gamma (γ) rays: high-energy rays (like X-rays) The Electromagnetic Spectrum shows the different forms of electromagnetic radiation, with cosmic and gamma rays having the highest frequency and the highest energy, making them potentially the most dangerous to humans Different Types of Radioactivity Alpha (α) emission: a helium nucleus, 24 α or 24 He, is emitted U 24 α + 90Th U 90 Th + 2α 238 CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page 2 of 2

3 Beta (β) emission: a beta particle (or electron), 0 β or 0 e, is emitted Th -0 β Pa Gamma (γ) emission: high-energy rays (like X-rays), 0 0 γ, are emitted 99m 0 43Tc γ Tc Positron emission: a positron (the antiparticle of an electron), 39 9 K e + 39Ar β or 0 e, is emitted WRITING NUCLEAR EQUATIONS nuclide: a specific atom with a given number of protons and neutrons We use the term parent-daughter nuclides to describe a parent nuclide decaying to produce a daughter nuclide. Balancing Nuclear Equations Differ from general chemical equations in that mass numbers (protons + neutrons) and atomic numbers are balanced, not the elements (or atoms) present. parent daughter 234 Th 238 For example: 92U 24 α + 90 where the mass numbers are equal to 238, and the atomic numbers are equal to 92. Ex. : Complete the following nuclear equations by identifying the unknown: 20 a. O 9 F b. 2Mg + p + 4 α + 2 c. 4 9 Be α 2 6C + Ex. 2: Write complete nuclear equations for the following processes: a. Iron-59 decays by beta emission. CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page 3 of 2

4 b. Ra-226 decays by alpha emission. c. Mn-50 decays by positron emission. d. Cs-8 is produced when a radionuclide decays by beta emission. 7.5 NATURAL RADIOACTIVITY AND HALF-LIFE When a radioactive sample decays, it emits particles and/or energy and continues to decay. When Becquerel studied radioactivity, he learned that unlike chemical reactions, the rate of the radioactive decay cannot be changed by changing temperature, pressure, or any other factors. Thus, a radioactive sample will always continue to decay. The amount of radiation given off is called the activity of the sample and can be measured using a Geiger counter. This instrument, developed by Hans Geiger, measures emissions from a radioactive sample as clicks. When more of the radioactive sample is present, the activity is higher. As the sample decays, less of the radioactive sample remains, so the activity decreases. CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page 4 of 2

5 Half-Life (t /2 ): the amount of time required for the amount or activity of a radioactive sample to decrease by half Note with each half-life passing, only half of the previous amount of sample is left. Example: Rn-222, a radioactive isotope, is one of the resulting daughter products in the U-238 decay series. The daughter product when Rn-222 decays is Po-28. a. If 96.0 mg of Rn-222 (t /2 =4 days) is inhaled but not exhaled or otherwise eliminated, what mass of it remains in the lungs after 2 days α Rn Po 84 b. Po-28 decays to form lead-24. If 84.0 mg of Po-28 (t /2 =3. minutes) formed in the lungs from the decay of Rn-222, what mass of it remains in the lungs after 9.3 minutes? α Po Pb 82 c. Lead-24 undergoes beta decay to form Bi-24. If 0.2 mg of lead-24 (t /2 =27 minutes) formed in the lungs from the decay of Po-28, what mass remains after 54 minutes? Pb e- + 24Bi CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page 5 of 2

6 7.0 THE EFFECTS OF RADIATION ON LIFE Penetrating Effects of Radiation Particles with the same energy but different masses can penetrate to different degrees. Alpha particles are massive with a high charge. They collide with other molecules and quickly lose energy. They cannot penetrate a few sheets of paper or outer cells of skin But exposure to alpha particles can cause severe burns. Beta particles penetrate more but can be stopped with a sheet of aluminum or plastic. Gamma and X-rays can penetrate even more but are stopped with a thick lead shield. can penetrate much deeper and are very dangerous to living organisms Neutrons can penetrate even more but can be stopped by a thick wall of concrete. ACUTE RADIATION DAMAGE AND GENETIC DEFECTS: Chemical Effects of Radiation: Why is radiation so dangerous? Acute radiation damage results from exposure to large amounts of radiation in a short period of time, which kills a large numbers of cells. Weakened immune systems. High-energy or ionizing radiation can take electrons from stable compounds in living organisms, leaving highly reactive unpaired electrons called radicals or free radicals. These free radicals are so reactive they cause reactions between otherwise stable materials in the cells of living organisms. If these reactions involve genetic materials (e.g. genes and chromosomes), the changes could lead to genetic mutations, cancer, or other devastating consequences. CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page 6 of 2

7 Health Hazards Associated with Radon Note: Because radon is a Noble gas with a long half-life, it is often inhaled and exhaled before it decays. However, two of its daughter nuclides, Po-28 and Po-24, are solids with much shorter half-lives (typically minutes). When radon decays in the lungs, these solid isotopes remain in the lungs tissue and continually emit α particles, damaging tissue and cells, and possibly even leading to cancer. 7. RADIOACTIVITY IN MEDICINE Radioactive nuclei (called "radiotracers") are used most commonly in medicine for diagnosis To minimize risk to patients, radiotracers should have the following characteristics:. They have short half-lives and a daughter product that is non-toxic and non-radioactive. They decay and emit radiation while the diagnosis is being done then decay so quickly that very little radiation is given off after the diagnosis 2. They emit penetrating gamma rays that can be detected by the detectors outside the body. 3. Their chemical properties should cause them to concentrate in diseased areas (make a hot spot ) or causing the diseased areas to reject it (make a cold spot ). Positron emission tomography (PET) is a technique used to study brain disorders. A patient is given glucose (C 6 H 2 O 6 ) containing carbon-, a positron emitter. The brain is then scanned to detect positron emission, and differences in glucose uptake and metabolism can be traced. Sodium-24 (a β-emitter) injected into the bloodstream can be monitored to trace the flow of blood and detect possible constrictions or obstructions. Isotopes of technetium are valuable as diagnostic tools. Patients drink or are injected with solution containing Tc-99m, which helps doctors imaging of organs like the heart, liver, or lungs. Some radioactive isotopes are used in cancer therapy Cobalt-60 is often used γ rays from this source are focused at small areas where cancer is suspected Thyroid cancer patients drink a solution of NaI containing radioactive iodide ions ( 3 I or 23 I). The iodine moves preferentially through the thyroid gland, where the radiation can (depending on the dosage) either image or destroy overactive thyroid cells. CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page 7 of 2

8 7.6 RADIOCARBON DATING: USING RADIOACTIVITY TO MEASURE THE AGE OF FOSSILS AND OTHER ARTIFACTS Radiocarbon Dating; Age of Organic Material Radioactive samples always decay at a CONSTANT rate (not affected by temperature, etc.) Knowing the half-life for a given radioactive isotope and knowing the current relative abundance for that isotope we can estimate the age of various objects. Carbon-4 is used to date organic materials (once living organisms) Carbon-4 is produced by neutron capture in the upper atmosphere: 4 4 7N + 0 n 6C + H Assuming the ratio of carbon-4 and carbon-2 in the atmosphere has been constant for about 50,000 years. Because living plants and animals have a constant intake of carbon compounds, they able maintain a ratio of carbon-4 to carbon-2 that is identical with the atmosphere. Once the organism dies, it no longer ingests carbon compounds, and the carbon-4 content decreases because of its radioactive decay: 4 6C 4 0 7N + β - t /2 = 5730 years Radiocarbon dating cannot be used to date objects older than 50,000 years because the radioactivity is too low to be measured accurately. Used to date charcoal found at Stonehenge, linen wrapped around the Dead Sea Scrolls, and other historical objects, etc. Uranium-Lead Dating; Age of Rocks The half-life for uranium-238 to decay to lead-206 is years: U Pb + 8 α e By analyzing rocks to determine the ratio of U-238 to Pb-206 present, one can determine the "age" of the rocks i.e. the amount of time since the rock solidified. For example, assuming the rock originally has no Pb-206 present, the Pb-206 could only have come from the U-238 decay, and equal amounts of both means half the U-238 has decayed to Pb-206. The rock is 4.5 x 0 9 years old (equal to U-238's half life). Used to estimate age of Earth and lunar rock samples brought back by the Apollo missions CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page 8 of 2

9 OTHER APPLICATIONS OF RADIOACTIVITY Agricultural Applications: Controlling insects without using pesticides Cobalt-60 emits gamma rays that sterilize male insects and reduce insect population. Gamma irradiation of processed food also destroys microorganisms. Cobalt-60 irradiation destroys parasites in pork (trichinosis) and chicken (salmonella). Gamma irradiation also increases shelf life without using preservatives. The photo below shows irradiated strawberries that do not become moldy after 25 days. INDUCED NUCLEAR REACTIONS Artificial Radioactivity Nuclei can also be induced to decay as a result of bombardment by high energy particles (e.g. neutrons, electrons, and other nuclei) These kinds of nuclear changes are called nuclear transmutation. This means we can cause nuclear reactions to occur! NUCLEAR ENERGY Nuclear Binding Energy energy required to break up a nucleus into its component nucleons The most stable nuclei have mass numbers of about Heavier nuclei (those with mass numbers > 80) can split into smaller, more stable nuclei: nuclear fission Smaller nuclei (those with mass numbers < 40) combine with other smaller nuclei to form more stable nuclei: nuclear fusion CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page 9 of 2

10 7.7 THE DISOVERY OF FISSION AND THE ATOMIC BOMB NUCLEAR FISSION: A heavy nucleus (mass number > 200) divides to form smaller, more stable nuclei, resulting in the release of large amounts of energy The Fission Process Many isotopes of heavy elements undergo fission if bombarded by high-energy neutrons Two naturally occuring isotopes, 92U and 94Pu, have practical applications. They undergo fission when hit with even low-energy, room temperature neutrons. Consider the following: U + 0 n Sr Xe n Note that additional neutrons are also produced The neutrons generated can induce fission in other nuclei, which turn produces more neutrons, and so on. nuclear chain reaction: self-sustaining sequence of nuclear reactions Nuclear chain reaction's also require a critical mass, the minimum amount of fissionable material needed to generate a self-sustaining chain reaction. 235 i.e., there must be enough 92U present, so the neutrons produced can collide with them to cause more fission reactions Fission Energy The energy released is kj/g of U, about equal to the explosion of 30 metric tons (3 0 4 kg) of TNT! CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page 0 of 2

11 7.8 NUCLEAR POWER: USING FISSION TO GENERATE ELECTRICITY Fission reactions are now used more commonly in nuclear reactors. Nuclear Reactors Entire reactor is contained in a concrete building to shield personnel and nearby residents from radiation. Fuel rods alternate with control rods in a containment chamber. fuel rods: UO 2 pellets in a zirconium alloy tube, where the uranium is "enriched" to contain 3% U-235, the fissionable material. Only about 0.7% of naturally occurring uranium is U-235 while 99.3% is U-238 sample must be "enriched" to increase the amount of U-235. control rods: cadmium or boron rods that capture neutrons and serve to control the number of neutrons, and thus, the nuclear fission reactions. Water is passed through the reactor to absorb the heat given off by fission and to moderate (or slow down) the neutrons produced. The heated water heats more water to steam, which drives a turbogenerator that produces electrical energy. Cooling water (usually a river) is also used to cool the steam for reuse. CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page of 2

12 Advantage of Nuclear Reactors: Produce energy without producing Greenhouse gases that contribute to global warming Disadvantage of Nuclear Reactors: Nuclear Waste Each year, on average, one-fourth of the intensely radioactive fuel rods used in nuclear reactors must be replaced. In 982, the Nuclear Waste Policy Act established a timetable for choosing and preparing sites for underground disposal of radioactive materials. Potential problems: It's estimated that 20 half-lives are required for the radioactivity to reach acceptable levels for biological exposure. Since Sr-90's half-life is 28.8 years, the wastes must be stored for at least 600 years. If Pu-239 is being stored, the storage must last much longer since Pu-239 's half-life is 24,000 years. There must be assurances that the containers do not crack, allowing radioactivity to find its way into underground water supplies. NUCLEAR FUSION: Lighter nuclei combine to form larger, more stable nuclei The energy available from such fusion reactions is considerably greater than that given off by fission reactions. This is the type of reaction that provides the Sun its energy. 2 H deuterium + 3 H tritium 4 2 He + 0 n Advantages of Nuclear Fusion: Produces more energy per gram of materials Light isotopes needed for fusion reactions are more abundant than heavy isotopes needed for fission reactions. Fusion products are not radioactive. Disadvantages of Nuclear Fusion: High energies are required to overcome repulsion between nuclei. For example, the fusion reaction show above requires temperatures around 40 million Kelvin. Such high temperatures have been achieved by using an atomic bomb to initiate the fusion process, but this approach can't be used for controlled power generation. In addition, no known structural material can withstand the enormous temperatures necessary for fusion on the scale needed for power generation. CHEM 2 Chapter 7 page 2 of 2

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X?

A) B) C) D) Which particle is represented by the letter X? 1. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least penetrating power? an alpha particle a beta particle a neutron a positron 2. Which equation represents alpha decay? 3. An unstable nucleus

More information

1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters. 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle?

1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters. 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 1. In the general symbol cleus, which of the three letters Z A X for a nu represents the atomic number? 2. What is the mass number of an alpha particle? 3. What is the mass number of a beta particle? 4.

More information

Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine. A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams

Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine. A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams Chapter 4 Radioactivity and Medicine A CT scan (computed tomography) of the brain using X-ray beams A radioactive isotope has an unstable nucleus; it emits radiation to become more stable and can be one

More information

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1

Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 Chapter 4 & 25 Notes Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Page 1 DEFINING THE ATOM Early Models of the Atom In this chapter, we will look into the tiny fundamental particles that make up matter. An atom

More information

Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involves

Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involves 1 General Chemistry II Jasperse Nuclear Chemistry. Extra Practice Problems Radioactivity and Balancing Nuclear Reactions: Balancing Nuclear Reactions and Understanding which Particles are Involved The

More information

radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms

radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms CHAPTER 20: Atomic Structure Nuclear Chemistry radioactivity: a spontaneous (naturally-occurring) emission of particles or radiation from the nuclei of atoms Historical Background Roentgen (1895) discovery

More information

CHAPTER What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei.

CHAPTER What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei. CHAPTER 13 1. What type of particle is emitted when a U-235 decays to Np-235? a. alpha particle b. beta particle c. neutron d. helium nuclei 2. Stable nuclei (that is, nonradioactive nuclei) have mass

More information

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12

Nuclear Terminology. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Chemistry. Nuclear Reactions. Types of Radioactivity 9/1/12 Nuclear Chemistry Up to now, we have been concerned mainly with the electrons in the elements the nucleus has just been a positively charged thing that attracts electrons The nucleus may also undergo changes

More information

22.1 Nuclear Reactions

22.1 Nuclear Reactions In the Middle Ages, individuals called alchemists spent a lot of time trying to make gold. Often, they fooled people into believing that they had made gold. Although alchemists never succeeded in making

More information

VO Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy.

VO Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy. Physics and Chemistry 1501 Nuclear Science Part I Atomic bombs, nuclear power plants, and the sun are powered as the result of releasing of nuclear energy. (Read objectives on screen.) In this program,

More information

5. In the equation: 1. Which equation represents the radioactive decay of 226. Ra -

5. In the equation: 1. Which equation represents the radioactive decay of 226. Ra - . Which equation represents the radioactive decay of 6 Ra? 6 Ra - 6 Rn + He 6 6 Ra - 9 Ac + 0 e 6 6 Ra - 7 Fr + 0 + e 6 5 Ra - Ra + 0 n. The chart below shows the spontaneous nuclear decay of U-3 to Th-3

More information

Increasing Energy Decreasing Energy Increasing Frequency Decreasing Frequency Decreasing Wavelength Increasing Wavelength

Increasing Energy Decreasing Energy Increasing Frequency Decreasing Frequency Decreasing Wavelength Increasing Wavelength Chapter 7 Radiation and Nuclear Energy radiation - energy given off by a body electromagnetic radiation - energy which is made up of a varying electrical field and a varying magnetic field. The fields

More information

Radioactivity Review

Radioactivity Review Science Section 7- Name: Block: Radioactivity Review. Complete the following table: Isotope Mass Number Atomic Number (number of protons) Number of Neutrons nitrogen-5 5 7 8 sulfur-3 3 6 neon- magnesium-5

More information

AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3

AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 AS91172 version 1 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics Level 2 Credits 3 This achievement standard involves demonstrating understanding of atomic and nuclear physics. Assessment typically

More information

Learning Objectives. Success Criteria. Chemistry Matter and Change pp Chemistry the Central Science p

Learning Objectives. Success Criteria. Chemistry Matter and Change pp Chemistry the Central Science p Nuclear Chemistry Why? Nuclear chemistry is the subdiscipline of chemistry that is concerned with changes in the nucleus of elements. These changes are the source of radioactivity and nuclear power. Since

More information

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chemistry 1C-Dr. Larson Chapter 21 Review Questions MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) By what process does thorium-230 decay to radium-226?

More information

Nuke review. Figure 1

Nuke review. Figure 1 Name: Tuesday, June 10, 2008 Nuke review The radioisotopes carbon-14 and nitrogen-16 are present in a living organism. Carbon-14 is commonly used to date a once-living organism. Figure 1 A sample of wood

More information

Nuclear Decay. Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay

Nuclear Decay. Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay. Nuclear Decay Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy. 1 Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist

More information

Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION

Objectives 404 CHAPTER 9 RADIATION Objectives Explain the difference between isotopes of the same element. Describe the force that holds nucleons together. Explain the relationship between mass and energy according to Einstein s theory

More information

Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry

Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry Chemistry: Nuclear Reactions Guided Inquiry Nuclear reactions change the nucleus of an atom. Chemical Reactions vs. Nuclear Reactions Atoms and molecules are striving to achieve the most stable arrangement.

More information

LI 1 Revision of Atomic Structure and Nuclide Notations

LI 1 Revision of Atomic Structure and Nuclide Notations Topic 13 National 5 Chemistry Summary Notes Nuclear Chemistry In this topic you will learn about radioactive elements whose atoms are so unstable that they have to release radiation in order to become

More information

Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 28 Assignment & Problem Set

Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 28 Assignment & Problem Set Nuclear Chemistry Name Warm-Ups (Show your work for credit) Date 1. Date 2. Date 3. Date 4. Date 5. Date 6. Date 7. Date 8. Nuclear Chemistry 2 Study Guide: Things You Must Know Vocabulary (know the definition

More information

11. Nuclear Chemistry Stable and Unstable Nuclides. Very large nuclei tend to be unstable because of the:

11. Nuclear Chemistry Stable and Unstable Nuclides. Very large nuclei tend to be unstable because of the: 11. Nuclear Chemistry Chemical reactions occur as a result of loosing/gaining and sharing electrons in the valance shell which is far away from the atomic nucleus as we described in previous chapters in

More information

Nuclear Chemistry. Chapter 19. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Nuclear Chemistry. Chapter 19. Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 19 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. 1 Chemical Processes vs. Nuclear Processes Chemical reactions involve changes in

More information

Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80. Marks: 80. Comments: Page 1 of 30

Exampro GCSE Physics. P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier. Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80. Marks: 80. Comments: Page 1 of 30 Exampro GCSE Physics P2 Radioactivity Self Study Questions Higher tier Name: Class: Author: Date: Time: 80 Marks: 80 Comments: Page of 30 Q. A beta particle is a high-energy electron. (i) Which part of

More information

Development of the Atomic Bomb

Development of the Atomic Bomb Chapter 28 Nuclear Fission Fission, Fusion, Binding Energy, and Half Life How would we write this Nuclear Reaction? Uranium Isotopes Naturally occurring Uranium contains two major isotopes Uranium-238

More information

Chapter 28. Radioactivity. Types of Radiation. Beta Radiation. Alpha Radiation. Section 28.1 Nuclear Radiation. Objectives: Nuclear Radiation

Chapter 28. Radioactivity. Types of Radiation. Beta Radiation. Alpha Radiation. Section 28.1 Nuclear Radiation. Objectives: Nuclear Radiation Section 28.1 Nuclear Radiation Chapter 28 Nuclear Radiation Objectives: Discuss the processes of radioactivity and radioactive decay Characterize alpha, beta, and gamma radiation in terms of composition

More information

CHM1 Review for Exam 8

CHM1 Review for Exam 8 The following are topics and sample questions for the first exam. Topics 1. Subatomic particles a. Alpha, α 42He 2+ b. Beta, β 0-1e c. Positron, β + 0 +1e 0 d. gamma, γ 0γ 1 e. neutron, n 0n 1 f. proton,

More information

Nuclear Reactions- chap.31. Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my!

Nuclear Reactions- chap.31. Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Nuclear Reactions- chap.31 Fission vs. fusion mass defect..e=mc 2 Binding energy..e=mc 2 Alpha, beta, gamma oh my! Definitions A nucleon is a general term to denote a nuclear particle - that is, either

More information

Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry

Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 16 275 Chapter 16 Nuclear Chemistry Review Skills 16.1 The Nucleus and Radioactivity Nuclear Stability Types of Radioactive Emissions Nuclear Reactions and Nuclear Equations Rates of Radioactive

More information

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display.

Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 9 Copyright The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Permission required for reproduction or display. Atomic number (Z) = number of protons in nucleus Mass number (A) = number of protons

More information

GCSE RADIOACTIVITY. Radioactivity. Table 1 Atomic number 38. Mass number 90

GCSE RADIOACTIVITY. Radioactivity. Table 1 Atomic number 38. Mass number 90 Radioactivity Name & set 1 Table 1 gives some information about the radioisotope strontium-90. Table 1 Atomic number 38 Mass number 90 Half-life 28.1 years Strontium-90 emits ß (beta) particles. Table

More information

Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation. Marc R. Roussel

Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation. Marc R. Roussel Chemistry 1000 Lecture 2: Nuclear reactions and radiation Marc R. Roussel Nuclear reactions Ordinary chemical reactions do not involve the nuclei, so we can balance these reactions by making sure that

More information

Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View

Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View Chapter 20: The Nucleus: A Chemist s View Big Idea: Changes in the nucleus of an atom can result in the ejection of particles, the transformation of the atom into another element, and the release of energy.

More information

The Atom. Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom

The Atom. Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom. Ancient Ideas of the Atom 1 The Atom Unit 3 Atomic Structure And Nuclear Chemistry What are the basic parts of an atom? How is an atom identified? What is nuclear chemistry? How is a nuclear equation written? Atom Smallest particle

More information

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission

Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission Basics of Nuclear Physics and Fission A basic background in nuclear physics for those who want to start at the beginning. Some of the terms used in this factsheet can be found in IEER s on-line glossary.

More information

Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis )

Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis ) Nuclear Transmutations ( Nucleosynthesis ) Nucleosynthesis reactions in the interior of stars have produced nearly all of the naturally occurring elements on earth. In a nuclear transmutation a nucleus

More information

Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity.

Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity. Take notes while watching the following video tutorials to prepare for the Atomic Structure and Nuclear Chemistry Activity. Atomic Structure Introduction dabe page 1 Atoms & Elements Part 0: Atomic Structure

More information

Structure and Properties of Atoms

Structure and Properties of Atoms PS-2.1 Compare the subatomic particles (protons, neutrons, electrons) of an atom with regard to mass, location, and charge, and explain how these particles affect the properties of an atom (including identity,

More information

Radioactivity & Particles

Radioactivity & Particles Radioactivity & Particles Introduction... 2 Atomic structure... 2 How are these particles arranged?... 2 Atomic notation... 4 Isotopes... 4 What is radioactivity?... 5 Types of Radiation: alpha, beta and

More information

Noble Gases. Outline Nobel Gas Elements Radon and Health Chemistry Homework

Noble Gases. Outline Nobel Gas Elements Radon and Health Chemistry Homework Radon and Other Noble Gases The elements in the last column of the periodic table are all very stable, mono-atomic gases. Until 1962, they were called inert gases because they did not react with other

More information

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3

REVIEW NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 3/31/16 NAME: PD 3 1. Given the equation representing a nuclear reaction in which X represents a nuclide: Which nuclide is represented by X? 2. Which nuclear emission has the greatest mass and the least

More information

The chart below shows the change in mass number and atomic number of an atom for different types of radioactive decay.

The chart below shows the change in mass number and atomic number of an atom for different types of radioactive decay. High Demand Questions QUESTIONSHEET 1 The chart below shows the change in mass number and atomic number of an atom for different types of radioactive decay. change in atomic number change in mass number

More information

A given Nucleus has the following particles Total number of nucleons : atomic mass number, A Proton number: atomic number, Z Neutron number: N = A Z

A given Nucleus has the following particles Total number of nucleons : atomic mass number, A Proton number: atomic number, Z Neutron number: N = A Z Chapter 30 Nuclear Physics and Radioactivity Units of Chapter 30 Structure and Properties of the Nucleus Binding Energy and Nuclear Forces Radioactivity Alpha Decay Beta Decay Gamma Decay Conservation

More information

Alpha, Beta and Gamma Rays. Radioactivity. Remember the Periodic Table? Emission of high energy photons and particles

Alpha, Beta and Gamma Rays. Radioactivity. Remember the Periodic Table? Emission of high energy photons and particles Radioactivity Emission of high energy photons and particles Alpha, Beta and Gamma Rays Elements heavier than lead (Z=82), are radioactive Radioactive materials emit: alpha particles (helium nucleus) beta

More information

Chapter 4 - Elements and the Periodic Table

Chapter 4 - Elements and the Periodic Table Chapter 4 - Elements and the Periodic Table I. Introduction to atoms A. Development of atomic models 1. Atom, smallest particle of an element 2. Parts of atom a. Electrons, negatively charged b. Protons,

More information

Chapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity. The Nucleus

Chapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity. The Nucleus Chapter 31: Nuclear Physics & Radioactivity Nuclear structure, nuclear size The strong nuclear force, nuclear stability, binding energy Radioactive decay, activity The neutrino Radioactive age measurement

More information

Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions

Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions Intermediate 2 Radioactivity Past Paper questions 2000-2010 2000 Q30. A drawing of the core of a nuclear reactor is shown below. The fuel rods contain uranium-235. (a) Describe what happens when a slow

More information

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of:

Nuclear Physics. Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: Nuclear Physics Nuclear Physics comprises the study of: The general properties of nuclei The particles contained in the nucleus The interaction between these particles Radioactivity and nuclear reactions

More information

Regents Review Nuclear Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp

Regents Review Nuclear Worksheet Mr. Beauchamp Regents Review Mr. Beauchamp. Given the nuclear equation: H + X 6 3 Li + 4 He The particle repr esented by X is 9 4 Li 9 4 Be 0 5 Be 0 6 C. Which isotope will spontaneously decay and emit particles with

More information

Li Lithium Nuclear Physics. Atom Basics. Atom Basics. Symbol Charge Mass(u) Electron e p Proton. Neutron

Li Lithium Nuclear Physics. Atom Basics. Atom Basics. Symbol Charge Mass(u) Electron e p Proton. Neutron atom the smallest particle of an element that retains the chemical properties of that element An atom is composed of Nucleons Protons Subatomic Neutrons Particles Electrons Atom Basics The number of protons

More information

EXPERIMENT 1 ELECTROSCOPE RADIATION DETECTOR

EXPERIMENT 1 ELECTROSCOPE RADIATION DETECTOR Name: Class: Date: INSTRUCTOR S KEY Radiation, Radioactivity, and Risk Assessment EXPERIMENT 1 ELECTROSCOPE RADIATION DETECTOR 1. The leaves repel each other because their electrostatic charges are the

More information

1. A release of energy is a sign that. 5. The substance that is formed in a chemical reaction is called the. A. a physical change gust occurred

1. A release of energy is a sign that. 5. The substance that is formed in a chemical reaction is called the. A. a physical change gust occurred 1. A release of energy is a sign that A. a physical change gust occurred B. a chemical change is taking place 5. The substance that is formed in a chemical reaction is called the A. reactant B. product

More information

Nuclear Physics. Remember: Particles have a wave nature. Only certain wavelengths meet the boundary conditions, so only certain energies are allowed.

Nuclear Physics. Remember: Particles have a wave nature. Only certain wavelengths meet the boundary conditions, so only certain energies are allowed. Nuclear Physics The forces holding together the nucleus are large. And so are the energies involved. Radioactivity is a natural process. Certain nuclei fall apart and emit ionizing radiation as they do.

More information

Intermediate 2 Physics. Radioactivity

Intermediate 2 Physics. Radioactivity Intermediate 2 Physics Radioactivity neutron electron proton ROR Page 1 Ionising Radiation What is an atom? Scientists believe that an atom is made up of three types of particle. 1. protons: positively

More information

Nuclear structure. Draft. Types of radiation. 2 protons and 2 neutrons Charge: 12

Nuclear structure. Draft. Types of radiation. 2 protons and 2 neutrons Charge: 12 3.1 Ionising radiation Key terms Radioactive Releases radiation. Mass (nucleon) number Number of protons and neutrons in the nucleus of an atom. Atomic (proton) number Number of protons in the nucleus

More information

Radioactive Elements (pages )

Radioactive Elements (pages ) SX05_BkK_AdRdStdyWkBk.fm Page 58 Monday, April 18, 2005 8:09 AM Radioactive Elements (pages 139 146) Radioactivity (pages 140 141) Key Concept: In 1896, the French scientist Henri Becquerel discovered

More information

Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems

Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems Atomic Origins: Chapter Problems Big Bang 1. How old is the Universe? 2. Name and describe the three subatomic particles. 3. Nuclear fusion reactions power stars. Name 2 elements that can be formed in

More information

Irène Curie, Frederic Joliot and Artificial Radioactivity

Irène Curie, Frederic Joliot and Artificial Radioactivity Introduction After Henri Becquerel's discovery of radioactivity in 1895, many leading European physicists experimented with radioactive materials. Marie Curie coined the term "radioactivity," invented

More information

Chapter 21 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question.

Chapter 21 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. Chapter 21 MULTIPLE CHOICE. Choose the one alternative that best completes the statement or answers the question. 1) In balancing the nuclear reaction 293 92 U 234 90 E + 4 He, the identity of element

More information

Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion

Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion Nuclear Reactions Fission And Fusion Describe and give an example of artificial (induced) transmutation Construct and complete nuclear reaction equations Artificial transmutation is the changing or manipulation

More information

Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy

Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy. Nuclear Energy Nuclear energy - energy from the atomic nucleus. Nuclear fission (i.e. splitting of nuclei) and nuclear fusion (i.e. combining of nuclei) release enormous amounts of energy. Number of protons determines

More information

Subatomic Particles. Nuclear Energy. Mass and Energy. Chemistry in Context: Chapter 7: Fires of Nuclear Fission

Subatomic Particles. Nuclear Energy. Mass and Energy. Chemistry in Context: Chapter 7: Fires of Nuclear Fission Nuclear Energy Chemistry in Context: Chapter 7: Fires of Nuclear Fission Assignment: All the problems with blue codes or answers on Page 530 1957, the first nuclear power plant near Pittsburgh, PA. Seabrook

More information

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Level 2

Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard Level 2 Exemplar for Internal Achievement Standard 91172 Level 2 This exemplar supports assessment against: Achievement Standard 91172 Demonstrate understanding of atomic and nuclear physics An annotated exemplar

More information

The Atom. The atom is made of subatomic particles, the proton neutron and electron. A summary of these particles is shown below.

The Atom. The atom is made of subatomic particles, the proton neutron and electron. A summary of these particles is shown below. The Atom Homework from the book: Exercises: 1-23, 25-27, 31-36 Questions: 4-6 Problems 15 In the study guide: All the Multiple choice starting on page 101. The Atom All matter in the universe if made of

More information

Industrial tracers - Finding leaks and blockages

Industrial tracers - Finding leaks and blockages Cancer Treatment Alpha radiation is used to treat various forms of cancer. This process, called unsealed source radiotherapy, involves inserting tiny amounts of radium-226 into cancerous organs. The alpha

More information

Lecture 40 Chapter 34 Nuclear Fission & Fusion Nuclear Power

Lecture 40 Chapter 34 Nuclear Fission & Fusion Nuclear Power Lecture 40 Chapter 34 Nuclear Fission & Fusion Nuclear Power Final Exam - Monday Dec. 20, 1045-1315 Review Lecture - Mon. Dec. 13 7-Dec-10 Short-Range Strong Nuclear Force The strong force is most effective

More information

Inside the Atom. Every person is different. What are some things that make one person look different from another person?

Inside the Atom. Every person is different. What are some things that make one person look different from another person? chapter 14 3 Inside the Atom section 2 The Nucleus Before You Read Every person is different. What are some things that make one person look different from another person? What You ll Learn what radioactive

More information

fission and fusion: a Physics kit

fission and fusion: a Physics kit half-life Number of particles left The half-life of an element tells us how long it will take for half of the nuclei in a sample of an unstable element to decay. So, after one half-life, only half of the

More information

P4 Learning Outcomes. Recall that electrostatics can be useful for spraying: spray painting crop spraying.

P4 Learning Outcomes. Recall that electrostatics can be useful for spraying: spray painting crop spraying. Objectives. Recognise that when some materials are rubbed they attract other objects: certain types of dusting brushes become charged and attract dust as they pass over it. Recognise that insulating materials

More information

7 Radioactivity and particles

7 Radioactivity and particles 7 Radioactivity and particles 7 Radioactivity and particles Calculations a) i) 57 00Fm 53 57 98Cf + 4 He 37 55 Cs 37 56Ba + 0 55 e a) i) c) i) The upper number is the mass number the number of protons

More information

Radiation and the Universe Higher Exam revision questions and answers

Radiation and the Universe Higher Exam revision questions and answers Radiation and the Universe Higher Exam revision questions and answers Madeley High School Q.The names of three different processes are given in List A. Where these processes happen is given in List B.

More information

Nuclear Power. The True meaning Of Nuclear Power On Earth

Nuclear Power. The True meaning Of Nuclear Power On Earth Nuclear Power The True meaning Of Nuclear Power On Earth Basics of Fission Nuclear Fission is the division of generally large and unstable elements (like uranium and plutonium) into smaller elements Nuclear

More information

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

Nuclear Fission and Fusion CHAPTER 0 2 SECTION Nuclear Changes Nuclear Fission and Fusion KEY IDEAS As you read this section, keep these questions in mind: What holds the nucleus of an atom together? What happens when the nucleus

More information

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals

Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Conceptual Physics Fundamentals Chapter 16: THE ATOMIC NUCLEUS AND RADIOACTIVITY This lecture will help you understand: Radioactivity Alpha, Beta, and Gamma Rays The Atomic Nucleus and the Strong Force

More information

NAME PER DATE DUE ACTIVE LEARNING IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION CHAPTER 28 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY. (Part 1) 28-1 1997, A.J. Girondi

NAME PER DATE DUE ACTIVE LEARNING IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION CHAPTER 28 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY. (Part 1) 28-1 1997, A.J. Girondi NAME PER DATE DUE ACTIVE LEARNING IN CHEMISTRY EDUCATION CHAPTER 8 NUCLEAR CHEMISTRY (Part ) 8-997, A.J. Girondi NOTICE OF RIGHTS All rights reserved. No part of this document may be reproduced or transmitted

More information

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom

NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom NOTES ON The Structure of the Atom Chemistry is the study of matter and its properties. Those properties can be explained by examining the atoms that compose the matter. An atom is the smallest particle

More information

Radiation and the Universe B+ questions

Radiation and the Universe B+ questions Radiation and the Universe B+ questions Name: Q. The diagram below shows a method of controlling the thickness of paper produced at a paper mill. A radioactive source which emits beta radiation is placed

More information

End-of-Chapter Exercises

End-of-Chapter Exercises The equation that describes the exponential decay in the number of nuclei of a particular radioactive isotope as a function of time t is, (Equation 29.12: The exponential decay of radioactive nuclei) where

More information

RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES

RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES Radioactive Isotopes, their Application in Biomedical Research MODULE 30 RADIOACTIVE ISOTOPES 30.1 INTRODUCTION In the previous chapter we have seen about radioactivity and its types. In this topic we

More information

TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE

TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE TO GO TO ANY OF THE PAGES LISTED BELOW, CLICK ON ITS TITLE CHAPTER 11 Radioactive Elements 1 11-1 What elements are not metals? 2 11-2 What are metalloids? 3 Semiconductors Enrichment Activity for Lesson

More information

Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris on December 15, 1852

Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris on December 15, 1852 Discovery Antoine Henri Becquerel was born in Paris on December 15, 1852 Summit Environmental Technologies, Inc. Analytical Laboratories 3310 Win Street Cuyahoga Falls, Ohio 44223 Fax: 1-330-253-4489 Call

More information

Exercise 6 - # lb = _?_ g ft 3 cm lb. 454 g. 1 ft 3. in 3 = ft 3 lb 1728 in cm (454) / (1728) (16.39) = 0.

Exercise 6 - # lb = _?_ g ft 3 cm lb. 454 g. 1 ft 3. in 3 = ft 3 lb 1728 in cm (454) / (1728) (16.39) = 0. Exercise 6 - #11 4.7 lb = _?_ g ft 3 cm 3 4.7 lb. 454 g. 1 ft 3. in 3 = ft 3 lb 1728 in 2 16.39 cm 3 Multiply across (no equal sign) 4.7 (454) / (1728) (16.39) = 0.075 g cm 3 Exercise 6, #13 186,000 mi

More information

Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry

Chapter 20: Nuclear Chemistry Chapter 2: Nuclear Chemistry Nuclear Reactions vs. Chemical Reactions There are some very distinct differences between a nuclear reaction and a chemical reaction. in a chemical reaction bonds break, atoms

More information

Production and Decay of Radioisotopes

Production and Decay of Radioisotopes Production and Decay of Radioisotopes A resource for NSW HSC Chemistry and Physics Teachers and Students November 2011 Production and Decay of Radioisotopes This document covers a number of outcomes from

More information

Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions. Beatrice Foots

Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions. Beatrice Foots Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions Beatrice Foots INTRODUCTION On March 1, 1896, Henry Becquerel made one of the most important discoveries of our time by accident. Becquerel put a couple of photographic

More information

Introduction to Nuclear Physics

Introduction to Nuclear Physics Introduction to Nuclear Physics 1. Atomic Structure and the Periodic Table According to the Bohr-Rutherford model of the atom, also called the solar system model, the atom consists of a central nucleus

More information

Generating Heat. Outline Generating Heat Fuel for Fission Heat to Electricity Homework

Generating Heat. Outline Generating Heat Fuel for Fission Heat to Electricity Homework Nuclear Power The uranium-235 isotope reacts with a neutron to generate an unstable isotope, uranium-236. The heat that results from the fission of uranium-236 can be used to generate electricity. Nearly

More information

Cardiff International School Dhaka (CISD) Lost Class Make Up Assignment Class: 10 Subject: Physics Date: 25 January, 2015

Cardiff International School Dhaka (CISD) Lost Class Make Up Assignment Class: 10 Subject: Physics Date: 25 January, 2015 Cardiff International School Dhaka (CISD) Lost Class Make Up Assignment Class: 10 Subject: Physics Date: 25 January, 2015 INSTRUCTION: This is the first set of a series of assignment. Work it out. Submission

More information

Exam Review: Topic 07 Nuclear Physics Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 31 marks (46 minutes)

Exam Review: Topic 07 Nuclear Physics Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 31 marks (46 minutes) Practice Test: 33 marks (43 minutes) Additional Problem: 3 marks (46 minutes). Which of the following causes the greatest number of ionizations as it passes through cm of air? (The total energy of the

More information

Radioactive Decay. Chapter 14: Nuclear Chemistry. Radioactive Decay. Radioactive Decay

Radioactive Decay. Chapter 14: Nuclear Chemistry. Radioactive Decay. Radioactive Decay Chapter 4: Nuclear Chemistry Radioactivity and Nuclear Reactions Kinetics of Radioactive Decay Nuclear Stability Energetics of Nuclear Reactions Interaction of Radiation and Matter Modern Medical Imaging

More information

The Activity Of A Radioactive Nucleus

The Activity Of A Radioactive Nucleus The Activity Of A Radioactive Nucleus Activity = the number of nuclei decaying per second Symbol A Unit Becquerel (Bq) 1 Bq = 1 disintegration per second 1 The Law Of Radioactive Decay Activity depends

More information

FUSION NEUTRON DEUTERIUM HELIUM TRITIUM.

FUSION NEUTRON DEUTERIUM HELIUM TRITIUM. FUSION AND FISSION THE SUN Every second, the sun converts 500 million metric tons of hydrogen to helium. Due to the process of fusion, 5 million metric tons of excess material is converted into energy

More information

Nuclear Fission and Fusion

Nuclear Fission and Fusion Why? Nuclear Fission and Fusion Fission and fusion are two processes that alter the nucleus of an atom. Nuclear fission provides the energy in nuclear power plants and fusion is the source of the sun s

More information

Unit 4: The Nucleus-key Regents Chemistry Mr. Murdoch. Unit 4: The Nucleus. Student Name: Key. Class Period: Page 1 of 55. Website upload 2014

Unit 4: The Nucleus-key Regents Chemistry Mr. Murdoch. Unit 4: The Nucleus. Student Name: Key. Class Period: Page 1 of 55. Website upload 2014 Unit 4: The Nucleus Student Name: Key Class Period: Page 1 of 55 Page intentionally blank Page 2 of 55 Unit 4 Vocabulary: 1. Artificial transmutation: Changing one element into another by bombarding it

More information

Lesson 43: Alpha, Beta, & Gamma Decay

Lesson 43: Alpha, Beta, & Gamma Decay Lesson 43: Alpha, Beta, & Gamma Decay The late 18s and early 19s were a period of intense research into the new nuclear realm of physics. In 1896 Henri Becquerel found that a sample of uranium he was doing

More information

Question to the class: What are the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using nuclear power?

Question to the class: What are the pros, cons, and uncertainties of using nuclear power? Energy and Society Week 11 Section Handout Section Outline: 1. Nuclear power basics (10 minutes) 2. Radioactive decay (15 minutes) 3. Nuclear practice problems (10 minutes) 4. Waste and Disposal (7.5 min)

More information

Waves and Radiation Nuclear Radiation 5 Question Booklet

Waves and Radiation Nuclear Radiation 5 Question Booklet [Type text] [Type text] [Type text] KIRKCALDY HIGH SCHOOL Physics Department Waves and Radiation Nuclear Radiation 5 Question Booklet K i r k c a l d y H i g h S c h o o l ( c o l l a t e d b y A n d e

More information

Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics

Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics Radioactivity and Nuclear Physics James H. Dann, PhD (JamesHD) James Dann, (JamesJD) Say Thanks to the Authors Click http://www.ck12.org/saythanks (No sign in required) To access a customizable version

More information

[Note] In the questions Y-N means that the mass number of nuclide Y is N.

[Note] In the questions Y-N means that the mass number of nuclide Y is N. Problem Set #1: Nuclear Transformations [Note] In the questions Y-N means that the mass number of nuclide Y is N. 1. Among the following physical units, which is not the unit of energy? a) Joule, J b)

More information