Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Configuration. Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:)

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1 Chemistry CP Unit 2 Atomic Structure and Electron Learning Targets (Your exam at the end of Unit 2 will assess the following:) 2. Atomic Structure and Electron 2-1. Give the one main contribution to the development of the atomic model from each of the following scientists: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Chadwick, and Bohr Identify elements by both name and chemical symbol using a periodic table Compare protons, electrons, and neutrons in terms of charge, mass, and location in an atom Use the periodic table to determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and atomic mass for a given element Define isotope and state how the atomic structure for isotopes of the same element are similar and different Calculate the average atomic mass from the relative abundances and masses of each isotope Define valence electrons and determine the number of valence electrons for an atom Locate rows/periods and groups/families on the periodic table Draw the Bohr diagram for an atom showing protons and neutrons and the number of electrons in each shell. Draw the Bohr diagram for the ion of an element, showing how the atom establishes a full valence shell. Determine the noble gas that the atom resembles once it forms an ion Define ion and determine the charge for the ion of an element from the periodic table. Determine the number of electrons for an ion. Give the symbol for the ion Define cation and anion List the four different kinds of atomic orbitals by their letter designation and state the number of electrons that each can hold Give orbital notation for a given atom/ion Write electronic configuration for a given atom/ion Write noble gas configuration for a given atom/ion. 1

2 2-1. Give the one main contribution to the development of the atomic model from each of the following scientists: Dalton, Thomson, Rutherford, Chadwick, and Bohr. Scientist Experiment Findings Dalton Thomson Rutherford Chadwick Bohr 2

3 2-2. Identify elements by both name and chemical symbol using a periodic table Compare protons, electrons, and neutrons in terms of charge, mass, and location in an atom Use the periodic table to determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and atomic mass for a given element. Subatomic Particles Name Symbol Charge Relative Mass Actual Mass (g) Location Symbol Name Atomic Number Mass Number Number of Protons Na Br Ca Au Number of Neutrons Number of Electrons O 2 K + 3

4 WS #1 (Learning Target 2-4. Use the periodic table to determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and atomic mass for a given element. 4

5 WS #1 (con t) (Learning Target 2-4. Use the periodic table to determine the number of protons, electrons, neutrons, and atomic mass for a given element. (11) Complete the following table for neutral atoms and/or ions. Substance symbol atomic number mass number number of protons number of neutrons number of electrons Atom or ion? Magnesium Iron atom Sulfur S Beryllium 9 atom Platinum Pt U Oxygen O ion Gold ion 5

6 Substance symbol atomic number mass number number of protons number of neutrons number of electrons Atom or ion? Magnesium Mg atom Iron Fe atom Aluminum Al atom Sulfur S Atom Beryllium Be Atom Chromium Cr Atom Platinum Pt ion Uranium U ion Oxygen O ion Chlorine Cl ion Gold Au ion Chromium Cr ion Tungsten W ion 6

7 2-5. Define isotope and state how the atomic structure for isotopes of the same element are similar and different Calculate the average atomic mass from the relative abundances and masses of each isotope. Isotopes are atoms of the that have numbers of. Isotope Carbon-12 Carbon-13 Carbon-14 Atomic Number Mass Number Number of Protons Number of Neutrons Mass Number is the number of and in an atom. Atomic Mass is the of all the different isotopes of an element by the abundance of each isotope in nature. Atomic mass is measured in Atomic Mass Units ( ) (1 amu = 1/12 the mass of a carbon-12 atom) Example: Silver (atomic number 47) has two naturally occurring isotopes, Ag-107 and Ag-109. Given their atomic masses and percent abundances below, what is silver s average atomic mass? Isotope Mass (amu) Abundance (%) Ag Ag

8 Example: Silicon (atomic number 14) has three naturally occurring isotopes, Si-28, Si-29 and Si-30. Given their atomic masses and percent abundances below, what is silicon s average atomic mass? Isotope Mass (amu) Abundance (%) Si Si Si

9 WS #2 (Learning Target 2-6. Calculate the average atomic mass from the relative abundances and masses of each isotope.) (1) Isotopes are different versions of the same atom that have the same number of but different numbers of and therefore different. (2) How many neutrons does each isotope have? (a) Carbon-13 (b) Oxygen-18 (c) Potassium-40 (d) Scandium-45 (e) Manganese-55 (f) Tungsten-186 (3) There are two isotopes of copper: Copper-63 (69.17%) and Copper-65 (30.83%). (a) Determine the number of neutrons in each of the isotopes. (b) Calculate the average atomic mass of copper (round your answer to one decimal place). (4) There are two isotopes of silver: Silver-107 (51.84%) and Silver-109 (48.16%). (a) Determine the number of neutrons in each of the isotopes. (b) Calculate the average atomic mass of silver (round your answer to one decimal place). (5) There are three isotopes of magnesium: Magnesium-24 (78.7%), Magnesium-25 (10.1%), and Magnesium-26 (11.2%) (a) Determine the number of neutrons in each of the isotopes. (b) Calculate the average atomic mass of magnesium (round your answer to one decimal place). (6) There are four isotopes of iron: Iron-54 (5.85%), Iron-56 (91.75%), Iron-57 (2.12%), and Iron-58 (0.28%) (a) Determine the number of neutrons in each of the isotopes. (b) Calculate the average atomic mass of iron (round your answer to one decimal place). (7) There are two isotopes of gallium: Gallium-69 and Gallium-71. (a) Determine the number of neutrons in each of the isotopes. (b) Gallium-69 has an abundance of 60.11%, what is the abundance of Gallium-71? (c) Calculate the average atomic mass of gallium (round your answer to one decimal place). 9

10 WS #2 (con t) (Learning Target 2-6. Calculate the average atomic mass from the relative abundances and masses of each isotope.) (8) There are two isotopes of bromine: Bromine-79 and Bromine-81. (a) Determine the number of neutrons in each of the isotopes. (b) Bromine-79 has an abundance of 50.69%, what is the abundance of Bromine-81? (c) Calculate the average atomic mass of bromine (round your answer to one decimal place). (9) There are five isotopes of germanium: Germanium-70, Germanium-72, Germanium-73, Germanium-74, and Germanium-76 (a) Determine the number of neutrons in each of the isotopes. (b) Germanium-70 has an abundance of 21.23%, Germanium-72 has an abundance of 27.66%, Germanium-73 has an abundance of 7.73%, and Germanium-74 has an abundance of 35.94%. What is the abundance of Germanium-76? (c) Calculate the average atomic mass of germanium (round your answer to one decimal place). (10) There are four isotopes of strontium: Strontium-84, Stronium-86, Strontium-87, and Strontium-88. (a) Determine the number of neutrons in each of the isotopes. (b) Strontium-84 has an abundance of 0.56%, Strontium-86 has an abundance of 9.86%, and Strontium-87 has an abundance of 7.00%. What is the abundance of Strontium-88? (c) Calculate the average atomic mass of strontium (round your answer to one decimal place). Answers: Isotopes (1) Isotopes are different versions of the same atom that have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons and therefore different atomic masses (2) (a) 7 (b) 10 (c) 21 (d) 24 (e) 30 (f) 112. (3) (a) 34, 36 (b) 63.6 amu (4) (a) 60, 62 (b) amu (5) (a) 12, 13, 14 (b) 24.3 amu (6) (a) 28, 30, 31, 32 (b) 55.9 amu (7) (a) 38, 40 (b) 39.89% (c) 69.8 amu (8) (a) 44, 46 (b) 49.31% (c) 80.0 amu (9) (a) 38, 40, 41, 42, 44 (b) 7.44% (c) amu (10) (a) 46, 48, 49, 50 (b) 82.58% (c) 87.7 amu 10

11 2-7. Define valence electrons and determine the number of valence electrons for an atom Locate rows/periods and groups/families on the periodic table Draw the Bohr diagram for an atom showing protons and neutrons and the number of electrons in each shell. Draw the Bohr diagram for the ion of an element, showing how the atom establishes a full valence shell. Determine the noble gas that the atom resembles once it forms an ion. Periods on the periodic table go and. Groups on the periodic table go and. Valence Electrons = How to determine the number of valence electrons an atom has: Sample Problem. How many valence electrons? Carbon Magnesium Chlorine Helium 11

12 WS #3 (Learning Target 2-9: Draw the Bohr diagram for an atom showing protons and neutrons and the number of electrons in each shell. Draw the Bohr diagram for the ion of an element, showing how the atom establishes a full valence shell. Determine the noble gas that the atom resembles once it forms an ion. ) 12

13 13

14 WS #4 (Learning Targets 2-10 and 2-11: Define ion and determine the charge for the ion of an element from the periodic table. Determine the number of electrons for an ion. Give the symbol for the ion. Define cation and anion.) 14

15 WS #4 (Learning Targets 2-10 and 2-11: Define ion and determine the charge for the ion of an element from the periodic table. Determine the number of electrons for an ion. Give the symbol for the ion. Define cation and anion.) 15

16 2-12. List the four different kinds of atomic orbitals by their letter designation and state the number of electrons that each can hold. Orbital Letter Orbital Shape 16

17 2-13. Give orbital notation for a given atom/ion Write electronic configuration for a given atom/ion Write noble gas configuration for a given atom/ion. Order of Filling Orbitals: Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation 1s Electron Noble Gas Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation 1s Electron Noble Gas 17

18 Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation 1s 2s Electron Noble Gas Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation Electron Noble Gas Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation Electron Noble Gas Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation Electron Noble Gas Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation Electron Noble Gas 18

19 Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation Electron Noble Gas Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation Electron Noble Gas Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation Electron Noble Gas Atom Atomic Number Number of Electrons Orbital Notation Electron Noble Gas 19

20 WS #5 (Learning Targets 2.13, 2.14, 2.15) Complete the following table: 20

21 (2) Give the orbital notation and electron configuration notation for the following elements: (a) Sc (c) Pd (e) Ga (g) In (i) Sn (b) Fe (d) Kr (f) Co (h) Cs (j) Ce (3) Give the electron configuration notation and noble gas notation for the following elements: (a) Be (c) Na (e) Ti (g) Cd (i) La (b) F (d) P (f) Te (h) Al (j) Ac (4) Give the orbital notation, electron configuration notation, and noble gas notation for the following elements/ions: (a) V (c) Y (b) Ge (d) Zn (e) Sr (f) Rb + (g) Ca 2+ (h) Li + (i) I (j) N 3 21

22 WS #6 (Unit 2 Review part 1) 1. (Learning Target 2-1) Identify the main contribution each of the following made to the development of the atomic theory. a. Dalton b. Thomson c. Rutherford d. Chadwick e. Bohr 2. (Learning Target 2-3) Compare protons, electrons, and neutrons in terms of charge, mass, and location in an atom. Charge Relative Mass Mass (amu) Location Proton 1 Neutron Electron 3. (2-2, 2-4) Complete the following table for NEUTRAL atoms. Atomic Number Element Symbol Atomic Mass Protons Electrons Neutrons (Show Your Work) Fluorine 36 Os (Learning Target 2-5) Among isotopes, which of the following are the same? Which are different? Atomic Number? Mass Number? Atomic Mass? # protons? # neutrons? # electrons? 5. (Learning Target 2-6) Calculate the average atomic mass from the relative abundances and masses of each isotope. There are four isotopes of lead: Lead 204 (1.4%), Lead 205 (24.1%), Lead 207 (22.1%), and Lead 208 (52.4%). (a) Determine the number of neutrons in each of the isotopes. Lead 204 = Lead 205 = Lead 207 = Lead 208 = (b) Determine the average atomic mass of Lead. Give the answer to one decimal place. Average atomic mass = 22

23 WS #9 (con t) (Unit 2 Review part 1) 6. (Learning Target 2-7, 2-9, 2-10) Draw the Bohr diagram for the atom and the ion. Indicate the number of protons, electrons, and neutrons. Give the symbol and charge for the ion. (a) boron p e n symbol: (b) chlorine p e n symbol: Atom: Ion: Atom: Ion: 7. (Learning Target 2-10) Complete the following table for IONS. Atomic Number Element Symbol Atomic Mass Protons Electrons (Show Your Work) Beryllium 51 Lu Neutrons (Show Your Work) 8. (Learning Target 2-8) Where are periods located on the Periodic Table? Groups? Families? 9. (Learning Target 2-11) Distinguish between a cation and an anion. 10. (Learning Target 2-12) Draw a picture of one of each of the following orbitals. Orbital Letter Orbital Shape s p d f 23

24 11. (Learning Targets 2-13, 2-14, 2-15) (i) Give the orbital notation for the following elements. (a) sodium (b) iron (c) europium (ii) Give the electron configuration notation for the following elements. (a) neon (b) bromine (c) thallium (iii) Give the electron configuration for two possible excited states for neon. (iv) Give the noble gas notation for the following elements. (a) fluorine (b) titanium (c) americium (v) Give the electron configuration notation and noble gas notation for the following ions. (a) O 2- (b) Y 3+ Answers: (1) (a) developed the atomic theory (b) discovered the electron in his cathode ray experiment, developed plum pudding model (c) discovered the nucleus in his gold-foil experiment (d) discovered the neutron (e) developed the orbital model of the atom (2) (3) Charge Relative Mass Mass (amu) Location Proton nucleus Neutron nucleus Electron -1 1/ Outside of nucleus Atomic Number Element Symbol Atomic Mass Protons Electrons Neutrons (Show Your Work) 9 Fluorine F Krypton Kr Osmium Os = Copernicium Cn =

25 (4) same atomic number, different mass number, different atomic mass, same # protons, different # neutrons, same # electrons (5) (a) 122, 123, 125, 126 (b) amu (6) (a) 5p, 5e, 6n (b) 17p, 17e, 18n (7) Atomic Number Element Symbol Atomic Mass Protons Electrons (Show Your Work) 4 Beryllium Be = Antimony Sb = Lutetium Lu = Astatine At = (8) periods horizontal rows, groups (aka families) vertical columns (9) cation = positive ion, anion = negative ion (10) Neutrons (Show Your Work) Orbital Letter Orbital Shape s p d f (11) (i) (ii) (a) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 (b) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 5 (c) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6 5s 2 4d 10 5p 6 6s 2 4f 14 5d 10 6p 1 (iii) answers will vary; Sample examples: 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 3s 1 or 1s 2 2s 2 2p 5 3p 1 (iv) (a) [He] 2s 2 2p 5 (b) [Ar] 4s 2 3d 2 (c) [Rn] 7s 2 5f 7 (v) (a) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6, [Ne] (b) 1s 2 2s 2 2p 6 3s 2 3p 6 4s 2 3d 10 4p 6, [Kr] 25

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